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After this explanatory interpretation (to which I shall have to recur on a future occasion), I now come back to our Troiau.
The probability, therefore, is, that cuttings, similar to this figure, had been made for similar objects in Mysia, in fact, whereever there were Troiau, or astronomical observatories, well-known seats of the Druids and Saronides; and that a Dionysius of Hali. carnassus, a Thales of Miletus, may have, as astronomical students, acquired a knowledge of their interpretation from some corresponding member of the order, and communicated the result of their science to historians, philosophers, artists, and other literati of Greece, as Abaris was known to have done. Hence, am I not surprised to find a representation of this celestial chart as an ornamental appendage to the temple of Theseus at Athens; nor to see it handed down to the stamp of the metallurgist, and developed in coins of Greece and Crete; and which, again, in the prevailing dearth of astronomical acquirements, some ingenious mythologists had plagiarised, and · incarcerated ;' and which eventually they had contrived to pervert from its original heavenly character, into that of a state prison, or den, or labyrinth, at Cnosus for a Minos.
The after-thought of history, however, found it convenient to attribute the formation of this labyrinth to the ingenious hands of a Daedalus, who was alleged to have copied it from some Ægyptian, Assyrian, or other unknown model ; granting such to be the case, the fact, if fact it be, does but tend to confirm the uniformity of Cimmerian observations' with those of the upper or lower Thebaid, and the far east.
I have seen two delineations of this figure, one circular, the other square,—but why the difference I pretend not to divine, unless it be partially explained by the foregoing remarks.
Again, to revert to the ecliptic, or troad y rhod (the turning of the wheel). This wheel, gentlemen, was, I apprehend, originally the instrument whereby the complicated movements of the heavenly bodies were delineated to the understanding of the students, and by means of some framework or other, that met the requirements of the astronomical lecture, in the shape of an orrery, or a 'planetaire.'
“By ceaseless actions all that is subsists,
It is wonderful, gentlemen, how the motto of the Druids, Gwir yn erbyn y byd,' is verified by a little patient research into the past. Here I must call in evidence two gentlemen who little imagined, when they penned their thoughts, their individual, numerical
differences,' on paper, that they would be found to stamp, with ineffable certainty, the antiquarian bearings of this Cimbro-Trojan proposition. The one is an Englishman, the other a Frenchman. I am indebted to the learned Idrison for calling my attention to these distinguished writers. Let him speak for himself.
“ Proofs have been adduced by Bryant, in his mythology, of there having been anciently several towns bearing the name of Troy,” (i. e., I apprehend, astronomical stations, or observatories), and both he and De Gebelin, with others, say, that such places were so denominated as being, like Heliopolis, distinguished resorts for the adoration of the host of heaven.
“ Very conclusive reasons are given by De Gebelin, as well as by others, that the fable of the seven kings of Troy, designated the seven planets, as regents of the days of the week, and that Priam's reign of fifty two years, with his fifty daughters, represented the year and its subdivisions; as, also, did Ourchol (metamorphosed into Hercules), with his twelve labours, designate the year divided into months.
“ The fable of the seven poble Athenians, annually delivered as victims to the Minotaur, in the labyrinth of Minos, has also the appearance of bearing an allusion to the mysteries connected with the solar worship therein."
“ Seize upon the truth, where'er 'tis found,
Out of this fabulous account enough has been extracted to show that certain mixed idealities of the past were, and had been for centuries, afloat on the ocean of time, respecting the immemorial pre-occupation of the Cimmerian race within or without the precincts of pre-Cimbric Troy and Asia Minor.
Again, to revert to the terms Illion and Simois. But, perhaps it were as well here to ask the classics of Europe how they derive Troja, Ilium, Ida, Simois, and so forth. The first only of the four do they attempt, with any show of reason, to interpret; and how do you think it is derived ? From the third king of Troy, forsooth! This logical mode of interpretation, with the loophole of an after-birth in Dardania or Ilium, is precisely analogous to the idea of a man giving his name to his grandfather, as a lasting memento for some honours conferred on the senior by the unborn junior.
Urbs antiqua suo sub nomine, floreat usque
Illion now demands our analytical observations. The term Illion, then, is the plural of il, signifying a circular motion, or rapid circumvolution, as exemplified in the case of ale, beer, or wine, in a state of whirling fermentation from one side to another, and substantiated by the familiar expression of rhoi breci yn yr il' (to put wort in the rotating ferment).
Thus, the terms Troiau, or Illion convey an absolute correlative interpretation, or approximate shades of meaning, the former being adapted to poetry, the latter to prose. Hence Cambria, Cymry, and Gwalia, are employed, “mutuo motu,' in our own days.
As the Senatus Academici of the world are scornfully, yet wisely, oblivious respecting the derivative meaning of the historic Simois, and cannot very well, as they do most piteously on other occasions, invent a mythic king or queen for the name, to act the part of adoption to its paternity, or maternity, the isolated, but grandiloquent, .iaith Gymraeg 'must, out of the undying records of the past and present, step in, renew its own familiar silver tones of auld lang syne,' and pay a willing tribute of respect, with the prescient youth of Aulis chorus-odes,
" To Simois, and his silver tide
“In eddies whirling through the plain.” The Simois, then, is about ' verbum de verbo,' to re-iterate, as of yore, its own former self, after the alleged Metem psychosis doctrine of future resuscitation, by means of compound roots it ne'er can fail to know, as Si-mo-is, 'its low, rippling buzz,'-a buzz, by the way, which is no more, no less, than its own ever-purling note of nature, as by the echoing bard expressed :
“ To trace in nature's most minute design
“The signature and stamp of power divine." Antiquissima Cimbrorum lingua, sine ullo judicum lite, sempiterna filia Est naturæ, igiturque ipsissima hujus amnis et loci genitrix.
Moreover, let us survey this proposition under another aspect, in a cosmopolitan sense and bearing. The traditionary view of a Cimmerian pre-occupation is confirmed by Lucan, Sidonius, Apollinius, and our own historical bard, Taliesin; who, as a bardd neu ovydd (a bard, or an ovate), must indubitably in that sense, or quality, have embodied the whole secret scope of his own race and history in his memory during his statutable sessional terms' of 19, 28, or 34 years, as the case of fellowship’ might have been.
Not to enter into the interesting question of ethnologically, philologically, and classically identifying the Cimmerii,or Cimbri; the Heneti of Phygia-cum-Veneti, on the Adriatic; the Veneti of Armoric Gaul; the Umbri, Sabini, Arverni, Ligures, Edui, &c., and the Veteres Galli, with each other, as `fratres et consanguinei' Cimmerii, within the ken and grasp of history; suffice it here, out of an infinity of other proofs, to quote Lucan on this international verity.
“Arvernique aussi Latio se fingere fratres
“Sanguine ab Iliaco populi.” Arverni, from ar, a mountain, and gwern, a meadow, an alder-tree. Whom I might, in the emphatic language of Corneille, in reference to the early amalgamation of the Sabini and Latini, with ethnological propriety, classify as 'frères et cousins.'
“Souffrons que la raison eclaire enfin nos ames.
“Nous ne sommes qu’un sang, et qu' un peuple en deux villes.” And Taliesin, in adverting to the arrival of a distinguished personage from the far east on the shores of the Tamesis, at Troinofant, the capital of the Trinobantes, makes him say:
“ Mi a ddaethym yma
“At WEDDILLION Troia.” “I have landed here, among the scattered residue of Troy." Here the discerning eye will see a happy play of words' on the term Wedd-illion, as indicative, in one sense, of the scattered remnants of Troy ; in the other, in their (gwedd-wedd) aspect, form, and connection with Illion, or Ilium. And, finally, the bard, in accents of prophetic lamentation, foreshadowing woes as great as those of Troy, bewails their lot:
" Y Daw'r ddarogan
"I LIN TROEA."
“No more, imperial Troy, no more
“And hail thy rampised height.
“Roll'd its tremendous might.
the triads. The solution of this question will necessarily entail a friendly trip to Ynys Prydain, in order to consult the sessional congress of Druids, the historical bards, and other legal authori. ties, in reference to this disputed territory ; as well as to glance at the progress of the Cimmerian nation in their adopted country.
The first witness I shall call in evidence will be "Brut y Brenhinoedd,” or chronicles of the kings.
Whatever amount of causeless incredulity may be lavished on “Bruty Brenhinoedd,” or chronicles of the kings, or on “Historia Britonum,” by Nennius in the year 858, and edited in the fol. lowing century by Marc y Neudwy, by a generation prone to cavil at everything, or anything, if the objection ‘ suits its book,' the authenticity of the former, as an Armorican and Cimbric document, can, thanks to the zeal and learning of Gwallter, Archdeacon of Oxford, be traced with antiquarian certainty, as far back as the year 1100, at which period, whatever may be its intrinsic value in the eyes of a clique, the chronicle was translated by him from a very old copy, which was brought from Llydaw and written in the Cimbric language, into Latin for the use and benefit of continental Europe, then priding itself in its isolated Latinity.
This document, then, furnishes us with evidence respecting the foundations of several cities in Ynys Prydain. But I want to draw your attention to a Troia-Newydd, or New Troy, stated to have been founded by one of the pre-historic Asiatic settlers, of the name of Brutus, and to have changed its primitive name into that of Troinofant, signifying, from its root Troia, and fant, or myntai, a host, clan, or tribe of Troy; and afterwards into the corrupted form of Trino-vantwm, or Trino-vantum; which, again, in the lapse of time, assumed the name of Caerludd, after its aggrandisement and restoration by a king of the name of Lludd; and which eventually received the name of Caer Llundeyn, or Llyn-dan, from its vicinity to, or gradual advancement towards, a lake on one of its lower flanks. This term the Roman ear converted into Lundinium, and Londinium, though the latter clause may be derived from dinas, a city, or town.
Hæc hodie in lingua Cimbrorum nominis umbra
Stat, signatque locos, Reges et Troia templa. Llundeyn was the city, par excellence, of the Trinobantes, under every change of appellation, down to the memorable æra of the Cesarean invasion. I trust the corrupt Latin form of this tribe, or nation, from Troinofant, its derivative, has not been allowed to escape your Argus-eyed investigation.
This Asiatic bearing of the case is undoubtedly confirmed in the Poem of “ Ymarwar Lludd Bychan,” the appeasing of Lludd, the Lesser, in the following emphatic passage :