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elsewhere than in Ynys Prydain and its insular dependencies— namely, ynysoedd y Casystaen or Cassitenides,(notwithstanding the lexiconic theories of an unfounded Malacca trade in tin.)

Hence were this and other articles of commerce (not exclusively indigenous to the soil of Tartessus) exported to, and consequently deposited in the different continental marts of, Armoric Gaul, the northern and western coasts of the Celtic and co-linguist portion of the Cantabri, the Pcssici, the Bracarii, for the dailyincreasing wants of their war-like and agricultural implements.

Hence, also, was it exported to the Lusitani, the Lurdetani, and the flourishing southern metropolis of the Peninsula—the city of Tartessus, or the Tarshish of the Scriptures, which was at that time the commercial emporium of its own wares, in silver, iron, and lead,—the depdt of the purchased or bartered tin of South Prydain and its neighboring isles, as well as of the ambr, rfKeKTpov, or amber, of the Baltic, the Cimmerian Mormarwisa of Pliny,—the general market of the produce of all the countries lying outside or beyond the ocean side of Gadyton-ffrwt.

The district of Massilia, similarly, became in time its counterpart within the Moryntir as the depdt of foreign wares in tin, bronze, and amber, but the producer of home wines, olives, and other succulent fruits peculiar to those regions.

The former may be said to be represented by a Liverpool or a London in its imports and exports. The latter is still retaining its antique sovereignty of commercial aggrandizement in the Moryntir or Inland Sea.

But what has Homer, or the cyclic poets, to testify respecting the produce of the Isles that are in the Hyperborean sea, in the Hyperborean Isle, the Isle of Britain. He supplies a valuable link in my prehistoric argument, which will be found associated with another metal of peculiar intrinsic value to the commerce and cupidity of mankind, but which will be treated of in a succeeding chapter.

"AuSeKa Se xpvaoto Kai eiKoai KaaaiTepoio?

One of the old scholiasts on the Iliad was so puzzled for a synonyme, or even a passing annotation, for Kaaairepoe, that he left its meaning unattempted—blank, thus giving us a proof of its foreign origin in word and in deed.

Kaa-aireP-og is, I contend, a Phoenician corruption, or possibly that of the Homeric transcriber, of Kav-aiTeN-oe. One primeval error procreates another in the ratio of 5, 10, 20, 40, 80, 160, and thus reduplicates itself, in poetic and prosaic copyists, usque ad infinitum, as other historical errors have been known to have done before, with impunity and unchallenged.

Thus, how many Hebrew, Sanscrit, and Chinese terms, as well as French and European, have been modified, quasi-euphonised, or silently murdered, to suit the vocal poverty of English usage, to the detriment of the linqual key-note whence the root originated. Hence, to go no farther than one of the tin islands under consideration: Aestrymnis or ces-trym-nis is an acoustic mutated form of ystormynys=ys-torm-ynys (or, y-storm-inis), the projecting-stormisland, as being, probably, one of the most westerly of the CassiteN-ides, and eventually applied to the group as stormy island* par excellence.

My reasons are the following: I expect reasons in reply:—

1. —Now, the mineral substance being the exclusive produce of Prydainic isles, must have had, in the very nature of things, a Cimmerian name prior to the arrival of trafficking foreigners in hyperborean waters, whether of Saxon and Koman traitors, invaders, spoliators, and, to boot, taunters of our lost literature, or of Armorican and Gaulic allies, of Carthaginian, Phocean, Massilian, Phoenician, or Tarshishian visitors and merchants.

2. —The metal had two distinct native appellations, on the identified principle of wheat-and-flour or cotton-or-dress-piece nomenclature; the one, descriptive of its primary appearance when dug or cut out of the earth, as alcan or al, a product, a litter, a native bed, and c-a-n, white; the other, explanatory of its elongating or flattening process while undergoing the act of particle extension, the atomic smelting operation, as cyastaeu, casystaen, or simply ystaen or sten, i, e., from cy, a mutual act, and as, a particle, an atom, and torn, akin to tynu or estyn, and each signifying ' to extend in its own separate manner.' The cas is only a crasis, or a contracted form of cy-as; the ys, 'what issues out of,' and taen or sten, as above.

Thus, Kaa-itrraev-{og) or ra<7-«rt7£N-(oc) would have the reflex of an innate natural meaning already in Cimmerian vogue, and appropriate to the commercial article implied, but denied in toto to Kaa-mriP-oe, unless the Phoenicians, in the poverty of imitation and paucity of invention, had recourse, on their return to Tyre and Sidon (or Yscadan, the fishing port) to go, moaningly ignorant, to Chaldcea, in quest of a verb or noun terminating in p (like the stranger ger), as casdir, that would be good enough to shine in any way for them, for it, and the world, either as the sun, moon, and stars, or as gold, silver, and brass, or as the midnight oil-lamp. For my part, I am loth to believe, as regards the Phoenicians, that the Syro-Chaldaics, or rather the Europseo-Grcecists, would have been allowed to 'take the shine out of either their own language or out of their own Cimmerian experience of technical words and things.

But, be this as it may, the Umbric Romans gave the phonetic sound of stannous), to the one, and that of their future god to the other, because the alcan, in its rude, native, unsmelted, unblocked state, required, so to speak, all the ow (the ou or V), the blowing, the breathing, energy of Vulcan or Yalcan to become the heroogonic 'opifex stanni' of our enraptured universities. The Saxons also caught the sound, but not the sense involved, as the mere union of three Roman letters, or italics, were never destined, in their vocabulary, to convey anything but a tinkling, unmeaning expression of voice, just as Kaa-airep-oe was, to our old friend the scholiast on Homer, a perfect enigma as to any inwardly interpreting principles of identification.

Its modern technical term may be considered as, "Bell-metalore, or tin pyrites. It is metallic, of a yellow grey color, inclining to red, and consists of sulphur, copper, and iron, in various proportions." This mineral, then, must have undergone the process of smelting prior to its exportation to Tartessus or elsewhere. The Britanni, consequently, must have been either an industrial people on their own account, or, another portion of the community must have worked under the superintendence of foreign merchants from Phoenicia or Bcetica. In either case, knowledge, besides some compensation or certain international benefits, would be communicated to the indigent of the Insulse Britannicse, which is all, at present, I contend for.

In process of time this article of commerce must have become known and appreciated by the Hellenes, through the interchange of Cimmerian or Cimbro-Armorican, Phoenician, Phocean, Ionian, or Massilian commerce—through, for instance, a Pythias of Massilia, whom, exempli gratia, Strabo blames "on nvfeac o Mao-o-aXtwrjjc £okwv eivai <ptXo(TO(poe, \pevSe(TTaToe r)Xe^^r) ev otc ra itEpi Oovxev rat BpEraviae yaoypcupu," or "Quod Pytheos Massiliensis, cum visus fit philosophus esse, in descriptione Thules ac Britannia, mendacissimus deprehenditur." Hence, Irene is=Thule.

The Pelasgic or Hellenic Greeks, therefore, from descriptions somehow acquired, would not fail to detect its useful and brilliantly-tinged yellow qualities in connection with its amalgam with bronze and other ores in the composition of their household wares, their bronze vessels and statues, as well as in the smelting and decorating processes of their armour, spears, shields, chariots, and warlike implements, as proved by Homer in two or three passages well known to the scholar. Thus we find Britannic and Armoric industry, in one form or other, supplying, directly or indirectly, ' cubic blocks of tin ' or the raw material to the preparatory studio of a Phidias or a Paraxiteles, or other sculptors of antiquity, in the days of Samuel the prophet.

Again, even prior to this development, the discovery of its application to so many purposes of life by the Cimmerians and Phoenicians was conveyed to the Jews through a Hiram and his predecessors on the throne, and to other admiring amateurs of the metal, so that, eventually, the compound metal came to be employed in the decoration of Solomon's temple, as well as in Egyptian and Assyrian objects, as irrefragably proved by antiquarian researches.

But, assuming, par complaisance to curtailers of history, and, taking an extreme case view of it, that the Cimmerians were ignorant of its use or adaptability to objects, I won't say en matiere de luxe, but of objects in general, this knowledge would, nevertheless, one feels disposed to believe, in accordance with the imitative and plagiaristic qualities or propensities of man, be sooner or later, in longo cursu annorum, communicated to the aboriginal witnesses or extractors, if they had not already, which in the very nature of things is more than probable, tested the experiment on their own chariots and implements of war, as on minor and portable articles for domestic and useful purposes, and conveyed the glad tidings to an enraptured world in their oceandaring 'navigia.' Otherwise, it must have been an instinct or an accident on the part of the Phoenicians that strangely brought them, in the first instance, a distance of nearly four thousand miles in opposition to or defiance of winds and tides of an unknown, a turbulent ocean, to the coasts of Ynys Prydain. Let the logical clear-headedness of a Whewel decide this doctrine of casuistry or of chances on principles of science, and the historic world must ratify his decision despite its infantine predilections.

Herodotus, the first Greek historian, who, while discussing the etymological question of certain Hellenic terms in use among the Hyperboreans, in reference to rivers and mountains of the farWest, fortifies the usually-received opinion and traditions of all nations in this respect—" that both the r)\eKTpov, amber, and ca<raiTEvoe, tin, came to us [i. e., Greece and Asia Minor] from the extremity of Europe," and insinuates that the former was procured somewhere about the source or at the embouchure of the River Eridanus, and the latter from the Cassitenides. Herodotus, like modern historians, seemed to have been, as regards the poverty of their classical isolation, dumb-founded with reference to an Hyperborean or Cimmerian nomenclature.

No one, I believe, will be hardy enough, except a few cockatoo interlineators of historical addenda, to claim either Prydain, Cassitenides, or Tarshish, as the producing or extracting bed or surface—the native home, in fact, of Herodotusian r)XeKrpov. Either of them might have had it, in bond, so to speak, for storing purposes or transmission, on the exigency of foreign or national interchange of commerce. Does not the article cassitenos also, on dissimilar principles of ultra-oceanic extraction 'mid plurality of isles, demolish the continental idea of its exclusively Tartessian origin? Let this question be re-weighed in the balance of truth, if at all sceptical as to the weight and measures of antiquity.

In addition to the historical evidence already given, Archdeacon Williams states, on the authority of scientific and antiquarian lore, that " the bronze of the Egyptians, the Assyrians, the Greeks, the Romans, the ancient Germans, and the Danes, was an alloy of tin and copper, and specimens of this compound metal have been found of extreme antiquity." Also that " bronze weapons, extracted from the tumuli on the shores of Troy, [How extraordinary! How undeniably do facts of a varied character resolve themselves on their own basis! How druidically correct is the expression of Taliesin, when personating the arrival of a noble chieftain, as already cited—" I came here," i. e., to Ynys Prydain, "to the remnants of the old inhabitants of Troy."] and bronze nails, found in the rubbish of the floor of the building at Mycense, called the 'Treasury of Atreus,' have, when analysed, given the same result—the amalgamation of the two metals. Moses mentions bydil or tin as being found among the spoils of the Midianites; and Ezekiel describes it as one of the metals of which ' Tarshish was the merchant of Tyre.'"

"Whence, then, came the vast stores of tin which must have been consumed in forming the countless instruments and weapons of which it was a constituent element? Ezekiel says that they came from Tarshish or Tartessus," the grand antique emporium of the West, as London now is of foreign tea, coffee, tobacco, snuff, &c

Again, Diodorus Siculus, on the faith of Hecatseus, depicts the Ancient Britons of primeval date, not as Csesar has been allowed to do by Scaligerian infamy, and reduplicated by gross negligence, but as deduced from the whole tenor of remarks made on this subject, as skilful miners, smelters, and refiners, and as conveying their tin, fashioned into cubical blocks, to a certain island, whither foreign merchants resorted, who carried it across to Gaul and conveyed it by land carriage to the mouth of the Rhone; and when adverting to their demeanor as members of the mercantile community, and their advanced state in civilization, Hecatseus is made to repeat his former opinions, acquired about 600 years B. C, " that in their dealings they are sincere, and far removed from the craftiness and rascality of the present age; that the island is very prosperous "; and, as a reason for this uniform prosperity, he goes on to state, in another place, "that the island, in ancient times, was never troubled by a foreign military power, for we have not heard that Hercules or Dionysius, nor any other hero or prince, made war against it—" That the Island is exceedingly populous "—" That they have kings and princes in accordance with the 'kings of the isles' of the Hebrew version; and that they are, for the most part, peacefully disposed towards each other "—[Not unlike the German princes of modern Europe, I presume, in reference to their neighbors.]—" That those who inhabit the western promontory of the island are hospitable, even

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