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been geographically and strictly acted upon by some old corresponding member of the druidical institute of the past, he would have found himself wandering on the surface of the globe to the end of his days, and not a whit the wiser for his pains, and must have acted on the 'qui vive' principle of a Sisyphus, ‘up hill and down dale,' or a Minos in his labyrinth at (nosus, chewing the cud of despair, of anguish, and of death. Moreover, on this showing, the Ister would, as the learned Archdeacon of Cardigan facetiously and graphically remarked, “enter the Euxine at a meridian line, passing from south to north, from the mouth of the Nile through mountainous Cilicia to Sinope.” Stop, and pause!!
You see, then, what difficulties I have to encounter “in limine mei itineris," which I trust will be taken into account and not lost sight of, during my groping peregrinations after primitive cities, forts, and temples, enveloped almost in Ninevehan obscurity, in the wilderness of a world sodden in mystic darkness. And yet, notwithstanding all this labyrinthine evidence of early illuminated Greece, as heralded forth by the father of history himself, there are men in modern times found, with similar pretensions to accuracy as the preceding, to hurl forth the puny thunder of their anathema against the correctness—nay, gentlemen, in the pretentious simplicity of their pardonable ignorance, declaim against the very antiquity of our prehistorical records, known and appreciated to their full value and import, through the really learned societies of Europe and the world, under the immortal names of triads. In this dilemma the investigator of hidden or lost Cimmerian truths must not be disheartened or become altogether incredulous, “ though he were apparently to see historical personages appear in the land of fiction, or historical facts appropriated to fabulous heroes, though perhaps often occasioning the greatest anachronisms and most heterogenous combinations," which a modicum of analysis and care might obviate and explain. In such a contingency the triads are our safest guides ; though other evidence is not, thereby, to be discarded. The land-marks of the later bards were, undoubtedly, the threefold evidences of the triads, which were scholastically explained, from age to age, in their Institutional Congresses, but not until they had been finally endorsed by the travelled researches of an Abaris or some other cosmopolitan druid, or had been by them again submitted to the ordeal of ulterial examination, by means of either local or general testimonies advanced in favor of megalithic structures of one or other nation as recorded in · Annalibus Groecorum vel Romanorum,' or other seemingly well-supported traditions. On the authority also of a travelling druid, a short clause might be inserted in a full congress of bards only to dictate, and no more, the exact position of a given bardic term by another, if possible, of solid modern date, beginning with
the word sef, or namely, to the end of the clause or period. This wholesome regulation held good till the Druidical Institute, as an order, became defunct, about a thousand years ago, more or less. In all this, the triads became in their revolving and resolving course, the principal basis or nourishment of tradition, the organic life, so to speak, of its superstructure, and, as an everliving poetical principle of philosophic existence, they influenced and developed, to a degree not yet sufficiently appreciated, the germs of prehistoric, ancient, and modern literature of the world, as I shall have occasion hereafter to advance and prove, when collating the mysterious doctrines of the druids, with the Asiatic emanations of Virgil and his Grecian predecessors in the unbounded field of ancient prehistoric lore.
Again, difficulties would arise in the clashing elements of discordant dissimilar appellations given by different nations to one given locality. Also a name of a place well known to one would be ignored (as the Atlantic Ocean in its présent, or indeed in any site was, to Herodotus) by another, so as to lose all claims to identification.
Let us, then, wait patiently for any result, however meagre from one or more of these conflicting and puzzling realities of an old immemorial world.
On this threshold of my arguments, I make you a present of two propositions—the one known, the other unknown at present. The first the eye—the second the ear. The former resolves itself into written records such as you have mentally seen—the latter comports with oral records, but found alive and auricular, as it were, in names of men and things. In other words, Is history versus philology ?-Is philology versus history? or rather, does history plus philology, as its handmaiden, offer safer guarantees to my dilemma. You are of age, I know, and must decide for yourselves. Now to the expedition.
The Cimmerians, then, upon their exit from Keppepla (Cimmeria) are described according to the combined inferences of written docunients and oral traditions, as advancing westwards across the River Tyras, where they stopped for a while to do homage to the beddrod yn y garnedd' to the sepulchral, honored, final homes of their ancestral kings. Their remains, were, it seems, at first reduced to ashes on the funereal pile, commingled with pieces of flesh of different animals—the first born of each it is said generally of oxen ; but those of asses were, if at hand, preferred. Garlands of olive branches, intermixed with asphodel and ears of corn, were also thrown thereon by one or two white-robed virgins, according to the dignity and station of the defunct; and a triple libation of wine mixed with water was then spilt on the fire-extinct embers by the officiating priest, out of an Eurgyrn, a golden patera or goblet, from the root aur, gold, and corn, a horn, amid the most fervent tokens of despair and lamentation. Then the gold and silver ornaments or other cherished vestments or articles of the deceased were inclosed around the cawg neu ysten bridd, the clay burnt urn, within a cistfaen or llechau pedronglog, i, e., fourslabbed stone sepulchre, which then was closely covered over by a huge flat cloriad, a coverlid, or over-top.
“ Piau y bedd pedryfal,
“ Bedd Madawc Marchawg dywal !
“ It is the tomb of the brave Madawc, the Prince !” Again, as correlative modern proof, one of the Mabinogion, in describing the history of Bronwen (the daughter of Llyr), who was aunt to Garadawg ab bran ab Llyr, viz., Caractacus, the intrepid defender of his country's rights, mentions several interesting particulars of her life in Iwerddon and other localities, and goes on to remark that she eventually died, yn ynys Môn (Anglesea), and that “ Bedd petryal a wnaed i Fronwen ferch Llyr ar lan Alaw, ae yno y claddwyd hi (A four-angled tomb was made to Bronwen, the daughter of Llyr on the bank of the Alaw—and there was she buried).” Her ashes were accidentally found in the year 1813 by a farmer of the district, in a cawg or urn, of a form and construction similar to others generally discovered in old tomb stones.* This precious sepulchral relic is now deposited in the British Museum. These last few ideas of sombre tint have cost me days and nights of anxious toil to get and learn. I now regret it not, though poor the labour be.
When the debt of friendship and of love was paid to this sequestered holy spot—in honor of their royal sires, they went apart to see the nation's graves—the graves of those they loathed to quit
"'A beddau tadau'n y tir
• Yn dawel ni adewir.'
“ Nec tumulos patrum sub silentio relinquere." Upon this,
“ Och alar! ni ddychwelant mwy i'u gwlad.”— they veered their course southwards, in agmine denso, across the arid, distant-view-kept flat of Dacia (from the root dac-w, yonder), some on the right, others to the left, until at last the leading van cried out along to those, that from fatigue, or thirst, or mental woe, trained their tardive steps along, Tan-aw, tan-aw, tanaw ; signifying spreading water, continous water, abundant water. * This royal princess must have been buried prior to the Roman invasion. Thus, Tan-aw-Dan-aw-Dan-ubius. But what does the historical bard say to all this?
“ O gwelaf etto'r gwiwlu
" I'w ganol, a mawr gynhwrf.”
At the spot where the murmuring turmoil of the Danube
“Is heard entering into its midst, with incredible commotion.” But, it may be asked, what became of the rear guard ? This fractional division wended its way along and across the banks of the Ararus ‘Hyd ddysgyniad rhediad yr Haul,' i.e., westwards, till they finally located themselves at the foot of Mount Cigaonus, to which, when en voyage to Macedonia, I shall have occasion to refer, and erected a druid circle, "ar ben y brin-un gaerawg wen ei goror (On a lofty hill—a rocky spot, white its borders)." These druidical circles, be it observed, were not designed exclusively or necessarily for structures for religious worship, but for the varied purposes of social life, as courts of law to adjudicate privilege of station, possession of new lands, and mutual compact between families, (cyfraith, implying law in its proper sense). Thus, it is expressly stated in the triad, that, “ three things are necessary to confirm the social state: effectual security of property; just punishment where it is due; and mercy tempering justice where the occasion requires it in equity,” these circles were also reserved for the display of skill and force in the combat of arms, or mental prowess between rival bards or pennillion singers, as well as a post of defence to protect the inner shrine against all and every intrusion, unauthorised by the body corporate in congress assembled.
A few, also, were left behind to occupy the Caeau cawn (the fields of reed-grass), as Caucones. Whereas, another party chose the lower plains of northern Dacia i godi tai magawl (i.e., to erect portable wooden houses to live in, while sojourning in the land), from godi, or codi, to erect, from the root coed, wood, and ty, a house (the sound of the y corresponds exactly with the diphthong æ), and magawl from its root mag, the act of nursing, breeding, and awl or al, appertaining to, in connection with,-hence magalia.
; “Miratur Molem Æneas, magalia quondam.” Whence my eye and ear, aided by the bard, detect three important truisms.
1.—The identification of the race, as Goed-ty Geta, an equivalent synonyme with Cedti, or Cetti, of the triad, as codi maen Cetti!”
2.-The condition of social life, as early squatters and lords primeval of the Dacian soil.
3.-The unacknowledged plagiarism of Magalia, an expression, be it known, which has no definite meaning whatever, or root of its own, except by an ideal conjecture of the context.
Hence were annotators, “at their wit's end,' obliged to beat the bush of Numidia,' and permeate the meagre, Punic claims of some Magar villa of the south, for aid to solve the stranger word, by forcing it to mean the “ Tuguria Numidium portatilia, que plaustris circumferabantur.”
In lapse of ages, portions of this division also migrated gradually southwards, and gave the Danaw of their predecessors the name of Ystor or Ister, which signifies abundance, store, bulk, receptacle. Thus here, as invariably elsewhere, in accordance with circumstantial facts and laws of nature, adaptation to events ever seems to be the rule in Cimbric nomenclature.
This, as well as other tribes or nations elect, hastened onwards to the favored land—the paradise of bards—the wide world balmy coasts of Deffrobani 'gwlad yr haf,' the summer land.
Ar fynion fach yr afon fawr.
Ar lan y Mor y Beisfor cul. On the sea coast of the narrow shallow strait or arm of sea. In the ensuing congress, a question arose as to the final adoption of a name for the province or district, on which their lot was cast—several terms had been mooted. After the requisite deliberation, the Penbardd rose up, addressed the colonists and thrice proclaimed, Trech-u ! trech-u! trech-u!—Vanquished! vanquished ! vanquished! But what is the meaning of this monotonous enigmatical triad? Let the chief bard explain himself. Victory over ourselves as men; victory over the land as travellers ; victory over the passage by water, as sailors or sea-faring people, or trech (tre-ech) our future travelled home and resting place, echoed forth the Penderwydd. Trech am byth! was the response, Thracia floreat usque! in other words, Thrace for ever, and one cheer more for Deffrobani !
Having in the preceeding remarks accompanied the Cimmerian colonists, in gentle stages, from the northern shores of the Black Sea, to what is called by the bards, Gwlad yr haf, or Summer Land, I now must search the annals of my race to find whether any light of history can be any where seen as casting its unerring shadow on this favored spot of lost remembrance-logical deductions will not suit a certain class of minds. Some proof beyond the reach of petty cavil, or obtuseness of intellect must then be found. My witness is at hand-he refuses no cross examination from judge or jury. He is always to be seen at his private residence,