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Armoric Gaul; the Umbri, Sabini, Arvemi, Ligures, (Edui, &c., and the Veteres Galli, with each other, as 'fratres et consanguinei' Cimmerii, within the ken and grasp of history; suffice it here, out of an infinity of other proofs, to quote Lucan on this international verity.

"Arvernique aussi Latio se fingere fratres
"Sanguine ab Iliaco populi."

Arverni, from ar, a mountain, and gwern, a meadow, an alder-tree. Whom I might, in the emphatic language of Corneille, in reference to the early amalgamation of the Sabini and Latini, with ethnological propriety, classify as ' freres et cousins.'

"Souffrons que la raison eclaire enfin nos ames.

"Nous sommes vos voisins, nos filles sont vos femmes j

"Et l'hymen nous a joints par tant et tant de nceuds

"Qu' il est peu de nos fils qui ne soient vos neveux,

"Nous ne sommes qu'un sang, et qu' un peuple en deux villes."

And Taliesin, in adverting to the arrival of a distinguished personage from the far east on the shores of the Tamesis, at Troinofant, the capital of the Trinobantes, makes him say:—

"Mi a ddaethym yma

"At Weddillion Tboia."

"I have landed here, among the scattered residue of Troy."

Here the discerning eye will see a ' happy play of words' on the term Wedd-illion, as indicative, in one sense, of the scattered remnants of Troy; in the other, in their (gwedd-wedd) aspect, form, and connection with Illion, or Ilium. And, finally, the bard, in accents of prophetic lamentation, foreshadowing woes as great as those of Troy, bewails their lot:—

"Y Daw' r ddarogan
"Drwy ddirfawr Gwynfan
'' I Lin Tboea.."

"No more, imperial Troy, no more

"Shall fame exalt thy matchless power,

"And hail thy rampised height.

"From ?the frowning tempest came,

"And, armed with war's destructive flame,

"Roll'd its tremendous might.
"Thy regal head, with turrets crown'd,
"Reft of its honours, on the ground
"Lies low; and smoke and gore disdain
"The bloated glories of thy golden reign"

Hec. Char.

Again, in connection with this border-country of Asia, and of Europe, I have a few preliminary remarks to offer respecting some unknown, unmapped, city or region, called Gavis, found in the triads. The solution of this question will necessarily entail a friendly trip to Ynys Prydain, in order to consult the sessional congress of Druids, the historical bards, and other legal authorities, in reference to this disputed territory; as well as to glance at the progress of the Cimmerian nation in their adopted country.

The first witness I shall call in evidence will be "BrutyBrenhinoedd," or chronicles of the kings.

Whatever amount of causeless incredulity may be lavished on "Bruty Brenhinoedd," or chronicles of the kings, or on " Historia Britonum," by Nennius in the year 858, and edited in the following century by Marc y Neudwy, by a generation prone to cavil at everything,"or anything, if the objection ' suits its book,' the authenticity of the former, as an Armorican and Cimbric document, can, thanks to the zeal and learning of Gwallter, Archdeacon of Oxford, be traced with antiquarian certainty, as far back as the year 1100, at which period, whatever may be its intrinsic value in the eyes of a clique, the chronicle was translated by him from a very old copy, which was brought from Llydaw and written in the Cimbric language, into Latin for the use and benefit of continental Europe, then priding itself in its isolated Latinity.

This document, then, furnishes us with evidence respecting the foundations of several cities in Ynys Prydain. But I want to draw your attention to a Troia-Newydd, or New Troy, stated to have been founded by one of the pre-historic Asiatic settlers, of the name of Brutus, and to have changed its primitive name into that of Troinofant, signifying, from its root Troia, and font, or myntai, a host, clan, or tribe of Troy; and afterwards into the corrupted form of Trino-vantwm, or Trino-vantum; which, again, in the lapse of time, assumed the name of Caerludd, after its aggrandisement and restoration by a king of the name of Lludd; and which eventually received the name of Caer Llundeyn, or Llyn-dan, from its vicinity to, or gradual advancement towards, a lake on one of its lower flanks. This term the Roman ear converted into Lundinium, and Londinium, though the latter clause may be derived from dinas, a city, or town.

Hsec hodie in lingua Cimbrorum nominis umbra
Stat, signatque locos, Reges et Troia templa.

Llundeyn was the city, par excellence, of the Trinobantes, under every change of appellation, down to the memorable eera of the Csesarean invasion. I trust the corrupt Latin form of this tribe, or nation, from Troinofant, its derivative, has not been allowed to escape your Argus-eyed investigation.

This Asiatic bearing of the case is undoubtedly confirmed in the Poem of " Ymarwar Lludd Bychan," the appeasing of Lludd, the Lesser, in the following emphatic passage:—

"Llwyth lliaws, anuawa eu henwerys
"Gwyr gwlad yr Asia, a gwlad Gavis."

Thus translated :—

"A numerous race, ' fierce were they named,'
"First colonized thee, Britain, chief of isles;
"Men from the land of Asia, and from the land of Gavis."

Where this land of Gavis was situated has never, I believe, been solved by any of our modern geographers, bardic or otherwise.

I will try to unravel this mystery of by-gone ages by the broad light of philology, and circumstances contingent thereupon.

The Bardic Institute ever chanted the praises of Gwlad yr Haf, the land of summer, but very little notice was comparatively taken of the merits of gwlad y Gauqf, land ot winter, gelidi prope flabra Aquilonis.

The Association of Asia with this land of Gavis, in the verse above, would imply, I apprehend, a no very distant contiguity of kin and country, in some sequestered nook or other of Europe. The term is derived from gauaf, winter, and is, low, extreme, or deep; as Gauqfis=Gafi$—QaMm; just as Fer-esis, now L'osa, of the early Latini; and the river sEs4s, of the Umbri, from as, water, and is, as before.

And, as it is not disputed that a certain geographer, on his first visit to the north-eastern territories of Europe, bordering on Asia, found a certain tribe, clan, or nation, whom he called Tauridi, and to whom he assigned the inhospitable quality of fierceness, and so forth; and, again, as this very mental attribute was ironically granted by Taliesin—the historical bard, to a " llwyth lliaws," a numerous race of the land of Gavis, either as a prehistorical fact not unknown to the Druidical order, by means of their corresponding members to the different schools of Europe, or, possibly, as a mere memento of a bias entertained towards the Gavisians by their Scythian and semi-Pelasgic, visitors, or neighbors, who coveted their possessions as new fields for plunder or colonization—in such phrases as "Tauridi they were called," but not by themselves; or, "fierce were they named," as well as in other similar phrases, derivable from misinterpretation, through ideality of sound, irrespective of sense, the locality may be traced.

A modern bard, in his description of the Roman invasion, alludes to these mountain warriors as a "llu digofant," an irascible host; and as " llewod," or lions, fighting for their lands and rights,

"Ger bron brodoiion brwd ciiias
"Llu digofaint, llewod Gavis."

Hence, it is not deemed very unreasonable, though the ' ray' of evidence is found to be an exceedingly small portion of 'parallel light,' and coming, too, through the 'medium' of bodies so voluminous as the Homeric and bardic sources, to identify certain nomadic sections of the people, dwelling in the mountainous brumal regions of Norther Cimmeria, Cauconia, and the alleged ferocious Hyperboreans of Bastarnee, at epochs bordering on the flood, with the ' multitudinous tribe ' of " Tauri et leones Britannici," and "Gwlad y gauaf," the winter land of Gavis of our bardic poems.

"Behold the nations are as a drop of a bucket, and are counted as the small dust of the balance."


"Soon to the barks the Cymrians and their bands

"Are borne: bright-haired, above the gazing crews,

"Lone on the loftiest deck, the leader stands;

"To whom the king (his rank made known) renews

"All his tale of mortal hope and fear—

"Vouchsafes from truth to thrill a mortal's ear."

"O terque quaterque beati
"Queis ante ora patrum, Troiau sub maenibus altis
"Contigit oppetere; * * *
"* * * Ubi tot Simois correpta sub undis
"Scuta virum, galeasque et fortia corpora volvit."

Before we quit this pre-Trojan land of ours let us cast a farewell glance at old Yscymdwr=Scamander, and his disunited boggy banks (from esgumu, to unassociate, disjoin, dissolve acquaintance, and dwr, water), and pay a filial trip to the

"High barrows, without marble, or a name,
"On the unfilled and mountain-skirted plain."

And also:—

"Where, on the green and village-cotted hill, is
"(Flunked by the Hellespontus and the sea),
"The tumulus,—of whom? Heaven knows! 't may be"
As much of Cymbro as of Trojan, without name—

and wend our way " to Ida in the distance;" and the crop-admiring slopes and double shank of Gargara at its base: Gargara, from gar, a shank, a leg, a slope.

"Nullo tamen se Mysia cultu
"Iactat, et ipsa tuas merantur gargara messes."

Mysia, from maes, a field, and isa=isqf, lowest.

What a lovely sight is here! Turn where'er you will, enchantment thrills the soul with memories of the past!

"For, wheresoe'er I turn my ravished eyes,
"Gay gilded scenes and shining prospects rise;
"Poetic fields encompass me around,
"And still I seem to tread on classic ground."

Across the disembogueing waters of the Allwys for, Probont, or of distant Beisfor, inethinks I view the vine-clad slopes and olive hills that overlook—protect from northern blasts, the Deffrobanian homes of Prince Hu Gadarn, Brenin Prydain, Celwyddon, Al Wyddyl, Galedin, and other noble chieftains of the British Isles.

On the Asian side, on sloping banks of evergreens, I seem to scan the fairest landscape of the world—of nature's grand design. Enchanting scenes, inlaid with hamlets, shrines, and gardens of Beisforian bliss, with fruit-producing trees of every kind; flowers and shrubs of every hue, to please the palate and the eye; as well as pine, or yew, or cypress trees, to grace and guard the urn, or cistfaen, of a Druid chief, and make the triumph of the grave immortal in its site.

"Which charmed the charming Mary Montagu."

Again, methinks that on the height of yonder mound, now termed*,, through lack of history, the " Giant's grave," I view the sacred "garnedd yn y beddrod " of Cimbric royal lines of mighty kings, unknown by fame to Mede or Greek, and Roman knight, or Moslem Turk, or Christian Byzantine, or roaming Anglo-Saxon.

No modern petroclastic Goth is here to desecrate the repevoe of a tomb, "rimmed round with stones" and Druid slabs. A Dervish, close at hand, within the precincts of a Tekeh, is seen from age to age, with superstitious awe, to decorate the sacred soil with shrubs and flowery beds appropriate to the scene.

Again, across the sea, on either side of Lemnos, in the distant west, I scan, in fond embrace, three lofty mainland peaks, that too, perhaps, have tales to tell of pre-Pelasgic deeds and sights beyond the ken of ancient or of modern schools of science and of art. In haste! The wind has changed! The Cimbric bark, with flag unfurled, " whose flag has braved four thousand years the battle and the breeze," awaits a freighted crew at yon Sigceum point.

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