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Thus,Tan-aw—Dan-aw—Dan-ubius. But what does the historical bard say to all this?

"O gwelaf etto'r gwiwlu

." Mawr y dorf, wrth y Mor Du.

"Man y daw y Danaw Dwrf.—(Ister or Ystor.)

"Fw ganol, a mawr gynhwrf."

"O ! yet shall I see the worthy throng,

"Innumerable in its host, on the shore of the Black Sea,

"At the spot where the murmuring turmoil of the Danube

"Is heard entering into its midst, with incredible commotion."

But, it may be asked, what became of the rear guard? This fractional division wended its way along and across the banks of the Ararus 'Hyd ddysgyniad rhediad yr Haul,' i. e., westwards, till they finally located themselves at the foot of Mount Cigeeonus, to which, when en voyage to Macedonia, I shall have occasion to refer, and erected a druid circle, "ar ben y brin—un gaerawg wen ei goror (On a lofty hill—a rocky spot, white its borders)." These druidical circles, be it observed, were not designed exclusively or necessarily for structures for religious worship, but for the varied purposes of social life, as courts of law to adjudicate . privilege of station, possession of new lands, and mutual compact between families, (cyfraith, implying law in its proper sense). Thus, it is expressly stated in the triad, that, "three things are necessary to confirm the social state: effectual security of property; just punishment where it is due; and mercy tempering justice where the occasion requires it in equity," these circles were also reserved for the display of skill and force in the combat of arms, or mental prowess between rival bards or pennillion singers, as well as a post of defence to protect the inner shrine against all and every intrusion, unauthorised by the body corporate in congress assembled.

A few, also, were left behind to occupy the Caeau cawn (the fields of reed-grass), as Caucones. Whereas, another party chose the lower plains of northern Dacia i godi tai magawl (i. e., to erect portable wooden houses to live in, while sojourning in the land), from godi, or codi, to erect, from the root coed, wood, and ty, a house (the sound of the y corresponds exactly with the diphthong a), and magawl from its root mag, the act of nursing, breeding, and awl or al, appertaining to, in connection with,—hence magalia. "Miratur Molem iEneas, magalia quondam."

Whence my eye and ear, aided by the bard, detect three important truisms.

1. —The identification of the race, as Qoed-ty Getas, an equivalent synonyme with Cedti, or Cetti, of the triad, as 'codi maen Cetti!"

2. —The condition of social life, as early squatters and lords primeval of the Dacian soil.

3.—The unacknowledged plagiarism of Magalia, an expression, be it known, which has no definite meaning whatever, or root of its own, except by an ideal conjecture of the context.

Hence were annotators, 'at their wit's end,' obliged 'to beat the bush of Numidia,' and permeate the meagre, Punic claims of some Magar villa of the south, for aid to solve the stranger word, by forcing it to mean the "Tuguria Numidium portatilia, quos plaustris circumferabantur."

In lapse of ages, portions of this division also migrated gradually southwards, and gave the Danaw of their predecessors the name of Ystor or Ister, which signifies abundance, store, bulk, receptacle. Thus here, as invariably elsewhere, in accordance with circumstantial facts and laws of nature, adaptation to events ever seems to be the rule in Cimbric nomenclature.

This, as well as other tribes or nations elect, hastened onwards to the favored land—the paradise of bards—the wide world balmy coasts of Deffrobani 'gwlad yr haf,' the summer land.

Ar fynion fach yr afon fawr.

On the circumscribed banks of the mighty stream.


Ar lan y Mor y Beisfor cul.
On the sea coast of the narrow shallow strait or arm of sea.

In the ensuing congress, a question arose as to the final adoption of a name for the province or district, on which their lot was cast—several terms had been mooted. After the requisite deliberation, the Penbardd rose up, addressed the colonists and thrice proclaimed, Trech-u! trech-u! trech-u!—Vanquished! vanquished ! vanquished! But what is the meaning of this monotonous enigmatical triad? Let the chief bard explain himself. Victory over ourselves as men; victory over the land as travellers; victory over the passage by water, as sailors or sea-faring people, or trech (tre-ech) our future travelled home and resting place, echoed forth the Penderwydd. Trech am byth! was the response, Thracia floreat usque! in other words, Thrace for ever, and one cheer more for Deffrobani!

Having in the preceeding remarks accompanied the Cimmerian colonists, in gentle stages, from the northern shores of the Black Sea, to what is called by the bards, Gwlad yr haf, or Summer Land, I now must search the annals of my race to find whether any light of history can be any where seen as casting its unerring shadow on this favored spot of lost remembrance—logical deductions will not suit a certain class of minds. Some proof beyond the reach of petty cavil, or obtusenessof intellect must then be found. My witness is at hand—he refuses no cross examination from judge or jury. He is always to be seen at his private residence, Triad No. 4, where he will be most happy to entertain all candid enquirers after truth. He shall speak for himself, first in his own language, and then an interpreter shall be called to explain his meaning.

"Triphost Cenedl Ynys Prydain. Cyntaf, Hu Gadarn a ddaeth a Chenedl y Cymry gyntaf i Ynys Prydain; ae o wlad yr Haf, a elwir Deffrobani y ddaethant (sef y lie mae Constinoblys), a thrwy For Tawch y daethant hyd yn Ynys Prydain a Llydaw, lie ydd arhosasant.

"Ail, Prydain ab Aedd Mawr a wnaeth wladoliaeth a Theyrnedd gyntaf ar Ynys Prydain, a chynn no hynny nid oedd o iawn namyn o wnelyd o addfwynder, na deddf namyn trechai treisied.

"Trydydd, Dyfnawl Moelmud, ae efe a wnaeth Ddosparth gyntaf ar gyfreithiau a deddfau, a defodau, a Breiniau Gwlad a chenedl. Ac achaws y pethau hynny eu gelwid hwynt yn Dri phost Cenedl y Cymry." Tr. 4

The Three Pillars of the Nation of the Isle of Britain. First— Hu, the vast of size, first brought the nation of the Cymry to the Isle of Britain; and from the Summer hand called Deffrobani, they came, (namely, the place where Constantinople now is), and through Mor Tawch, the placid or Pacific Sea, they came up to the Isle of Britain and Armorka, where they remained.

Second—Prydain, son of Aedd the Great, first erected a government and a kingdom over Ynys Prydain, and previous to that time there was but little gentleness and ordinance, save a superiority of oppression.

Third—Dyfnwal Moelmud—and he was the first that made a discrimination of mutual rights and statute law, and customs, and privileges of land and nation, and on account of thesa things were they called the three pillars of the Cymry.

How many centuries, or centuries of ages, the Cimmerians remained at Deffrobani, or Byzantium it would be futile and presumptuous in me to conjecture, prior either to their colonization of Asia Minor, and the Isles of the Aigwn coast, or even to the departure of Hu Gadarn from the shores of the Aigswn (the Axinus, through the Beisfor [Bosphorus], the Propont, the Allwysjor, the emptying sea, from allwys, to discharge, to empty itself), corrupted from its Cimmerian sound into that of Exxijc, an unfortunate female drowned there, it is gravely said, on her voyage to Colchis, a thousand miles more or less, from the scene of her catastrophe; as well as through the Aigwm (iEgceum), the Cylchiad (Cyclades), the Myrtaw, from myr, a sea, and taw, calm, quite, silent, (or Myrtoun Mare); then, again, along the Mor-yn-tir (the Mare intent-urn, 'sea within the land'), through the Gadydonffrut =Gad-y-to)i-ffrwt=Gad-i-tan-um Fret-um, from gadaw, to leave, y, the, ton, the lake wave, the inland sea wave, in contradistinction to the Eigion, or deep ocean wave; having its root in liaig, hy-aig, that which produces and contains a multitude of animated things, and ffirwt, a spout or shoot of water, into the Eigion yr Atlas (Qceanus Atlanticus), and eventually into the vapory climes of Mor Tawch (Oceanus Britannicus vel Germanicus).

I shall now draw your attention to the disputed question, MorTawch. Dr. Owen Pughe gives the meaning of ' cloudy' to the term tawch, and makes it equivalent to the term niwlach. Carnuanhawc, on the contrary, derives it from Dacia, on the authority of the following passages from Polydonius Virgilius :—" Hcec itaque gens ferox quse Germanicum nunc oceanum accolit;"— also, "Haud enim Dacia longo oceani maris intervallo, ab Anglia discreta est." And again, on that of Ptolemseus, and others, who apply the terms Gutse and Dauciones to the primitive inhabitants of South Denmark :—" Meridionalia tenent Gutce ae Dauciones. From this, and other reasoning, he concludes that the southern part of the German Ocean was the Mor Tawch of the triad.

With extreme reluctance do I now stand up to ponder over the interpretations of Mor Tawch. It were presumption in me not to accept those of our two greatest Cimbric authorities on the more experienced field of philology; I will, however, with great deference to them, and others, my superiors, both here and in the mother country, state my humble reasons for this nonacquiescence.

The former does not attempt to derive the term at all, but, ex cathedra, decides, as he has in every respect the best possible right to do, from his unparalleled learning and druidical lore, that Tawch is equivalent to " y mor ni wliawg," and corresponding with "niwlach," covered with mist, or foggy—a meaning, I at once grant, that cannot be otherwise than a fair, a just exponent of its condition—of its actual condition at certain periods of the year; but the inquisitorial reader is apt to pant after some key or other whereby to arrive at a similar or a different conclusion from its analytical dissection. Other shadowings, of a different quality, are also assigned to this antique Cimmerian expression, as, savour, taste, odour, whether palatable or unpalatable—which sense, it is affirmed, is borne out by the Iernean (Irish) term tochd, a smelling, a scenting, but with, I think, very little of appropriateness to the bearings of the sea in question. The latter militates against the acknowledged forms of nomenclature usually adopted by our early, earlier, and earliest forefathers,—who, if perchance an exception were made, conferred the honour of such a name on one of themselves, and not from extraneous qualities in men and things lying beyond the sphere or grasp of their natural and logical bases of deduction.

Moreover the probability of that part of Europe being, at that most distant pre-Mosaic period, occupied at all, or if occupied, nominally, or otherwise, and known to the up-channel fleet on this their first colonising expedition from the sea-board of the Aigswn, to the lee shores of the large island which was then solely tenanted by bears, wolves, and other extinct beasts of prey, as we are informed by the Triads, is, to say the least, a plausible historical after-thought of time—a problem somewhat apocryphal, if not wholly untenable, on principles of sound Cimmerian philology.

The Llyngesydd Tywysogaidd, the princely admiral of the Cimmerian fleet, would possibly, I am prepared to suggest, when issuing out of what was afterwards termed the gaditanum fretum, feel, in no measured terms of surprise, if not of awe and alarm, the effects of that boisterous, sea-swelling, ' mountain currents,' of the Bay of Biscay, to such an extent, as would, perhaps, favourably contrast, even in point of modern credibility, with the more silent, the smoother, the less turbulent waters of the wind or land protecting bays of the island coast, by at once crying out, in accents of unconcealed satisfaction,—" Dyma For-taw-i-ehwi beth bynnag,"—(Here, at all events, there is a comparatively 'quiet sea for you;')—from mor, a sea, and taw, still, calm; and eich, or i chwi, your, or for you,—i.e., Mor-taw-eichMortawch. On this memorable occasion the Deffrobanian chieftain, in the idea of the immortal bard of Avon, suited the action to the word, the word to the action; with this special observance, that men "o'erstep not the modesty of nature."

It will now be my duty, after having seen this maritime expedition of our ancestors safely and prosperously landed on the shores of Ynys Prydain,—" that precious stone set in the silver sea,"—to retrace our steps across "the unbeginning, endless sea of time," to Deffrobani, and ascertain how their earlier and later brothers and cousins fared on the European and Asiatic shores of the Beisfor.

Cimmerrii-que suas, antiqui, a Marmore Nigro
Mutavere domus.

"Emblem of eternity,

"Unbeginning, endless, sea!

"Let me launch my soul on thee.

"Sail, nor keel, nor helm, nor oar,

"Need I, ask I, to explore

"Thine expanse from shore to shore."

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