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Triad No. 4, where he will be most happy to entertain all candid enquirers after truth. He shall speak for himself, first in his own language, and then an interpreter shall be called to explain his meaning.

“ Triphost Cenedl Ynys Prydain. Cyntaf, Hu Gadarn a ddaeth a Chenedl y Cymry gyntaf i Ynys Prydain; as o wlad yr Haf, a elwir Deffrobani y ddaethant (sef y lle mae Constinoblys), a thrwy For Tawch y daethant hyd yn Ynys Prydain a Llydaw, lle ydd arhosasant.

" Ail, Prydain ab Aedd Mawr a wnaeth wladoliaeth a Theyrnedd gyntaf ar Ynys Prydain, a chynn no hynny nid oedd o iawn namyn o wnelyd o addfwynder, na deddf namyn trechai treisied.

" Trydydd, Dyfnawl Moelmud, ae efe a wnaeth Ddosparth gyntaf ar gyfreithiau a deddfau, a defodau, a Breiniau Gwlad a chenedl. Ac achaws y pethau hynny eu gelwid hwynt yn Dri phost Cenedl y Cymry.” Tr. 4

The Three Pillars of the Nation of the Isle of Britain. FirstHu, the vast of size, first brought the nation of the Cymry to the Isle of Britain; and from the Summer Land called Deffrobani, they came, (namely, the place where Constantinople now is), and through Mor Tawch, the placid or Pacific Sea, they came up to the Isle of Britain and Armorica, where they remained.

Second-Prydain, son of Aedd the Great, first erected a government and a kingdom over Ynys Prydain, and previous to that time there was but little gentleness and ordinance, save a superiority of oppression.

Third-Dyfnwal Moelmud—and he was the first that made a discrimination of mutual rights and statute law, and customs, and privileges of land and nation, and on account of these things were they called the three pillars of the Cymry.

How many centuries, or centuries of ages, the Cimmerians remained at Deffrobani, or Byzantium it would be futile and presumptuous in me to conjecture, prior either to their colonization of Asia Minor, and the Isles of the Aigwn coast, or even to the departure of Hu Gadarn from the shores of the Aigswn (the Axinus, through the Beisfor (Bosphorus], the Propont, the Allwysfor, the emptying sea, from allwys, to discharge, to empty itself), corrupted from its Cimmerian sound into that of Elins, an unfortunate female drowned there, it is gravely said, on her voyage to Colchis, a thousand miles more or less, from the scene of her catastrophe; as well as through the Aigwm (Ægæum), the Cylchiad (Cyclades), the Myrtaw, from myr, a sea, and taw, calm, quite, silent, (or Myrtoun Mare); then, again, along the Mor-yn-tir (the Mare intern-um, 'sea within the land'), through the Gadydonffrut =Gad-y-ton-ffrwt=Gad-i-tan-um Fret-um, from gadaw, to leave, y, the, ton, the lake wave, the inland sea wave, in contradistinction to the Eigion, or deep ocean wave; having its root in haig, hy-aig, that which produces and contains a multitude of animated things, and ffrwt, a spout or shoot of water, into the Eigion yr Atlas (Oceanus Atlanticus), and eventually into the vapory climes of Mor Tawch (Oceanus Britannicus vel Germanicus).

I shall now draw your attention to the disputed question, MorTawch. Dr. Owen Pughe gives the meaning of cloudy' to the term tawch, and makes it equivalent to the term niwlach. Carnuanhawe, on the contrary, derives it from Dacia, on the authority of the following passages from Polydonius Virgilius :-“ Hæc itaque gens ferox quæ Germanicum nunc oceanum accolit;”— also, “Haud enim Dacia longo oceani maris intervallo, ab Anglia discreta est.” And again, on that of Ptolemæus, and others, who apply the terms Gute and Dauciones to the primitive inhabitants of South Denmark :-“ Meridionalia tenent Guto ae Dauciones. From this, and other reasoning, he concludes that the southern part of the German Ocean was the Mor Tawch of the triad.

With extreme reluctance do I now stand up to ponder over the interpretations of Mor Tawch. It were presumption in me not to accept those of our two greatest Cimbric authorities on the more experienced field of philology; I will, however, with great deference to them, and others, my superiors, both here and in the mother country, state my humble reasons for this nonacquiescence.

The former does not attempt to derive the term at all, but, ex cathedrâ, decides, as he has in every respect the best possible right to do, from his unparalleled learning and druidical lore, that Tawch is equivalent to y mor ni wliawg,and corresponding with niwlach,covered with mist, or foggy-a meaning, I at once grant, that cannot be otherwise than a fair, a just exponent of its condition-of its actual condition at certain periods of the year ; but the inquisitorial reader is apt to pant after some key or other whereby to arrive at a similar or a different conclusion from its analytical dissection. Other shadowings, of a different quality, are also assigned to this antique Cimmerian expression, as, savour, taste, odour, whether palatable or unpalatable—which sense, it is affirmed, is borne out by the Iernean (Irish) term tochd, a smelling, a scenting, but with, I think, very little of appropriateness to the bearings of the sea in question. The latter militates against the acknowledged forms of nomenclature usually adopted by our early, earlier, and earliest forefathers,—who, if perchance an exception were made, conferred the honour of such a name on one of themselves, and not from extraneous qualities in men and things lying beyond the sphere or grasp of their natural and logical bases of deduction.

Moreover the probability of that part of Europe being, at that most distant pre-Mosaic period, occupied at all, or if occupied, nominally, or otherwise, and known to the up-channel fleet on this their first colonising expedition from the sea-board of the Aigswn, to the lee shores of the large island which was then solely tenanted by bears, wolves, and other extinct beasts of prey, as we are informed by the Triads, is, to say the least, a plausible historical after-thought of time—a problem somewhat apocryphal, if not wholly untenable, on principles of sound Cimmerian philology.

The Llyngesydd Tywysogaidd, the princely admiral of the Cimmerian fleet, would possibly, I am prepared to suggest, when issuing out of what was afterwards termed the gaditanum fretum, feel, in no measured terms of surprise, if not of awe and alarm, the effects of that boisterous, sea-swelling, ‘mountain currents,' of the Bay of Biscay, to such an extent, as would, perhaps, favourably contrast, even in point of modern credibility, with the more silent, the smoother, the less turbulent waters of the wind or land protecting bays of the island coast, by at once crying out, in accents of unconcealed satisfaction,_" Dyma For-taw-i-ehwi beth bynnag,”—(Here, at all events, there is a comparatively

quiet sea for you ; ')—from mor, a sea, and taw, still, calm; and eich, or i chwi, your, or for you,-i.e., Mor-taw-eich-Mortawch. On this memorable occasion the Deffrobanian chieftain, in the idea of the immortal bard of Avon, suited the action to the word, the word to the action; with this special observance, that men " o'erstep not the modesty of nature.”

It will now be my duty, after having seen this maritime expedition of our ancestors safely and prosperously landed on the shores of Ynys Prydain," that precious stone set in the silver sea,"—to retrace our steps across “the unbeginning, endless sea of time,” to Deffrobani, and ascertain how their earlier and later brothers and cousins fared on the European and Asiatic shores of the Beisfor.

Cimmerrii-que suas, antiqui, a Marmore Nigro
Mutavere domus.

“ Emblem of eternity,
“ Unbeginning, endless, sea !
“Let me launch my soul on thee.
“ Sail, nor keel, nor helm, nor oar,
“ Need I, ask I, to explore
“ Thine expanse from shore to shore.”


“ Muse of all the gifts and graces,

• Though the fields around us wither “ There are ampler realms and spaces “ Where no foot has left its traces

Let us turn and wander thither.

This enchanting muse-nursed region of Deffrobani, ‘pa wlad oedd eiddaw 'n Tadau,' as distinguished for its genial atmosphere, as being the chosen pre-Homeric residence of that primitive race, which of old gave laws to Asia Minor, prior, probably, to the departure of Prince Hu Gadarn for Ynys Prydain ; this bardic border land of Europe, and of Asia, where all that is ‘stupendous' in art, glorious in science, and all that is divine in metaphysic lore, and god-like faith, once flourished; though stripped, by the all-wise dispensations of Providence, of its former pre-historic glories, on its native Cimbric site, still claim within these walls, and hence to ends of earth, the homage due to druid philosophic creeds, as bardically indoctrinated in the following passages :

“ Neud yr Ion, Awdwr Anian;

“ Neud Prima Causa, Auctor Naturæ." Otherwise interpreted, and literally translated :

“ Ond i'n Ion, Duw a'i enw' n Jah,

“ Duw ni wedid, Ion, Noah."
“ But to our First Cause, God and his name in Jah,

“ God not formed, the First Cause of Noah." The truth and essence of these expressions of divine formula can thus be traced, throughout the patriarchal world by doctors of the law on the ground, I grant, of captious, erring plausibilities, through the graduating change of mind, as well as the elision or forgetfulness of facts, on man and things, up to the sacred source of Noachidic elernents, wherein, from will and thought divine, were laws (at first but simple and undeveloped germs, or forms of civil codes, and worship unalloyed by earth) deduced, imposed, revealed to ages of the past, by this our school-as all who wish to see the subject-matter, more discussed, collated, scanned, and taught in ancient Hindu, Chinese, or Ægyptian schools of arts and law, may feel convinced within the regions of their inmost soul-while Noachidic views prevailed, till all, alas ! in times of dark import to man, became, by novel creeds of earthy matter, mere atomical wrecks of former purer thoughts; till all, alas ! of what embraced the sacred mass of heaven-born principles turned out, in major portions of the globe, the god-less, life-less, baseless fabric of a dream.'

“Tempora mutantur et nos mutantur ab illis.” Before Babylon, Nineveh, or Ecbatana had absorbed all the vital sap and growth, or early manhood-power of the east-the Asia-Minor of our hominum recentum,' of our Deffrobanian Cimmerians, was thickly populated from Mynydd Idd to Mynydd Tor; and, for the most part, to go no farther on the grounds of faith, was—if the slightest imaginable modicum of proof can, for an instant, as it were, from a single flash of light across our chaotic path, be maintained and struck out of the flinty rock from the antiquarian and learned armoury of French and other European historians, or, as better materially expressed and exemplified in the remnant but sad realities of what was once seen and known, left, or taken away as the 'aurea opima spolia belli,' or golden spoils of war, by plundering troops of Asia Major-occupied by civilised nations : and nations, too, of Cimbric blood within their veins.

Again, I repeat, if I can but find one such proof of Druid preexistent faith peering forth from the misty gloom or dim twilight of fragmentary evidence, I'll make the world a present of the rest—as dubious problems to their brains, to solve, rebut, disprove as best they can.

In the course of events and epochs lost probably to man for ever, unless, indeed, nature, in some of her operations in, or on, the stones' and 'plants.' of earth will come unexpectedly to our aid

“With tongues in trees-books in the running streams ;

“Sermons in stones—and good in everything,” with names that tell of silent deeds beneath the womb of time, an invading Cimmerian corps, aided by their now amalganiated allies and kinsmen, left the porth, or harbour, of Deffrobani in their · bene notis cumbis,' across the narrow Beisfor, which in some places is only a few hundred yards in breadth; and landed, vociferating their national songs of joy and warlike enterprise, on the opposite coast of Bithynia and Mysia, which had been either treacherously wrested from their forefathers by the snares of wily men, or, on the contrary, won from them in open fight and manly self-defence, by some enormous trans-Euphratesian corps d'armée, Truppencorps, or Byddin ; hence, I argue that the province of

- say Bythvnia, may possiby have been the scene of some signal catastrophe, or blood-stained conflict between the parties

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