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are understood, than on the ail or eyje solely, as an ocular or auricular case in point, in logically detecting and unravelling historic derivations from one foreign language into the other. But both taken together, and thoroughly analyzed, afford a clue to to what was before an umbra nominis '-an untouched, an insolvable element of life.
The Greeks and Romans derive the Asiatic term Corycos from Kpokos, a crocus, of which the soil is, as it is said, prolific; but the flower may have received its name from the mountain, which produced it in such abundance—but this is of no great moment. “I am of opinion,” says a learned writer, “ that the names of mount, rock, and promontory, respectively called Kpayos, KOPUKOS, KopvKEOLOV-cragos, corycos, and corycesion, by the Greeks as well as natives, are of Scythian-Cimmerian origin," preserved and borrowed rather, I should say, by the former, and invented by the latter, as older inhabitants of the region under discussion have, historically and strictly speaking, a prior claim over any successors whatever. Take other quarters of the globe as your guide in original nomenclatures,
For we have seen it decidedly inferred that certain branches of the grand Cimmerian family had, once, settled together in Cilicia; and there can be no doubt but that the Celtic, in prehistoric Asiatic annals, bore here and there a striking similarity to the Cimmerian language, as will be explained hereafter more fully.
A cursory glance, however, at some of these interpretations may not perhaps be deemed amiss, while we travel together amid the Cimbro-Celtic rocks and creeks, mountains and rivers, of Asia Minor.
Now craig, crag, creag, in Cimbric and Celtic languages, signify a rock, a hard crust or coating, a precipice, from the Cimbric crai, heat or strength (igneous formation); Corrach, in Gaelic, is 'steep’; Goruwch, in Cimbric (i.e., Welsh), is very high,'-in contradistinction to îs, low, flat, level ; Kroagen signifies a rock, in Irish. Creach, in Bas Breton, signifies a hill, and Karrêg a rock.
Here, then, we have a rocky, high, lofty glimpse of the druidical Coryc-ian (Coruwch) cavern looming in the distance,' with the high town of Coryc-us standing on the eminence, and overlooking the low, sandy, level town Iss-us at its base, fringed by an unmapped streamlet.
The Cimmerians, on quitting Asia Minor, carried the remembrance (not to quote a plurality of examples), of their lower city with them to Lucania, Picenum, and Ynys Prydain, as Is, now Issa; Esis, and Is-is, now the Oise.
With regard to the name of the province in which these Cimmerian reliquiæ were found I must crave your attention. Cilicia is derived from the root cil, a back, a recess, a retreat: hence cilio, to retreat, and ac-w, yonder, in that place. And was the limited ultima regio of the prehistoric Cilicians in southern Asia Minor, having the Mediterranean as its recess, or retreat, on the south, and the lofty mountain range of Amanus at its back, or retreat on the east? beyond which frontier limits it would be futile to look for them after their departure from central Asia.
Again, along the northern frontier of this province stands out in bold relief, the lofty, abrupt, rugged summits of Mount Taurus. This term cannot well be derived from the Cimbric tarw, bull; much less from its borrowed equivalent Tavpos; but from the Cimmerian or Armenian twr or tor, an abrupt break, or rupture in the range of mountain peak, as discovered in the old glossaries. The early Asiatic races claim a sort of immemorial prescriptive right of paternity over this and the anti-Tor-Armenian range from a long pre-Grecian residence at the base and slopes of each for ages. The term was no doubt Græcised, according to a wise princible of rule and practice, from its sound, into Tavp-oc; and servilely animalised into Taur-us, which in addition to a scholastic, capricious change of a into ev in A&iv-os, probably gave rise to that wonderful superstructure of ferocity, wrecksavageness, ox-headedness, horn-goreing, Centaur-like character of the poor unfortunate mountaineers of the Crimea, who were, accordingly, sapiently termed Taupoi, Tavpikol, Tauri, Tauridi; and condemned, malgre eux, as Nebuchadnezzar was of old, to crawl on all-fours, sub Jove frigido, by grave and potent philologists, and out-witted historians, who allowed themselves to be butted like timid groups of maidens fair, in open field and light of day,
Sub sonitu Tauri vel falsâ nominis umbrâ. Let us, now, retrace our steps, and, Greek-like, re-cross the bullroaming mountain ranges that separate us from the Rivers Halys and Melas, to whose flowery banks, along the plains, I invite you all to follow me.
On this latter river the primitive inhabitants suffered a sad defeat under the Medes and Persians under Darius. It has its source in the centre of Cappadocia, not far from Mount Argee, or Argeus ; from whose lofty summit both the Black and Mediterranean seas are said to be visible; it discharges itself into the Euphrates in one of the defiles of Mount Tor. Mount Argee, however, seems to glory in its aerial isolation in the midst of extensive plains, as the receiver-general of the rain of heaven in its capacious internal basins ; and consequently is the fertiliser-general of the surrounding plains for hundreds of miles east and west. Hence its happy and most natural appellation of Argae, or cronfa dwfr, from ar-cae, receptacle, or reservoir, of water, enclosed within the mountain, out of which the waters are known to ooze forth in every direction in perennial springs and fountains, full a hundred miles from its base. Our primitive inhabitants, true as the bards to nature and her laws, gave the name of Melas to the stream that pleased their tastes, from mel, honey, and wys, water, in contradistinction to the unsavory flavor of its neighbor stream, Halys or Helys, derived from halen, salt, or alkaline, and its root hal, a salt marsh, which was of an admittedly briny, sour-tasting flavor, from the historically-acknowledged impregnation of certain mineral red-like particles of matter deposited along its course to the Aigwn, or the Euxine.
The Turks, as if in conscious corroboration of its Cimmerian derivation, have even given it the name of Kisil-Ermak, or Red River.
In addition to this testimony, I find the old Cimmerian name of Carasu, (or Croess-aw), the welcome, sweet-tasted Melas,-as in fond remembrance of that endearing torrent in their own lost fatherland, in their beloved Crimea ; a practice in usage, whenever available by early colonists in every part of the globe, be it remembered, whether among Greeks and Romans in distant colonies, or among Portuguese and Spaniards in America—a practice, too, handed down to British colonists throughout the length and breadth of our own Australia and New Zealand.
I will not trouble you with but one or two more derivations of names given by the primitive inhabitants of the upper provinces.
There is an extensive mountain range, separating Cappadocia from Pontus called Parydres. The term has its roots in pâr, a germ, and edre, recreation. I leave it to others to decide whether the slopes, or recesses of the hills, formed a summer recreative retreat from the heat of the plains, or whether the signification should be attributed to certain fertilising germs or qualities, in the soil, in the rapid growth and development of certain natural productions peculiar to the locality.
The Province of Pontus must now attract our attention for a little while. You may remember that it was the first ground in Asia Minor that the Cimmerians must have trodden, after having left the defiles of Colchis. Pontus abounds in river-streams and rivulets to an unusual degree. Hence arose the necessity of at once, or from time to time, constructing temporary crossings, in the shape of wooden logs, or bridges (from the root pont, a bridge), for the purpose of conveying, or transporting, their families and chattels on their petorrita or primitive waggons to their assigned settlements throughout this impervious water-logged district.
It then becomes, par excellence, the earliest bridge-spanned region of the Cimmerian Pont-us.
I am afraid this tedious overland route of mine, which the eastern division traced for itself in Asia Minor, has somewhat staggered and exhausted your patience,—but, en revanche, I will take you to the sea-coast to breathe the fresh air of Cordyla (from
the root cor, and adail, an encircling pile, or grouping of buildings), and see how the primitive inhabitants of Mount Caucasus,
à negociandi curâ,' fit out their vessels with skins joined together, (navigia junctis pellibus), and how, in these hide vessels (corio) they manage to sail over the mighty deep, much safer than those barks constructed of fir-trees from the adjacent forests, according to the stem and stern form and pattern of other daring navigators, who are oftener dashed to pieces on rocks above, and rocks beneath, and shoals, and sandy beaches of the Aigswn ;-while they in their notis cumbis,' like brave aquatic birds, proudly ride the storm in perfect safety-to the crew and cargo—from Beisfor, in the north, to Corall-a, the other group or pile of buildings, in the south ; and from Meini-Cryfion, in the east, to Deffrobani, in the west, where we shall recruit our health for a while, and wait in hope and patience for the return of the western invasion from the Crimea, and Cimmeria, so frequently alluded to in the body of this essay-paper-lecture-call it what you will.
“ Should you ask me whence these stories,
I should answer, I should tell you,
LET us, now, return once more to the Crimea, or Cimmeria, and witness the overflowing exit of another western division, partially described by Strabo. Prior to the journey, however, a few preliminary remarks may be deemed requisite to pave the
way to a distinct understanding respecting certain vague items in historical geography, and other contingent shadowings dependent thereon. The Greek geographer, as you shall perceive bye and bye, is occasionally ably seconded by our ancient and modern historical bards, who, in accordance with the immemorial functions, and scholastic training of the order, must, from the infancy of bardism, have had peculiar privileges of their own, denied to the world at large, from the exclusive nature of their code, in getting up, by heart, not only the distant records of scenes within the ken of patriarchal times, but who were also expressly appointed to chant, from age to age, as the intermediate case required, the praises of their ancestral warriors, astronomers, and legislators, in the persons, par exemple, of an Hu Gadarn (mighty of size), the founder of the British Isles; of a Prince Prydain ab Aedd Mawr, the originator of Britannia's name; of an Idris Gawr y Serydd (Idris the Giant), one of the first astronomers on record ; of a Dyfnwal Moel Mud, the Cimbric legislator, second only in time and worth to Moses himself; as well as of other Asiatic chieftains of renown, landing on the shores of Ynys Prydain in prehistoric times. These, and subsequent arrivals, if deemed worthy, either from the display of some peculiar talents, “arising from the powers of natural genius and invention,” or from certain phenomena of nature occurring within their days, were at once incorporated into a triad by the periodical druidical congress, and became, as heretofore, an imperious code of law to be similarly dealt with in the processes of a memoria technica for the further improvement of arts and sciences, by the addition of every new discovery approved by the learned and the wise,-in other distinct and separate classes of triads, as required, either by “ history, bardism, theology, ethics, or jurisprudence.”
Now, in the first place, the vague, undefined, knowledge of geography that prevailed in Homeric and subsequent periods, must prove a barrier, a stumbling-block, to any clear elucidation, from such uncertain data, of the prehistoric Cimmerian names of countries, seas, rivers, mountains, cities, and so forth, occupied, traversed, or appropriated by the earlier Asiatic colonists, represented, I will say, for the nonce, by bards, ovates, and druids. I will give you but one 'simple sample of this species of geographical ignorance. Ex uno disce omnes.
Herodotus, the pride of Greece and the father of history, is blamed by Eratosthenes “an historian of Cyrene, and a protege of Ptolemy Evergetes, for ignoring the existence of the Hyperboreans as a people and living in their own country.” Indeed the historian, in lib. III. cap. 115, admits that 'concerning the western extremities of Europe he had no accurate account to give.'
I do not hesitate to say, that, if the definition of the Ister, as marked out and described by Herodotus, in lib II., cap. 53, had