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other, because the alcan, in its rude, native, unsmelted, unblocked state, required, so to speak, all the ow (the ou or V), the blowing, the breathing, energy of Vulcan or Valcan to become the heroogonic
opifex stanni' of our enraptured universities. The Saxons also caught the sound, but not the sense involved, as the mere union of three Roman letters, or italics, were never destined, in their vocabulary, to convey anything but a tinkling, unmeaning expression of voice, just as kao-oltep-os was, to our old friend the scholiast on Homer, a perfect enigma as to any inwardly interpreting principles of identification.
Its modern technical term may be considered as, “Bell-metalore, or tin pyrites. It is metallic, of a yellow grey color, inclin. ing to red, and consists of sulphur, copper, and iron, in various proportions.” This mineral, then, must have undergone the process of smelting prior to its exportation to Tartessus or elsewhere. The Britanni, consequently, must have been either an industrial people on their own account, or, another portion of the community must have worked under the superintendence of foreign merchants from Phænicia or Bætica. In either case, knowledge, besides some compensation or certain international benefits, would be communicated to the indigenæ of the Insulæ Britannicæ, which is all, at present, I contend for.
In process of time this article of commerce must have become known and appreciated by the Hellenes, through the interchange of Cimmerian or Cimbro-Armorican, Phænician, Phocean, Ionian, or Massilian commerce-through, for instance, a Pythias of Massilia, whom, exempli gratia, Strabo blames “ ori Ilvdeas o Magoaleωτης δοκων ειναι φιλοσοφος, ψευδεστατος ηλεζχθη εν οις τα περι θουλεν ka. Bperavias yewypapel,” or “Quod Pytheos Massiliensis, cum visus fit philosophus esse, in descriptione Thules ac Britannie, mendacissimus deprehenditur.” Hence, Irene is=Thule.
The Pelasgic or Hellenic Greeks, therefore, from descriptions somehow acquired, would not fail to detect its useful and brilliantly-tinged yellow qualities in connection with its amalgam with bronze and other ores in the composition of their household wares, their bronze vessels and statues, as well as in the smelting and decorating processes of their armour, spears, shields, chariots, and warlike implements, as proved by Homer in two or three passages well known to the scholar. Thus we find Britannic and Armoric industry, in one form or other, supplying, directly or indirectly, `cubic blocks of tin' or the raw material to the preparatory studio of a Phidias or a Paraxiteles, or other sculptors of antiquity, in the days of Samuel the prophet.
Again, even prior to this development, the discovery of its application to so many purposes of life by the Cimmerians and Phænicians was conveyed to the Jews through a Hiram and his predecessors on the throne, and to other admiring amateurs of the metal, so that, eventually, the compound metal came to be employed in the decoration of Solomon's temple, as well as in Egyptian and Assyrian objects, as irrefragably proved by antiquarian researches.
But, assuming, par complaisance to curtailers of history, and, taking an extreme case view of it, that the Cimmerians were ignorant of its use or adaptability to objects, I won't say en matière de luxe, but of objects in general, this knowledge would, nevertheless, one feels disposed to believe, in accordance with the imitative and plagiaristic qualities or propensities of man, be sooner or later, in longo cursu annorum, communicated to the aboriginal witnesses or extractors, if they had not already, which in the very nature of things is more than probable, tested the experiment on their own chariots and implements of war, as on minor and portable articles for domestic and useful purposes, and conveyed the glad tidings to an enraptured world in their oceandaring 'navigia.' Otherwise, it must have been an instinct or an accident on the part of the Phænicians that strangely brought them, in the first instance, a distance of nearly four thousand miles in opposition to or defiance of winds and tides of an unknown, a turbulent ocean, to the coasts of Ynys Prydain. Let the logical clear-headedness of a Whewel decide this doctrine of casuistry or of chances on principles of science, and the historic world must ratify his decision despite its infantine predilections.
Herodotus, the first Greek historian, who, while discussing the etymological question of certain Hellenic terms in use among the Hyperboreans, in reference to rivers and mountains of the farWest, fortifies the usually-received opinion and traditions of all nations in this respect-“ that both the nextpov, amber, and kaoOLTEVOS, tin, came to us [i. e., Greece and Asia Minor] from the extremity of Europe," and insinuates that the former was procured somewhere about the source or at the embouchure of the River Eridanus, and the latter from the Cassitenides. Herodotus, like modern historians, seemed to have been, as regards the poverty of their classical isolation, dumb-founded with reference to an Hyperborean or Cimmerian nomenclature.
No one, I believe, will be hardy enough, except a few cockatoo interlineators of historical addenda, to claim either Prydain, Cassitenides, or Tarshish, as the producing or extracting bed or surface—the native home, in fact, of Herodotusian niektpov. Either of them might have had it, in bond, so to speak, for storing purposes or transmission, on the exigency of foreign or nationai interchange of commerce. Does not the article cassitenos also, on dissimilar principles of ultra-oceanic extraction 'mid plurality of isles, demolish the continental idea of its exclusively Tartessian origin? Let this question be re-weighed in the balance of truth, if at all sceptical as to the weight and measures of antiquity.
In addition to the historical evidence already given, Archdeacon Williams states, on the authority of scientific and antiquarian lore, that “the bronze of the Egyptians, the Assyrians, the Greeks, the Romans, the ancient Germans, and the Danes, was an alloy of tin and copper, and specimens of this compound metal have been found of extreme antiquity.” Also that “ bronze weapons, extracted from the tumuli on the shores of Troy, (How extraordinary! How undeniably do facts of a varied character resolve themselves on their own basis! How druidically correct is the expression of Taliesin, when personating the arrival of a noble chieftain, as already cited—“I came here,” i.e., to Ynys Prydain, “ to the remnants of the old inhabitants of Troy."] and bronze nails, found in the rubbish of the floor of the building at Mycenæ, called the Treasury of Atreus,' have, when analysed, given the same result-the amalgamation of the two metals. Moses mentions bydil or tin as being found among the spoils of the Midianites ; and Ezekiel describes it as one of the metals of which · Tarshish was the merchant of Tyre.'”.
" Whence, then, came the vast stores of tin which must have been consumed in forming the countless instruments and weapons of which it was a constituent element? Ezekiel says that they came from Tarshish or Tartessus,” the grand antique emporium of the West, as London now is of foreign tea, coffee, tobacco, snuff, &c.
Again, Diodorus Siculus, on the faith of Hecatæus, depicts the Ancient Britons of primeval date, not as Cæsar has been allowed to do by Scaligerian infamy, and reduplicated by gross negligence, but as deduced from the whole tenor of remarks made on this subject, as skilful miners, smelters, and refiners, and as conveying their tin, fashioned into cubical blocks, to a certain island, whither foreign merchants resorted, who carried it across to Gaul and conveyed it by land carriage to the mouth of the Rhone; and when adverting to their demeanor as members of the mercantile community, and their advanced state in civilization, Hecatæus is made to repeat his former opinions, acquired about 600 years B. C., “ that in their dealings they are sincere, and far removed from the craftiness and rascality of the present age; that the island is very prosperous"; and, as a reason for this uniform prosperity, he goes on to state, in another place, “ that the island, in ancient times, was never troubled by a foreign military power, for we have not heard that Hercules or Dionysius, nor any other hero or prince, made war against it—" That the Island is exceedingly populous "-" That they have kings and princes in accordance with the kings of the isles' of the Hebrew version; and that they are, for the most part, peacefully disposed towards each other "-[Not unlike the German princes of modern Europe, I presume, in reference to their neighbors.]—"That those who inhabit the western promontory of the island are hospitable, even in an exceeding degree, and, by reason of their commercial intercourse with foreign traders, completely civilised in their manners” -(Lib v., cap. 60.)—Ye hosts of indiscriminate detractors, could ye not have given a favete linquis' to your diatribes with respect to proofs of this description, and respected the RIGHTS of history! Oh, no! Nothing of the sort could have been admitted! You wanted to show by implication that you, as known buccaneers and traitorous barbarians, may be deemed to have civilised your predecessors on the soil, already civilised, in longo cursu annorum, and to have wiped away the stain of treason, blood, and anarchy! Culprits may, 'tis true, in time, and on historical data, become, by humane associations, honest, honorable men. But of this hereafter. Hear what Sidonius Apollinaris says of the Saxon of A. D. 4554
“Quin et Aremoricus piratam Saxona tractus
“Ludus et assuto glaucum mare findere Lembo.” Moreover, in reference to a voyage undertaken by the Carthaginian or Punic Himalco, three or four centuries before the warlike enterprise of the Cæsars and their legions into the Insulæ Britannicæ—the Estrymnides of the Phænicians, the Cassitenides of the Hellenes, or the Syline of the Romans, the Scilly Isles of the Saxons, of which each and all are identically proven, by the researches of the learned, to be identical with each other, notwithstanding the imbecile croakings of geographical misgivings.
We have, also, an unknown ocean of facts as carefully drawn and reported by Festus Avienus, • from the inmost annals of the Punic people.' Let the world analyse and compare the principium, the medium, the finem, of the description given, as to oceanic position, to richness of ores, as well as to ' shipping intelligence.' Do the ‘navigia' of the one tally with those of others? Do not these hide vessels indicate a distinct people ?
Lest any caviller of the Macaulay stamp should, in the callous indifference of his soul, still persist to mislead the unsuspecting, credulous faith of another generation, let the problematical position of the “ Tartesiis in terminos Estrymnidum” be re-studied and identified by their own inherent qualities.
As Herodotus-I quote his own words—" did not know that the Cassitenides, from which Cassitenos regularly came, were islands," he cannot fix the identity, as “ from careful inquiries made by him, he could not hear from an eye-witness that that • further side of Europe' was at all a sea." Strabo, too, is not much better. Therefore, we must have recourse to some other testimony, however imperfect, though but partially acquainted with Hyperborean latitudes as to this ceaseless supply of ores.
Avienus will supply, to a certain extent, the desideratum,though he, his predecessors and successors, for generations of ages past and yet to come, were lamentably confused in reference to the geography of the Ancient world, and not much less so“ with respect to the relative positions of the Insulæ in Oceano—the Celtica et Iberica regna Europa, which, as then defined, would now create a smile of bewilderment in a Shrewsbury-boy. I refer the scholar to the text with all the confidence of future adhesion.
“In it (the Atlantic gulf) lies Gaddir, called Tartessus in former days. Here are the pillars of the persevering Hercules, Abila, and Calpe * * * * * * * * Here, also, is raised the summit of the promontory. Ancient times named it Estrymnis, and the lofty ridge slopes principally to the south. Below this promontory the Estrymnic gulf or ocean gapes widely for the inhabitants; and in this gulf the islands (Estrymnides lie scattered. These are rich in mines of tin and lead : here dwells a numerous and powerful nation-multa bis gentis-of haughty spirit and energetic skill ; all are continually engaged in merchandising, (very much as the Cimbro-Saxon of modern times,] and in their well-known boats (peculiar to the Cimmerian race of that day] plough both their own turbulent straits and the whale-producing ocean. These know not how to fashion keels from the pine, nor do they build barks from fir-trees, according to common practice; but, in a wonderful manner, they always fit out their vessels with skins joined together; and often in hide vessels sail over the deep. From these islands a ship will in two days reach the island called sacred by the Ancients i.e., Ierne or Thule, sacred to Apollo, that is, to Beal, and “ situated over against the Kelta ” of Diodorus Siculus). This shows among the waves a spacious land, and it is widely cultivated by the nation of the Hiberni. Again, the island of the Albiones expands itself in the vicinity.”
“ The Carthaginians, as Archdeacon Williams observes, made no settlement in Great Britain, or on the coast of Gaul; they merely occupied the place formerly filled by the Tartessians.” This is distinctly asserted by Avienus, who says
“ The Tartessians were accustomed to carry their merchandise to the borders of Estrymnides, also the colonies of Carthage, and the communities dwelling within the pillars of Hercules, used to frequent these seas."
And, finally, in regard to the Cassitenides, Strabo, relying on the version of some Maunderian solitary voyager, one Publius Crassus, who was the first of the Romans to report upon them, and who, in defiance of the character given of the Britanni, as “ sincere in their commercial dealings, uninterrupted in their prosperity as a populous nation, and given to hospitality in an exceeding degree, and completely civilised in their manners,” and who, forgetful or wilfully blind of what had been said by Avienus in their favor as "a numerous and powerful nation-men of haughty spirit and