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“ This very forlorn path' stretches along the ridge of the hill, and ends over against the town of Alpwn, the first of the Lloegrian settlements from Melias, and the stone called in the original language of the people MWLLAMPWG-os, and the altars of the Cercaibwyr, or Cercopians.”
Pas possible! mon ami! That's surely not the pure, unadulterated Greek so vaunted! That is a wholesale plagiarism of Cimmerian expressions, from the wy, an egg, and mhalau=malau=afalau, apples, “ab ovo usque ad mala," "TWY Mnlewy,” “avec les chaises ou les autels des ouvriers champêtres, en surplus," in other words, from the beginning to the end. Just as bad, I vow, as that of the Hebrew, or Sanscrit languages, and one or two more that I shall have occasion to arraign in borrowed robes before you, bearing, as I once thought in the innocence of my soul, remarkable aboriginal evidences of venerable independence of character, and propriety of diction peculiarly their own. Well ! well! this is too bad to gull themselves and us like this, from the cradle to the grave, as they do at home with Mr. concert-singer Brown, or il Signore Broviano of the opera !
Having first robbed us of our very lands, at home and abroad, which I think no one can deny, then of our very metaphysical and astronomical ideas, through reticence of Druid laws, by gentlemen calling themselves Homer, Thales, Pythagoras, Plato, and Aristotle, on the one side, and Virgil leading the van on the other; they now, forsooth, scruple not to monopolise our very maternal terms as their own; but they do, I must admit, change and transpose a ‘little,' now and then, to avoid immediate detection or exposure by the Armoric-Umbrian-Cimbrian world. The tulit alter honores with a vengeance ! and yet we breathe the purest air of mother tongue, intact !!!
The next very very best thing to be done is, not to mince matters any longer, but to expose them, like culprits, in the stocks, so that all the ‘viatores mundi' may point their fingers at them, and cause the world to ope its half-closed eyes and ears to facts so glaring.
“When I consider life, 'tis all a cheat!
“ Yet, fooled with hope, men favour the deceit !" In the paragraph already cited, consisting only of three lines, and twenty-two distinct words, I find seventeen Cimmerian identifications, and one Gaelic; accompanied, too, by two or three extraordinary expressions, which have proved themselves to be, from their unbounded antiquity, eternal stones of offence, to • piæ vel impiæ fraudes,' and beyond the comprehension of all ancient and modern readers of Grecian hand-books, in reference to their propriety and adaptation, the first to the 'callis montis,' the second to the Alpine town, and the third to the Redov. There they stand as collateral monuments on our side, to checkmate and rebuke mankind to their proper level in the scale of classic life.
I shall now pillory a few of these stolen, or, to say the least, borrowed goods, and I shall bring a critical action of detinue against these literary robbers, and other unsuspected pilferers of the distant east.
Telve—from TELVw, to stretch, from the Cimmeria root of tynu, to
stretch. 1—from 00-n-to: thus y, the definite article the. kara—along, &c., so gyda, along with, &c. paxır~from paxıs, dorsal spine, back, and ridge : thus, also, rhac,
what is opposite, distortion, wrest, spinal ridge. ovpos—from op-os, a mountain : thus, ar, a mountain. anyɛc—from anyw, to cease, to end, either from llug, partly seem
ing, or llwg, apt to break out. Alanvov—silent as the grave, in Greek: from the Cimbric alp, a
craggy rock, and wn, i. e., on, or close to. wole—a city: thus, Arab, baled, a city ; Bas Breton, baili ; Gae
lic, as aig baile, pl. bailtean, Fing. I., 477 ; Latin, villa ;
French, ville. Aokpidur—the Locrians: from the Cimmerian family-name of Al
y Lloegrwys, of the triads, elsewhere explained. Mndewy~-from the Cimmerian settlement of Malea : from the
root afal=afalau=malau, apples. kal—and ac, and. kaleouevov—from kalew, to call : thus galw, to call, to name, from
gal, an opening, a spreading. Edpas—a seat, or chair: thus cadair, a seat, or chair. KEPkwtwV—no Greek derivation: in Cimbric from the root cer,
tools, furniture, and caib, a mattock, a hoe, in reference to their agricultural employments.
Avonaia has been admittedly given up by ancient and modern grammarians as a term of uncertain etymology. This does not in the least surprise a Cimmerian : how could it be otherwise ?
Some, in despair, have recourse to a wandering Jew, named Anophe, passing by that way, for an interpretation. Some to avw, upwards, and forcing it up or down to avwpepes, as it happened to suit their whims, as well as to invisibly, instantly, disappearing ;' and, lastly, others squeeze it to av' orala, an aperture in the roof, by which smoke issued.
This Avonala, after all, was but a name given to the abrupt, difficult, if not forlorn, aspect of the mountain and its path, from the Cimbric term anobai, from an, without, and obai=obaith=gobaith, hope.
Now, let us compare these different meanings with each other in that passage where the Odysseyan Minerva, opviç ws avonala OLETTATO, “flew away in the form of a bird without hope ;' or, like an “eagle or a hawk," or, " through a smoky hole.”
“ So stands the statue that enchants the world,
“ The mingled beauties of exulting Greece.” I leave this tabular form as a prelude to a future instalment of plagiaristic wiles, with all its latest bearings, to your future analysis. I will not now stop to inquire what pre-historic people erected the uelauruyov lcdov of the text, or the equally untranslatable melampygus lapis, contiguous to the craggy rock of Alpenus; nor will I confound the meaning of the Widos, from its appropriate bardic-Druid root of mwl, a pressed, or clustered, mass, and llam, a moving stride, a quasi jump, and pwg, what pushes out or in, by infant or Heraclean thumb or finger, with that from uelas, black, and muyn, hairy mattocks, or what remains behind, an interpretation fit, methinks, for guessing schoolboy days, luxuriant in ‘nick names' and folly of the wise ; nor have time and space to compare the εδρας Κερκωπων of Herodotus, or the opal of the Pylian warriors, with the stony rostra, sedd, or görsedd of the Druids, from which the professors of the Institute harangued their audience, in congress assembled ; or with the stone sacrificial altars, or banc yr allor, at which the blood of bulls and goats was spilt, in pursuance of their national and religious rites, either on elevated hallowed crags, or yet within the “ twmpath diwlith,” or “dewless, rainless tumps,” Gilboah-like, of either yew, or oak, or asphodel sequestered groves; or e'en along the open sandy shores or banks of ocean, sea, or lake; or at the gushing waters of a temple font, or spring, to lave and purify the holocausts anterior to the banquet, or the ash-formed process of the fire, in honour of their duw, surnamed Duw Cadarn, or their mighty god, as
“I hear a voice you cannot hear,
“ That beckons me away.” For the present, far, far away from Greece.
“Nec vero hæ sine sorte datæ, sine judice Sedes."
As we have travelled so far, and so long, together with the Cimmerii of antiquity, under the unchanged designation, generally speaking, of Cimbri, or Celts, and, as their circumstances are now being canvassed under a totally new aspect on the stage of the world's career, by expeditions, invasions, expulsions, revolutions and counter revolutions of rival states and kingdoms of the west against each other; and, as the consanguinity of different nations might not be so clearly defined and accepted by modern writers who have, to their shame, be it said, as thinkers of times' and events as they verily occurred, allowed themselves to be led astray from the truth respecting the reality of the domestic, naval, or military condition of the Cimbro-Celtic family of Prydain and Europa, it would be as well to run over their varied nomenclatures by historians, past and present, before we enter on the general question.
The ancients, as you have already heard, are almost unanimous in representing the Keupeploi, or Cimmerioi, or sections of that race, as Kepßsploi, by Hesiod and Crates, Xalvßoe, Tavpol, Tonpes, Τριωνες, Γαλαται, Σαρωνιδες, Απωκεανιδες, Κιμβροι, Κελται, Ομβροι, Twvde Klußpwy o Aovoitavou, K.7.d.; or, Cerberians, Chalybians, Tauroi, Treres, Triones, Galatæ, Saronides, Oceanici, Cimbri, Celtæ, Iberi, Galli, Armoricæ, and the Cimbri of Lusitania, and so forth, as well as the British Cimbri=Kimbri=Cumbri= Cymry=Kymry.
Talatala is a well-known and acknowledged form of Gauloi or Celts.
« Aristotle,” I quote Arnold, “ ascribes to the Keltæ a peculiarity in natural manners, which Diodorus reports of the Galatæ, and in those notices of Keltic manners and character which occur in several places of his works, he must have been speaking of the Kelts of Pannonia and Thrace, that is, of the Galatæ of Diodorus, and not of the remote inhabitants of Gaul and Spain." The Keltæ of North Italy, according to Diodorus, are the same people with the Gauls of France and Britain.
Appian, also, in his Illyricis, expressly confirms this view with reference to the Cimbri : “As the Celti, or Gauls, whom they call Cimbri.”
Cæsar and Tacitus declare, not to us Britons and Armoricans, but to the un-Celtic portion of mankind, “ that the language of the Britons and Gauls is not very different.”
Plutarch, also, in his life of Sertorius, repeats the same idea, " that the Gauls and Cimbri used the same language.”
Some of you, would, perhaps, like to know how the case stands at present; I give the anecdote on the authority of Idrison, whom I can corroborate by other personal observations :
“A vessel from Morlaix, in Brittany, being in the Thames, in 1820, the captain was invited to come to hear the harp, by the Cymreigyddion. One of the members, after an air had been played, said to the Breton, in Welsh, Dyna ganu da;' to this the Breton replied, “Na, dyna chware da : canu â genau, a chware â thelyn. So that the Welshman was corrected in his own speech by the stranger, thus, ‘No; that is good playing: it is singing with the voice; and playing with the harp.''
I must have recourse to Cæsar again with reference to the term Celtæ : “ The third part of Gaul,” says the author, “is inhabited by a people called in their own language, Celtæ, in ours, Galli, but by the Greeks, Galathæ, or Galatæ.” The expression Celtæ=Celti=Celty=Celtau is derived from the root cel, a shelter, and ty, or tau, a house, in contradistinction to those who lived otherwise in the more inland territories. The term Galathæ, or Galatæ, of the Greeks, may be another form for Celtica, or “ the wearer of long hair,” from the difficult and imperfect acoustic sound of gwallt, hair.
And, finally, not to quote other superfluous authorities, Josephus sums up the present with the past in these remarkable words : “ The people now called Gauls were called Gomari, Gomeræi, and Gomeritæ, from Gomer;" and so forth.
Let us, also, endeavour, in a salient point of view, to ascertain something respecting the Cimbro-Celtic element of primitive Italy.
The Ligurians, Llugwyr, or Ligors, from llu, a band, and gwyr, warriors, Ligures Italiæ, Galliæ vel Britanniæ, derived their name from Al y Lloegrwys mentioned in the triad as one of the “ three earliest social tribes of Britain,” in union with the “ Cymry and Brython;" and, also, as having navigated from Cimbric Asia to Gaul.
These Lloegrwys, or Lloegrians, colonized “ depuis les Alpes,” from alp, a craggy rock, “jusqu' a l'Arno.
“Non ego te, Ligurum ductor fortissime bello
“ Transierim, Cynyra—". (Cynyra=Cynair, a Cimbric etymon, from cyn, foremost, and air, brightness ; the prima parens of eira snow.) Here I cannot help remarking 'a Ligurian tria juncta in uno,' of England, France, and Sardinia, and each having its modicum of Crimean blood within