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the greatest latitude to modern scepticism, began to be established on an uniform, or enlarged scale, about a century before, or after the cyclic, or Homeric period, i. e., about one thousand one hundred years B. C. It was not earlier than the one, nor later than the other. At all events, the Æolians and other Pelasgic tribes, from Peloponnesus or elsewhere, are said to have founded several cities in Asia Minor, on the expulsion, or subjugation of the primitive inhabitants, and on the debris of prior establishments. Now, has the historic world for one moment given itself the anxiety to enquire, in the spirit of truth and fair play, who were the primitive inhabitants (outres les monstres d'une creation poetique et malsonnante), that were driven within the murky era and dim twilight of ósæcula sæculorum,' or who had migrated from the coasts of the Aigswn, the two Beisfor-oedd, and the shores of the Aigwm, into the central and western portions of Europe, when the foundations of Rome were as yet buried in the solid rock, unchiseled and unmarked ?
Ignotâ Româ, fuimus, fuit Ilium et ingens
Gloria’ Bardorum, Druidum, Vatumque per æva. The root of Dewin, or Duwin, for each term was, and is, in use at the present day, but in a modified acceptation, is derived from du, black, obscure, mystified, in reference to certain arcana of world, word, or thought taught by them, in accordance with the recondite doctrines of the Ægyptian school, as I shall hereafter endeavour to prove. The bard Cynddelw, in an ode addressed to Fadawg ap Maredydd, speaks of the Dewinion in connection with the Druids, and the richly-clad nobles bearing their golden torques :
“Nis gwyr Duw a dewinion byd
“Ein rhif yn rhiweirth afon." Again, Dafydd Benfras, who flourished about the twelfth century of our era, in allusion to the abstruse doctrines of a Druidical Devin, Dewin, or Duwin, thus chants, by implication, the praises of Taliesin, by an admission of his own ignorance, and possibly that of the great bard himself, to solve the astronomical, or astrological mysteries of this peculiar sect of the order. I may hereafter refer to some of their principles.
“Mi i'm byn pe byddwn Ddewin
Ni allai Daliesin.” Were I addressing the scholiasts of the past and present, un. versed in Triad classic lore, I would say, Can you, in the amplitude of your glory, show any distinct, indisputable clauses of light upon these federative republics,' “these general assemblies,' or these Devins,' out of your own antique records, so that the wavering consciences of the alumni academici may be at ease ?
The case on your part is astoundingly hopeless—beyond the mortified control of classic pride and vanity.
“Hope withered, fled—and Mercy sighed farewell." The sixty-first triad of the social state,' inter plurimas, • dares to beard the lion in his den,' Assyrian, Mede, or Perse, as well as Greek or Roman in his hall, without a scratch, without a flaw, as Daniel did of yore.
The sense and interpretation of this triad fully explains the question at issue, "according to the privileges of the country and the nation of the Cymry." Do not forget that this aboriginal, national, root has precisely the same signification with that of Cimmerians, though apart in distant lands. “ Cystal naill ac y llall,” or, “ things equal the same, are equal to each other.”
I cannot, therefore, do better than give you ocular, or, rather, auricular proof, and repeat the triad in all its explanatory integrity, so that you may hear, and afterwards read, mark, and digest, at your own leisure, its full force and importance as an indispensable adjunct, or handmaid, to a one-sided and a half-fed history.
“There are three sessions of the Cymry, by the right of country and clan :
“1.—The session of the bards of the isle of Britain; the dignity and privileges whereof arise from its wisdom and constitution, and the necessity for it; or, according to other learned instructors (from Europe or Asia), from its wisdom, constitution, and intent. The proper privilege and office of the session of bards is to maintain, preserve, and give sound instruction in religion, science, and morality (in the original sy berward); to preserve the memory of the laudable acts of individuals or clans; of the events of the times, and the extraordinary phenomena of nature ; of wars, and regulations of country or clan; their retaliations on their enemies, and victories over them; also, faithfully to preserve the memories of pedigrees, marriages, liberal descent, privileges and duties of the Cymry (Cimmerii); and, when required by the other sessions, to publish what is necessary and obligatory in the legal form of notice and proclamation. Farther than this, by office or privilege, the session of bards is not obliged to concern itself. The bards, therefore, are the authorised instructors of the Cymry (Cimmerians), of country or clan, having full privileges, more extensive than the common right of Cymry by birth, viz, (in addition to) five acres of ground free; also, each is entitled to a gratuity as due to his profession. These professions are specified in the Institutional Triads of Bardism).
"2.—The second is the session of country and territory (the same as · Gorsedd Gwlad ae Arglwydd '), that is, a session of judicature and legal decision, for the intent of justice and security to country and clan (or the community generally, or individually), and their retainers and tenantry. For the departments of these several sessions are these: that of the session of general assembly to make laws when necessary, and confirm them in country and dependency (gwlad a chywlad), which cannot be done without the concurrence of the dependency; the session of judicature decides on infractions of the law, and punishes them; and the session of bards teaches useful sciences, judges concerning them, and preserves the memory of family concerns regularly and truly; and neither of the three is to oppose pretensions of its own, in derogation of either of them, but on the contrary, each should confirm, and cooperate with, the other two amicably.
“ 3.--The third session is that of the general constitutional asseinbly, the general and especial object whereof is to make such alterations for the better in the laws, or such new laws of country and district as may be necessary; by consent (gan raith cywlad) taken in the districts of the chiefs or clans, men of wisdom, and the sovereign paramount. The severeign paramount, or sovereign head of the government, is the lineal heir in the eldest line of descent of the kings or princes of the district, and in him the authority rests, and his determination is without appeal as the authority of the country.”
Having, thus, from this general aspect, seen and investigated the primitive condition of Telmessus, in the days of its Druidical celebrity, amidst scenes of action replete with social life, of neighbouring federative republics and of general constitutional assemblies that would not reflect discredit on the proudest, haughtiest realms of earth; let us ascertain what can be gleaned from modern travel concerning it.
For this purpose I must adduce a witness from the cherished cloistered rooms of dearest “Alma Mater '—the distinguished Professor Clarke, of Cambridge, who will be able to supply us with some interesting information respecting its actual, desolate, but grandiose prostration on the field of time.
But his remarks shall not cross the threshold of my homely page before I have curtly drawn a friendly thrust of arms with him, and others of his school, who never cease from day to day, in all the works and shade-like wings of thought, in verse and prose, to give, impute—to ponderous mass of boasting, selfish, faultless, giant, blustering, frames ! or weighty, gross, repulsive, ox-like, Cyclops-flesh !—the grand monopoly of mind, of art, of will, and deed, in point of antique temples, shrines, and pyramids, or sacred caves of earth; as well as by implication to accord the lion's share' of other faculties as yet untold, or, perhaps, undreamt of in their vague philosophy.
" The monsters of earth,' and of fire,
“By music they throb to express." This enamoured mystic school of Cyclopean art (so called) seems heedless to forget the heaven-born law of equal or exclusive gifts to none of Adam's race, as sons of men; of men, as men of varied stature, in the sense of either Gog, or Magog, or Goliath, or of David, Solomon, or Hiram, in the works assigned to each ; or, again, in him, and those, who planned and built the “Corucesion' cavern of the Thames; or in him, and those, that schemed and forged the vast Chalybian iron cave, floating, as an aerial monster, on the wings of might, above the vapoured wrath of ocean fleets, across the Menai Straits ; or, thirdly, in that contracted class of human size whose agency would, according to the formulæ, or fantastic rules laid down, be at once curtailed, by a borrowed side-wind' of gigantic blast,
“ As if dropped from some higher sphere
“ To tell us of the gorgeous splendour there,” or, would also be debarred from any notable participation in reference to the laws of mind,' as essence of the will divine' in man, as passing tenant of his god-like tabernacled home, to carry out, with the talents meted out to each, the aim and end of all created life, as evidenced in the logic of a bardic Watts, or in the rare and sound attainments, in classic lore, of good Professor Scholefield.
“ The tidal wave of deeper souls
“Out of all meaner cares." No man, therefore, has a right to arrogate, on the behoof of one or other class, “yngwhyneb haul a llygad goleuni,' any exclusive claims or privileges of prescriptive mental superiority over his fellow man; either by virtue of, or in proportion to the accidental realities of a maximum, a, medium, or a minimum scale,—from the 'rudis indigestaque moles’ of a giant, or a Cyclops, down to a lady's graceful form of person and of foot.
Judge not, then, the present from the fickle stages of the past or the intervening mystic scenes of one or other, as criteria of primeval minds, parallel in science or in art. There is, there
was, there e'er will be in man, whate'er his coloured size may be as in the ocean wave of a nation's life, a never-rippling ebb and flow of retrograding charge, one while over another, as of evil over good, of virtue over vice, of idoled gods in shape of patronheroes, or of patron-saints, above · His name in Jah,' of mental and artistic skill over grovelling forms of earth and barbaric depths of ignorance without shame, as chartered in the scale ol time, of human weakness or of might.
" The end crowns all, “ And that old common arbitrator, Time,
“ Will one day end it !" Forget not, then, the vital spark of heavenly flame’issuing from eternal love, to dwell in ‘frames' below by God's command, in infant man, in order thus to urge mankind to feel, believe, adopt, and act upon, another truth on the tablet of the memory, before its exit in eternal space, a cognate truth, as patent, if not as potent, as the first, that mind, and mind well taught and trained, in giant, canolddyn, or mannikin, becomes the sterling coin, the pearl of price, the envied standard of a man.
“ Explore the dark recesses of the mind,
“ The same great leading principle in all.” The Professor now shall give us the impressions of his thoughts; and adhered to, possibly, by the colloof mankind.
“ Everything at Telmessus is Cyclopean; a certain vastness of proportion, as in the walls of Tirynthus and Crotona, excites a degree of admiration, which is mingled with awe. The kings of Caria and of Lycia have left behind them monuments defying the attacks of time, and barbarians. Some of the stones used in the construction of the theatre are nine feet long, three feet wide, and two feet thick; three immense portals, not unlike the ruins of Stonehenge, conducted to the arena. The stones which compose these gates are yet larger than those mentioned. The central gateway consists of only five, and the two others of three, each placed in the most simple style of architecture.”
Thus the learned Professor, and other historical travellers, unconsciously supply important evidence to the artistical and mechanical powers of the grand Cimmerian family in the gloomy shades of lost illumination.
“Shrine of the mighty ! can it be
“ That this is all remains of thee!” But, with sorrow be it said, the principle of 'honour to whom honour is due’is wrested from it by plagiaristic wiles. The 'tulit alter honores ’innovation is renewed throughout the classic world,