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form is the pentagon, the same as is found on the coins of Velia and Nuceria (in Umbria, or Cimmerian Italy), of the Ptolemies, and especially of Pitane, in Mysia, [the once prehistoric homes of the Cimmerians.) At first, I did not value this sigillum so highly as to induce me to hope, what I more lately found to be the case, that it could in some degree contribute to the illustration of the theology and philosophy of the Gauls. Plear, then, how it was effected. All agree that the doctrine of the druids, whom the Gauls had constituted the arbiters of sacred and profane law, was the Pythagorean." Again, after having cited Cæsar, Diodorus Siculus, and Ammianus, in proof of druidical and Pythagorean principles, the author goes on to observe that the dogma of the immortality of the soul was so inveterate among the Gauls that some expressed a belief that Pythagoras borrowed his system from the Gauls. Clemens Alexandrinus writes that this was commonly believed. “After settling these points, let us return,” says Mr. Eckhel, “ to our pentagon-the cause of this description. According to the testimony of Lucian it was regarded by the Pythagoreans as a sacred symbol, being the triple triangle mutually implicated, consisting of five lines, and which is called by themHygeia' (i.e., health or preservation); and I will show that the pentagon on the coins of Pitane, occupies the place which, in other cases, is occupied by the figure of Hygeia herself,” and this he afterwards performed.
Upon this passage the learned archdeacon makes the following observations:
“ The first inference to be drawn from the beautiful combination of this mathematical figure, and which Lucian expressly ascribes to the Pythagorean school of divinity and philosophy, is that its constructors were thoroughly conversant with geometrical figures of the most complicated character. Now, if a Greek philosopher, on being shipwrecked on an unknown coast, could, on discovering a right-angled triangle roughly delineated on the sand of the sea-shore, exclaim, I recognize the traces of a human being,' much more reason have we to express a belief that those who first adopted this elegant, although complicated, figure as the holy symbol of Salus (or the conservative power) must not only have been deep proficients in mathematical knowledge, but also great admirers of the truth expressed by the geometrical symbol. Such, we know, were the principles and practice of the Italian school of philosophy, who, in a later age, were called Pythagoreans, after a supposed founder of a sect, named Pythagoras. But, Aristotle, who in his works had often to encounter the doctrines of their school, never once mentions the name of Pythagoras. It is now absurd to ascribe a system, so widely diffused over the more ancient civilised world, to a Pythagoras, of Samos, supposed to have been born and bred in an age when
Hellenic free thought had already commenced its course, and was shattering to the very basis those symbolic and labyrinthine edifices under which the truth, as revealed from the beginning, was smothered and almost extinguished.”
The venerable learned Archdeacon then goes on to state that “the equilateral triangle is to this day regarded, in Hindostan, as the symbol of Siva, and is represented on the water-jars of the worshippers ”; and he refers us to a paper, written by E. C. Ravenshaw, in the Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (which I cannot procure, with other references hereinafter mentioned], wherein will be found a body of valuable information respecting the use of the mathematical figures among religious Hindoos, and the doctrines which are connected with them, as interpreted by modern Brahmins. He then avers that these verities are to this day essentially identical with the tradition recorded by Lucian. Mr. Ravenshaw says, “It is a singular fact, that the double equilateral triangle which is engraved on the Sri Tantra, and whose origin and meaning have been explained, is stated, in Kitto's Biblical Encyclopaedia, to have formed one of the most usual amulets worn by the Jews, and known by them as the Shield of David' and the Seal of Solomon.” Mr. Ravenshaw adds, “It is difficult to determine to what nation this mystical symbol owes its origin, but it seems to have been common to all the primeval religions of Asia”; and now, it may be added, also to the primeval religion of Great Britain and Western Gaul, on the indisputable evidence of their ancient coins.
What further explanations have been given by Kitto and Ravenshaw, and others, in reference to the solution of the internal or external bearings of these symbols, I know not. In this dilemma, let the majesty of nature stand out in bold relief, as the surest guide and expositor to the Cymro—the starting-point and goal of all analytical autochthons of all climes, the Cimmerian Pharos of all ages.
Here various questions of elementary and intuitive principles suggest themselves to the mental faculties. Let us look at them in the face, without fear or equivocation. Truth needs no subterfuges or mental reservations: they belong to a trembling cause.
1.-Why was the interpretation of Khat Kon Chakra, of Yylela, Hygeia,, or health preserved—why the idea of Salus, the conservative power, applied to one or more of these mathematical symbols, by the Cimmerians, Hindoos, Hebrews, Greeks, and Romans, of a later date, in preference to the opposite principle of aolevia, or the destructive agent, or, in fact, to any other fortuitous doctrine or system of inductive philosophy ?
II.--Can any one of these symbols be “ reduced to its original element and the circumstances and relations amidst which it came into existence discovered," so as to finally determine to what prehistoric nation these mystical symbols owe their birth, and to inferentially ascertain the originators of mathematical science ?
III.—Are there any lepou loyol, geiriau derwyddol, or druidical formulæ, or certain signal, verbal, indications, so to speak, conveyed therein, so as to decide to what primeval religion of Asia or Europe they belonged ?
IV.-Can a philosophical conviction be “ grounded apart from vague conjectures and sporting possibilities ” ?
V.-Can an authentic philological or mathematical key to an uniform interpretation of the symbol be literally, nominally, and scientifically worked out, so as to give the 'palmam’to the nation •qui meruit palmam' a principio literarum, and settle, so far as it goes conjointly with other potent and patent facts, the primacy of language.
Now, in the first place, to solve these not unreasonable propositions, a knowledge of the Coelbren y Beirdd or angular bardic alphabet is indispensably necessary to the examination and solution of the Adamitic problem. This Adamitic alphabet, be it never forgotten, is the primary representative—the only exclusive delineator, of angular elements in the world, and was immemorially adopted by Cimmerians, in accordance with the usages of the earlier races of mankind—to wit, the Chinese, Babylonians, Chaldæans, and Egyptians, as symbols of thought, and not solely the mere arbitrary representations of sound acquired by subsequent letters borrowed by Cadmæan plagiarists of Greece and Rome, and which to them are nought but tinkling cymbals of bewilderment.
2.-On reference to the table of plates, you will observe that I have alphabetically applied to Symbols No. 5 and 6, in Symbol 9, the Coelbrennic characters, or, rather, in modern default of usage, their corresponding Roman or English letters, to the different angles and triangles, and so forth, of the figures, as C in the east, A in the north, D in the west, W in the south, as well as 1. or ô circumflex in its own representative centre or square.
3.-In conjunction with this question, the interpretation of each letter, or rather each word, for with us each character is a word, as known intuitively to the Adamitic or Cimmerian language, must be thoroughly understood, as, for instance, in the case before us, the distinctly-ideal terms A, C, D, W, and 0, respec. tively. They are discoverable on similar principles of sense and emblematic sound as the T or other letters in the second symbol or our Bardic System of MUSICAL NOTATION.
What do these characteristic or Coelbrennic letters typify individually?--what collectively?
4.-Let us, then, as corroborative evidence, have recourse, cursorily, to the authorised version of a geiriadur, by J. W. Thomas, of Arfon, in order to summarily condense their significations, Cim nericè and Anglicè, independently of my own elementary deductions on certain fixed principles.
CIMMERIAN. A ei hystyr yw "mynediad gogwyddawl gyda pharâad o unrhyw
ddull neu ffurf.” C ei hystyr yw “dal, cadw neu gynnwys unrhyw wrthrych." D ei hystyr yw “ ymledaeniad neu ëangiad.” W ei hystyr yw “ ceüedd caethiwus, cyfyng, neu safle cafnawg.” O ei hystyr yw “dylifiad neu ffrydiad ymaith.”
ANGLICAN. 5.--A signifies 'an inclination forward,' continuance immovable,
tendency to stretch round.' C signifies the holding or containing any object.' D signifies extension or amplification. W signifies a 'narrow or servile concavity, or a hollowed-out
standing-place.' The square, or its circular representative, signifies 'a flowing,'' a
streaming away from the centre. 6.—In the east, north-east, and south-east, will be found, externally, a Coelbrennic triad of Cs, internally a triad of Ds, as seen in Symbol 9. In west, north-west, and south-west, will be seen, externally a triad of De, internally a triad of C's, as seen in Symbols 8 and 9.
7.-Within one triangle will be found contained a triad of triangles in A, as A a â, i. e., “He or it shall go thrice,' as in Symbol 9. Within the other triangle will also be comprised a triad of triangles in W, as W ww, i.e., 'He or it must pass the ordeal of concavity thrice,' as in Symbols 8 and 9.
8.-Commencing from <C, as the external holder of the Adamitic key, per elementary law, independently of its position in the east, as the source and cradle of the race, we proceed externally to AA northwards, then westwards to Z D, and southwards to AW.
The natural or solar course thus taken seeins to symbolize the vitality of atmospheric change on animate and inanimate matter, in other words, to describe the alternate hemisphere of light and darkness—the orbit, as it were, of illuminated life and action, the circle of illumination, as represented by our Magien or BreintNôd.
9.-Thus, summarily, each quarter of the ambient, globular matter, or division of the solar system, would assist in giving its
fractional contribution of support to itself as regards the former idea, or of gravity as distinguishing the latter, as a correlative part of the whole, the oll, the to allo, the oln or vin, the consolidated mass of the universe, as C. A. D. W. But what is meant by the symbolical expression thus arrived at? Literally and metaphorically, it signifies, 'the keeping'='the preservation of one self from chaos into light or life '=' the allied power of health ' ='the exponent of elementary life. Eventually, it became the primeval source of Khat kon chakra, and symbolically interpreted by Hygeia or Iachdad, from its elements of iach (iâ-ach), sound, entire, salubrious, as one of the elemented phases of water (ia) when acted upon and congealed by aerial influences, or Sâlus, as above.
10.—Moreover, by beginning with 20+ A a in S. east, and elementing the int. <at d, alternately with 4 w in south, another triplicity of Cadw, Cadw, Cadw, is brought to light in the east.
The same law of alternate elementary action takes place in the north at AA, in the west at LD, and in the south at AW, with an uniformity of similar triads of Cadw, Cadw, Cadw, and equivalent in number to the months of the year or the signs of the zodiac.
11.–Again, the doctrine of Variations, Permutations, and Combinations, usque ad infinitum, presents itself from these literally angled letters, in regard to the alternate position of letters, and unfolds, in the mouth of the Penderwydd or officiating priest, towards the inauguration of a novitiate, or in reference to the supplementary degrees of a dyscybl or disciple, a caw or full graduate, a cowydd or associated fellow, curt texts of advice, threat, instruction, tenacity, silence, implicit obedience, and so forth, to the order, with certain corresponding signs appropriate to the idea conveyed and inculcated by the initiator to the initiated.
12.--The following triplicity of Permutations must, for the present, suffice to prove my case. “It is readily seen that each combination will supply as many corresponding Variations as the number of quantities it contains admits of permutations.” Thus, the combination abc supplies the 1, 2, 3, or six variations—abc, acb, bac, bca, cab, cba; as— Cadw, cwda: Keep or preserve thy concavity, thy position good. Dacw, dwca : Yonder is a knife. Wcad, wdca: The concavity of striving is the extremity of holding. &c., &c.
Dissona, non nostri, vocum componere signa,