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contending for this portion of territory, which was within the hail, the cry, or agonising sight, so to speak, of the wives and children.

“ Gwragedd, cu hof, a phlant." at the city or sea board of Deffrobania itself,—if the Cimbric root Byddin, which is in perfect inflectional accord with Bithyn-ia, and signifying a snare, an ambush, a troop, or army, can be hypothetically or historically entertained.

But if on the contrary, as is stated in the “ Geographie Historique Ancienne,” the allied armies of Cimmerians and Thraciens, “Thraces Asiam incolentes,' were known under the twofold appellations of, des Thraces d'Asie, et des Mariandyns ou Morandyns d'Asie;' I discover the mystery solved-I perceive a clue in the unmistakeable union of design, action, and brotherly accord, that now reigned between these intermingled races or nations, as evinced, 'outre cela,' in the happy bond-lovi ng adoption of new terms, as Thynniens,' and 'Bithynians,' independant possibly of the Caucones, a branch of the Caucones of Bastarnce, (from cae, pl. caeau, fields, inclosures, and cawn, reedgrass), who had contrived, or had been suffered, through acquiescence in the Satrapyan laws of their invaders, to occupy this maritime region, and to hold international intercourse with their kinsmen over the Beisfor. The former name would be derived from the Cimbric root tynu, to draw or pull together, to be cemented, allied; the latter from Byddin, as before, but having its root in bydd, a tie, a keeping together, a confederacy, a league. This derivative view of the case implies a forgetfulness of past wrongs, quarrels, or family feuds; a happy augury for the future, in these seal-ratified symbols of a warın reconciliation,-'in pace requiescant. As such “les Thrases d'Asie, divises en Thynniens et Bithynians, occupaient sur les rivages de la Propontide et du Bosphore de Thrace, une belle contrèe a l'interieur * * a l'epoque de la domination Persane. Et aussi que les Moryandins [from mor, the sea, and dyn, a person, a man), habitaient des plaines fertiles et couvertes de gras pasturage, et fournissaient d'excellent bois de construction a la riche colonie Greque d'Heraclea."

Long prior, however, to this Bithynian question of supremacy over the maritime coast, which engaged our attention just now, Strabo hints at some other remote pre-historical, traditionary invasions on the part of the Cimmerians over this and the neighbouring districts, not unknown to Homer and his age in the following memorable passage :—"Oi Keppepwi kad' Oumpov apo αυτου μεχρις Ιωνιας επεδραμον την γην την εκ Βοσφορου πασαν. (The Cimmerians, according to Homer, and prior to his own age, made incursions over the whole country bordering on the Bosphorus, as far as Ionia),” &c., and so forth.

It is manifest, therefore, or rather not very improbable, as you shall by and bye be morally convinced, that the maura alou Kepuepiol had, on previous occasions, centuries before the alleged or real epoch of the capture of Troy, in 1270 B. C., occupied Mysia and the Troas ; and established themselves on, and at the base of, Mount Ida, and its bardic Caer-Troiau, or Illion, viz., Troy or Illium-and other numerous cities in the Egean provinces; as well as in the trans-marine district of Macedonia, and the isles of the Egean sea, as far as Rhodes (from the root rhyd, what is replete with change a swift eddying).

But to revert to a much later period in known historic annals. I find that the Thraco-Cimmerian army, on their allied martial enterprise, had succeeded in overrunning and subduing in several pitched battles the mixed races of Mysians, Ionians, Mæonians or Lydians, Carians, and Lycians, and that they had temporarily managed to occupy the city of Smyrna, minus its citadel, during the reign of Adys, till ousted and repelled from the district by his successor, Halyattes II., and that they had, upon this discomfiture, repaired towards Ephesus, Halicarnassus, and the inland Druidical town of Harpasa, besides other inland or maritime cities bordering on Lycia and Pamphylia. T'he date of this mishap has been elicited by means of early rhymists to have occurred about 600 B. C.

This view of the Thracian-Cimmerian invasion across the Beisfor, from the bardic Gwlad yr Haf, is further supported by the Ephesian poet Callinus, who writes rather feelingly on this domestic, or urban, question ; also by Archilochus, and other contemporary rhymists, who flourished about 540 B. C.

Again, in addition to this evidence of a comparatively late date, I read, in the “ Geographie Historique Ancienne," of facts and allusions drawn, no doubt, out of sundry recondite Arimaspean and pre-Homeric poems, and other sources not yet sufficiently known, respecting the very remote occupation of Asia Minor by certain primitive inhabitants, other than Ægyptians, Phoenicians, Assyrians, Medes, Persians, and Greeks. Who were they? Whence came they? Can their identification be ascertained on principles of ethnology, religion, architecture, or otherwise ? Such were the pre-historic questions I propounded to myself for solution; the task, I admit, is almost hopeless, but an attempt must be made to solve these problems.

To commence, then, with Mæonia, or Lydia,—the “ Geographie Historique Ancienne" describes it as “Cette riche contree connue primitivement sous le nom de Meonie [Moonia], apres avoir ete pendant plusieurs siecles lę siege d'un royaume qui comprenait la plus grand parti de l'Asie Mineure, etait devenue une des provinces de l'Einpire des Perses depuis que Cyrus en avait fait la conquête sur Cresus."

I want you to weigh each expression carefully. In other por tions of the history we glean that ‘les habitants primitifs du pays' had been, ages before, conquered by the dynasty of Cræsus. Before I comment further on this passage, I must pay my mead of praise to a newly-devised aspect in this question de la domination Persane'.

In order to confirm their hard-earned conquests, without a perpetual appeal to the force of arms, or the mart or exigency of slavery, some humane policy or other must be struck out to secure the loyalty of the Moonians, or, at all events, to cajole the silence of adhesion. The well-known partiality of the race for music furnished a base of operations to complete the train of political strategy. The tastes of the young Meonians were at once diplomatically cultivated. The influence of education was requisite then as now to show that it “ emollit mores nec sinit esse feros.”

so'Tis education forms the common mind,
“ Just as the twig is bent the tree's inclined.”

Thus we read in Herod I., 155, and Justin I., 6, that the Persians, though ever too eager for the fray, or flow of rival blood, by complying with the wise behests of Crosus, by fostering the national germs of song and harp, and encouraging the Lydians to become a nation of musicians and traders, succeeded for a while in eradicating all spirit of opposition, or any open display of martial ardour or declared hostility.

We, then, ascertain that its primitive name was Meonie, or Mæonia, and changed into that of Lydia by its conquerors. What does the term signify? It is derived from maen, plural meini, Druidical stones, but whether it comes within the category of maen-resi, of meini-hirion, or of others, I know not. If the former class, they must resemble those of Abury, in Britain, or Carnac and Quiberon, in France, which were arranged in rows (rhesi), of about a hundred yards in breadth, more or less, and consisting of thousands of upright slabs, or enormous blocks of stone, of the average height of twenty feet; but if of the latter, they were solitary long and upright stones, scattered over the length and breadth of a country, like those in the vicinity of Poictiers; and serve, as I was once informed by a royal harpist, now no more, and confirmed by an editor of Welsh triads, either as signals or directing stones, which were placed on mountains and other desolate tracts, for the purpose of guiding a traveller on his journey; or as boundaries for the five or six acre blocks of land usually assigned by the congress as privileges for merit in the social scale'. The Triads, however, describe “three other kinds of stones, for the removal of which an indictment for theft will lye.”

1.--The boundary stone. (Orfaen, ffinfaen.) 2.—The white stone of the place of session. (Maengorsedd.) 3.—The stone of expectancy. (Maen-gobaith.)

The modern traveller must be our best guide to decide this nominal question of lapidal identification. With this proviso, I proceed at once to Caria, in order to gather other fragments of information relative to its early condition ; “ Ce pays,” adds the author, “ dont les habitants primitifs, c'etaient vus forcés a se retirer dans l'interieur du pays a [Harpasa] pour abandonner la cote au colonies Greques, qui s'en emparerent avait pour Capitale, a l'epoque de la guerre medique, Halicarnassus" (from the root Hál, saltwater, and carn, a heap, a tomb, a tower, and is, lower). Here we see that the primitive inhabitants forced, at a very early date, by Grecian colonists, to retire into the interior, and advance towards Harpasa, which is situated on the southern bank of the Moander, between Apollonia and Aphrodisias. Let us follow them thither, and ascertain something about the city, if it be possible, as well as the people who built it, so that you may decide about each at the same time. The term Harpasa is derived from har, aptness to overtop, and bys, or pys, a finger. Pliny, in his second book, apparently with feelings of awe and wonder, says that near Harpasa he discovered “a rock standing on the plains (namely, a maensigl, from maen, a block of stone, and sigl, to shake, or move); horrenda, moveable with a single finger, but, when pushed resisting all the force of man.A maensigl, or rocking stone, identical with this, is found at the present day near Pontypridd, Glamorganshire, and does not hesitate to become obedient to the finger of every visitor who may be inclined to follow the example of the noble Roman. A modern traveller, not unknown by name to most of you, in his own sketch book speaks of it as a “peripatetic monolith, poised, so to speak, in mid air, and obedient to the touch of a child, but resisting and confounding the united forces of as many as could apply their hands, or shoulders, conjointly to the task of removal from its tripodal, or trilapidal elevation."

Our own experience “at horne, sweet home,' must at once dictate the reality of this truism, as affecting possibly our own juvenile impressions. Many a modern philosopher or naturalist may here, for aught I know to the contrary, inwardly (but was too wise probably to manifest it), reciprocated the feelings of our friend Pliny, under apposite circumstances. There is, however, a shade of difference between the schools of the ancient and the modern gazers : the one did not know the εovos that erected them, whereas the other does—if not it is his own fault, not mine.

Again let us stand together in a south-east direction. The distance is about a hundred miles from Harpasa; I have no doubt but that, when arrived at our destination at Telmissus, I shall be able to furnish you with facts, incidents, and particulars of our long-lost forefathers, too long buried in a species of an unaccountable chaotic oblivion, on the confines of Caria and Lycia, and on the sea coast, that will amply repay you for the trouble, length, and toil of the journey. In it there was a temple dedicated to Bel, the Apollo of the Greeks, built by 'ces habitants primitifs' that had been driven away by a confederated alliance of the Phonicians and early Pelasgic colonists. These, unlike their warrior countrymen of the north, were remarkably quiet and peaceable in their demeanour. According to the Triads, these holy men, these oracular divines, ovates, or Druids, “then, in accordance with the jurisdiction vested in them, presided at the sessional congress of their order with the general assemblies of the confederated states, in conjunction with the king, prince, or president, to transact business of a social, a foreign, a judicial, or a religious character, according to prescription and law, and according to country and sovereignty.” Let a few fragments from the “Geographie Historique Ancienne" be laid before you, though the author, I opine, did not. perhaps, conceive any more than did the world at large, who read, have read his works, to what living family of the human race these shattered remnants could belong. The writer goes on to remark respecting the inhabitants of Lycia, that, in time of war and aggression on the part of marauding invaders (possibly the pirates of Phoenicia, and the semi-barbarous Pelasgi);—"Les montagnes servaient de refuge a ses habitants, qui vivaient presque independants; des les temps les plus reculès, leurs villes, qui s'eleverent jusq'au nombre de vingt trois, formaient une republique federative, qui avaient des assembles communes. Parmi ces villes (outre les colonies Grecques de Limyre, et de Phazalis) on remarquait encore Telmessus aujourdhui (c'est a dire au temps des colonies Grecques en ruines pres de Macri, cette ville etait tout peuple de devins, des les temps les plus reculés.” I shall translate this passage literally. « The mountains served as a place of refuge to its inhabitants, who lived almost independant; from the remotest times imaginable immemoriality), their cities, which amounted to the number of twenty-three, formed a federative republic, and which possessed “general assemblies.' (Sessional congresses, or general constitutional assemblies of the Triads). Amongst these cities (besides the Greek colonies of Limyre and Phazelis), Telmessus was still recognised, though in ruins, near Macri, at the epoch of the Greek colonies. This city was entirely peopled by oracular divines (diviners, ovates, dewinyddion, or theologians in the sense of the past), from the most distant periods.”

According to the calculations of history, Greek colonies, to give

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