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“How fleet is a glance of the mind!

“Compared with the speed of its flight. “The tempest itself lags behind,

“And the swift-winged arrows of light."

The third druidical symbol, /|\, sometimes found impressed on our British prehistoric coins, and invariably affixed to the periodical programmes of bardic congresses, contains three strokes or bars, one perpendicular in the centre, and two oblique lines, one on either side. What can these druidical hieroglyphics of an Asian, Egyptian, or European type or tendency signify? They must have some recondite intelligible meaning or other. The solution of this enigma has not hitherto been, philosophically or otherwise, grappled with, as far as my scanty reading of Cimbric literature enables me to judge. I venture, therefore, though unsupported by bardic authorities and despite the reticence of unrevealed documents, to hazard, in all the humility of an inquirer after the mysteries and revelations of truth, an opinion of my own. I pretend not to the elaborate researches of a Belzoni, a Layard, or a Rawlinson, in this new field of labor. “Better a failure than no attempt, or never turn, nuver spin.”

In the central perpendicular line, according to the definition already given, I detect the Penderwydd or President of the Druidical Institute, in his quality of “Un Benaeth' or one supreme head of 'unus præest,' or pontifex maximus and focus of intelligence, as a representative centre of Noachidic divine unity. And in the diverging lines I discover two other graduated emanations of the triadic institute, represented by an imputed less effulgent imagery of humanity in the deviating persons of the Penbardd, or chief presiding bard, and the Pen Ofydd, or chief ovate, and reflecting the halo of their alliance by a distinct yet inseparable union, as Arwyddion or armorial bearers, to the Penderwydd. Each of these divisional supporters do not aver, much less infringe upon, according to the unfathomable law of Unbenaeth, the equality of official rights or privileges of the other, inasmuch as the radiating lines of demarcation do not touch or trench upon the prerogatives of each other from any real or imaginative point of contact.

These lines or rays of light, I apprehend, maintain a separate, an individual, an indivisible ideality or existence of their own, as, · Pelydrau goleuni,' or 'radii luminis, a 'tria juncta in uno' of primary elements : in fact, a celestial alliance of uniformity, conformity, and substantiality, in luminous life and action, in regard to the favored numerical doctrine of · Three,' as, · Dechreuad pob peth neu Creawdwr anian '=the · Principium omnium rerum vel Creator naturæ'=or the · Princeps omnium'=the * Divina potestas' of a later school, as well as in reference to its varied prefiguration in the druidical economy. Hence the Apol. lonic Paterce, or Gaulic priests of Bel, the Bel-ig Peithorau of Prydain, became, in their turn, the sacred expounders, in unison with those of Israel, of an organized · Oeddsyddaw' of creation, i, e., literally, a condition of past, present, and future,' and corresponding, if I am not much mistaken, to what a scholiast represents the ternarius numerus of Aristotle and Plutarch to sig. nify, namely, a “ Princeps omnium continens in se, Principium

-medium et finem,” in connection with the power imputed to the superior and inferior divinities.

Again do we find this symbolical number or trigeir of the bard appropriated to the Triphed Athrawl,' or professorial tripod, as symbolical of awen, anianeg, a moeseg, a poetical genius by the beirdd, natural philosophy by the ovyddion, and metaphysics by the derwyddon; which high order of teaching has been classified by the bards as the druidical • Tri-goleuad-byd,' or the tria lumina mundi, the three metaphorical illuminations of the world in contradistinction to the natural, as the Huan, the Llun or Lleuad, and the Ser, or sun, moon, and stars.

Again, we read of 'gwyddoriaethau damcanawl,' or the theoretical sciences being enumerated as three in genus, namely, anianyddiaeth or physics, mesuroniaeth or mathematics, aniandduwiaeth or physico-theology. Hence the prophetic bardic announcement of .gwyn ei fyd' or happiness assigned to him who would be able to unravel this symbolical mystery by adapting it to some triadic formulæ or other, by a 'trigeir or heniaeth gysefin,' i. e., per tria verba in antiquissimâ linguâ, by means of three expressions or ideas in the original tongue.

“Gwyn ei fyd y geneu yn rhwydd gyfeistrin
“ A lefaro trigeir o'r heniaeth gysefin.”

The ternarius numerus is also exemplified when the druids, dressed in white surplices, dedicated, at the yew and oak surrounding lakes of adoration, consecration, and the sequestered flowery grove of Ior, triple offerings of garments of white wool, linen, and victuals, in honor of the unknown god. The ceremonial of the lake lasted three days, amid the enthusiastic accompaniments of song, harp, and bardic recitations. Hence, Virgil

“Spelunce vivique lacus,
“ Speluncæque lacus clausos lucosque sonante
Divinisque lacus, et averna sonantia silvis."

Again, we have triplicates of another order, as the Gleiniau Nadroedd, the Ova Anquinum of Pliny, which were little glass balls, chaplets, or bead-rolls, about the thickness of a finger, in ceremonial use among the institute, and were of various colors, as green, white, and blue; some of the equidistant larger ones contained the three combined colors, and thereby seemed in uniformity with all their teachings to signify a separation as well as an amalgamated union of three orders of druidism. The 'glain' were considered efficacious in occasioning success and happiness to such as conformed themselves to certain rules and regulations, and to those who chose to wear these badges of sacredness about their persons. The Roman naturalist of that day was not unconscious of this talismanic quality or secret virtue imputed to them; nor does it appear that this pagan practice has even now become obsolete in another credulous order of faith-inculcating imitators.

Three other favourite colors were also found intermingled with the ritual of the grave, when the assembled mourners either “clad themselves in arms and clothing of blue, red, and white colors, and mounted on big beautiful horses.”

“Gwedi Gwrm, a choch, a chain,
“A gorweddawr mawr minrein."

Moreover, this triadic doctrine was, on similar principles of imitative action, diffused and applied throughout the regions of the East and West.

It is an indisputable historic fact that, inter alia scientiarum elementa, plagiarised and adapted to Hellenic institutions, without its proper weight of acknowledgement, “ Pythagoras borrowed from them (the druids) his doctrine about numbers, to the mystical energy of which he ascribes the formation of all things."

Compare also the Jewish doctors of law, the magi of Persia, the priests of Egypt, the gymnosophists of India, and sophists of Chaldæa, Babylon, and Nineveh, as seen in Layard.

This doctrine was also applied to the characteristic agencies and power of laupetur, Nafdon, and Plaautwn, as in “Jovis trifidum fulmen,' in Neptuni tridens,' in ' Plutonis canis triceps.' Hence, also, the expressions, •Parcæ tres,' •Furiæ tres,' the bronzed tripod of Apollo,' the 'statues of the three Sybils near the rostra in the forum,' the 'tria nomina Diana et Apollinis.

Not to multiply instances, this doctrine was in force among the Jews even to the Apostolic age: hence the tpirog ovpavos, the third heaven, equivalent to the material heavens or celestial fluid of the triads, in reference to which Solomon, in his sublime prayer to God, says “ the heaven of heavens cannot contain Thee,” who was the alpha and omega of eternity without date, of duration without limit, of futurity without end.

Hence the Cimmerian and Ptolemaic systems of astronomical

and astrological triplicities. According to the latter “the tripli-
city preserved accordance with an equilateral triangle, and the
whole zodiacal orbit is defined by three circles—viz., that of the
equinox, and those of the two tropics; the twelve signs are,
therefore, distributed, in triplici numero, among four equilateral
The first triangle or each triad is formed by the three signs of

Aries, Leo, and Sagittarius.
The second is formed by Taurus, Virgo, and Capricorn.
The third is composed of Gemini, Libra, and Aquarius.
The fourth constituted Cancer, Scorpio, and Pisces.

I leave, as immaterial to the question, the interpretation of their conjunctions and other imputed virtues or accidents of benedics and maledics, to the unique consideration of serddewiniaeth or astrology propounded in the Tetrabibloi of one or other nation.


“I took it for a faery vision
Of some gay creatures of the element,
“ That in the colors of a rainbow live
“And play i' th' plighted clouds."

In the symbols numbered 4, 5, and 6, and in their explanatory duplicates of 7, 8, and 9, I seem to scan, if I rightly apprehend their druidical power and life-like interpretation, a world of deep thought. These problems cannot, strictly speaking, refer to the qualities of man as an individuality, as they want the independent perpendicularity, the oblique unity—the attribute of humanity, as seen in the first and third symbols, as Nôd-dyn and Nôd-Pelydr goleuni. They must, therefore, in some way or other, bear some recondite elementary quality or index of thought, belonging to the wide domain of nature, as invented, unfolded, and elemented by patriarchal wisdom.

Prior, however, to my own analytical remarks on these mystic symbols of the antique world, I deem it expedient to lay before you the opinions of others, as far as I am aware of them, so that we may come to some distinct understanding as to what is already known respecting them, in point of historical elucidation, either as Sanscrit, Chaldæan, Egyptian, Hebrew, or Cimmerian invention.

In this inquiry I discard the modern claims of plagiaristic Greece, as une ombre au tableau in the distant horizon.

On the present occasion I purport only to briefly explainThe Pentagon or the triple triangle=the Cadelfen or Tywarchen

pumongl=symbolum elementorum vel symbolum salutis

naturale [Nos. 4 and 7]. The Shield of David or Solomon's Seal, alias the Magean David

or the Ychothym Shloma=the Iaith-nôd or the elementary

Cimmerian key of Adamitic language [Nos. 5 and 8]. The Sri Tantra or Khat Kon Chakra=the double triangle=the

Breint-nôd Derwyddon or the seal of the higher privileges

of the Druids [Nos. 6 and 9]. The term Cadelfen is derived from cadw, to keep, and elfen (from el, a spirit, a self-acting movement, and ffen, a flowing principle) an element. The term tywarchen or ty-warch-en, essentiality of life, from ty, what includes, arch, what is high and round, and en, a living principle.

The Hebrew term magean, applied to the symbol and usually understood as a shield, and said to be derived from ganan or gan, a cover, a shield, has, I think, an ulterior Cimmerian origin. This beautiful figure must certainly have existed, i.e., it had some name or other, prior to its adoption either as a shield, a seal, or an amulet, by Kings David or Solomon or the Hebrews.

What was that name?

Relying, as I am in duty bound to do, on the nature-depicting tendencies of Cimmerian elements, I hazard the conjecture that the Hebrews caught the phonetic sound of magien from the Noachidic Cimmerians.

What, then, does this expression signify?

The interpretation will be better gleaned and understood when we come to dive into the mysteries that will be brought to light as out of chaotic darkness. My humble opinion, therefore, is that it is no other than a natural representation of the star-like light produced at night by the glow worm, and symbolising a similar result by the mathematical figure.

Each of these mathematical problems will be found to be replete, in addition to their geometrical properties, with other elementary, symbolical, and philosophic verities, of which the keys of solution are to be found in the elementary wards of the Adamitic or Cimmerian language. Of which fact, I trust, I shall be able to give you satisfactory inductive proof.

Eckel, according to Archdeacon Williams, after having discussed in his elaborate work upon 'de Doctrinâ numorum,' the question of Gallic or Cimmerian coins, and the figures impressed upon them, thus writes “Of these minute sigilla or seals the most common

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