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* Ilov ovv n kavxnous ?' *Pa yna y coegedd ?' ('Where is then the boasting?') Though these Pelasgi undoubtedly witnessed the Megalithic structures, we are not to suppose, from the stringent laws of the masonic and architectural body attached to the insti. tute, that parties, strangers to its internal economy, would be allowed to dive and pry into the recondite plans and specifications of a corps so select and exclusive, much less learn the druidical rule to find the diameter of the column, to learn a certain pressure for lifting and transporting with ease, rapidity, and safety, the ponderous machines employed in their stupendous erections : yet we may be permitted to surmise that a nation so precocious, so talented and inventive as the Pelasgic race proved itself to be, in the lapse of ages, which utterly distanced mankind in the race of arts and sciences, did not let any opportunity fall to the ground, in acquiring a kind of rudimentary knowledge, a scientific, idea, so to speak, in the construction, if they did construct, without the supervision of the druids, the larrissæ, or antique castles imputed to them by writers a thousand years and upwards after the events recorded by them had taken place. But the question (after the previous explanation) which we have to do with, and solve, is, not that the Pelasgi displayed at a very early period extraordinary symtoms of civilization, when properly put on the track of knowledge, but that, of the credit, to whomsoever it be due-whether partly to their own innate powers of invention and development, or partly to the then superior attainments of their druidical instructors—to be short, let a fair apportionment be given to eachthe master and the pupil. But, in the name of justice and honour, I impugn before high heaven the right—the claim of a Cecrops from Sais, in upper Egypt; of a Danaaus from Chemnis, in the same country; or of Cadmus from Phænicia, to ride on the shoulders of designing men, when off our guard, in the sick bedridden room of apathetic history; to jump the claims, monopolise, as well as audaciously arrogate to themselves, all the labours, the tools, the cranes, the arch-in fact, the golden mental toil of the past, upon a mere traditionary florish of the trumpet of fancy— the after-thought of subsequent centuries, amounting, when summed up, to the enormous gross figure of one thousand three hundred years, and more,—without one single guarantee of identity from either of them being endorsed by any cyclic or Homeric poem-almost our only truthful safeguard for these times, against such flagrant, gullible impostures.

The Pelasgi, however, managed, after a little manæuvring peculiar to all races of invaders, to deprive the original settlers at Chalybos not only of the ore, but of the town and the district itself. These Chalybian ironfounders or craftsmen, were forced to retire elsewhere, some to the mountain fastnesses separating Pontus from Armenia, where they located themselves either as nomade tribes, or as workers of mineral ores; others joined their kinsmen in the inland and cultivated district or province of Galatia.

Other detached portions or tribes from Pontus had centuries before veered southward, for the establishment of new possessions, and founded several cities on the fertile plains, and cultivated banks of the rivers Halys and Sangarius in Galatia.

In reference to these ever-recurring shiftings of localities, either by foreign interference, or by the tyranny of one tribe or nation over another for the mastery and ownership of the soil, or from a feeling of warlike display in striving after supreme command over the confederated races of certain districts, Strabo alludes to a certain aggressive and ambitious people called Towves (Triones), who were perpetually making onslaughts on all the neighbouring districts, and intimates that they were allied to the Cimmerians, either as distinct nations, speaking the same language, or branches of the same race, and that they frequently desolated the right banks of Pontus, Galatia, and the territories adjacent to them, sometimes by an attack on the Paphlagonians, and sometimes on the Phrygians.

“ Oesau hirion y bu Assyriaid
“ Yn bobl enwawg, a Babiloniaid
" Bu orsedd dro i Bersiaid rhwyg lydan
“ O hyn bu draian byd i Rhywiaid.

Ages after this period, there must have been a considerable newly-imported admixture of Assyrian, Medish, Persian, and Grecian elements, commingled to a slight degree, possibly, with the antique Galatians and Phrygians, now scattered or absorbed in the concrete mass before us. These fractional ingredients of rival races would necessarily compete for supremacy and dominion over the Galatian boundaries of these central districts, till they ceased to give any uneasiness of the dominant powers now installed in regal pomp in the old Galatian capital of Gordium. 0. Talarai, to every scholar, is a well-known acknowledged form for Gauloi, or Celts, who were called, by way of distinction, Ol Talarai EoTeplol : the one being a resident branch of the east, the other of the west. The ancient Achæans (i.e., those who traded with their kinsmen at Chalybos), according to Cæsar, called them indiscriminately Γαλαθαι οι Γαλαται. Τhis name continued unimpaired up to the apostolic ages.

The Ilajnalaloi Talatai kai Opvylou were ever distinguished for their agility as horsemen and charioteers, in all the varied Asiatic struggles recorded in history, and also for the breeding of horses.

In the 'Geographie Historique Ancienne’are these memorable words: “ Gordium au nord sur le Singarius se trouve la capitale

. des Anciens Rois du pays, dont l'un avait possedé le char, que l'on conservait encore dans cette ville au temps d'Alexandre le Grand, et dont le timon etait attaché par le fameux neud Gordien."

On this passage I have a word or two to say about Gordium and its Gordian knot. Severer the analysis_clearer the evidence.

The Cimmerians of Galatia, like their kinsmen of Paphlagonia and Bythinia, were, it seems, pre-eminently expert in the manipulation of their fiery steeds, when harnessed to their chariots of war, or festive amusements. In this respect they did no more; I presume, than what all sensible practical charioteers, avaricious of glory and display, would do, in their brilliant domestic manœuvres or martial exercises, when competing for the prize on the racestudding banks of the Sangarius to secure a certain victorynamely to pay a due regard to the state of the 'cludbawl y cerbyd' le timon du char de notre histiore, or the plain coach pole, and see it tightly fastened with a something. Now, this puzzling something is what? Nothing, save the mark, but a Cimmerian, a Galatian well-made cort or gort, a rope, and tyn or dyn s. m., a pull, a stretch-tightness. Tie these roots—these Cimbric rootsthese roots of llin (Nivov) or flax together, and you will have 'pigiad o gortyn-au,'a choice, a selection of ropes, thongs, or garters, whereby to poise and solve, mantol y gortyn, mantol y gardas, mantol y ddolen, (the balance of the knotty rope, garter, or loop, )three distinct forms of juvenile pastimes in vogue among the Cimbri of the olden times ;—and equivalent to the game or sport, which, inter alios ludos gentis Cimmericæ, the Pelasgi, at the Cimbric Sinope borrowed from the Cael-labiaid (Chalybians), and carried in triumph to Greece, under the acoustic sound of quavreleyuoç possibly from the expression mantol y ddolen, with the varied interpretation of fluctuation of the noose, or trimming of the loop' of the Cimbri ; 'the pricking of the garter' of the English, and 'pricking the loop' of the Gwyddelod or Irish people.

“ Loop draws to loop, each country boasts its colour,

“ And half the make-game just reflects the other."," By means of the hints already pointed out, you will be able to untie the (Gordian) knot yourselves, which Alexander the Great, with all his victories over man and tongues, was unable to accomplish except with the sharp edge of his sword. After having disentangled the knot with my humble pen, I may with becoming modesty exclaim, in the emphatic language of

Richelieu “ Verily the pen is mightier than the sword.· This Gordian knot therefore, somewhat unexpectedly, inter alia,

proves its close knotty identity with the Galatian charioteers, who were almost within the course and range of accredited history.

Again, in reference to the Kepuepuoi Tpiwves. It is borne out on the testimony of the Greek Historian, as well as on certain reasonable deductions drawn therefrom, that this warlike race, in their onward march, managed to subdue the mixed inhabitants of the interior, and re-occupied, as a people claiming prescriptive rights to the soil, the old Cimmerian provinces of Galatia, Cappadocia, Cilicia, and the hilly regions of Mynydd Tor or Mount Taurus in the south, which had in their turn been subjugated under foreign yoke. Virgil may possibly throw a ray of light of distant ages on these Triones—a race probably not altogether unversed in astronomical studies—during their residence either at Caer Troiau, Deffrobani, or in a more northern climate.

“ Hic canit errantem lunam solisque labores
“ Unde hominum genus, et pecudes ; unde imber, et ignes
“ Arcturum, pluviasque Hyades, Geminosque Triones,
“Quid tantum oceano properent se tingere soles
“ Hiberni, vel quæ tardis mora noctibus obstet.

“ Ingemenant plausu Tyrii, Troesque sequuntur.” The Triones in this passage are alleged to refer to the two bears—i.e., Ursa major and Ursa minor. The Latins generally interpreted this term under that of “ the ploughing oxen ”“ hence, septemtrio, and also septemtriones, the north, namely the seven stars, or oxen (triones), formerly the constellation of the Great Bear, near the North Pole."

It is further stated respecting them, that they happen, however, not to be devoid of a certain degree of civilization, that they were divided into separate communities under different governments or tyrannies--that their cities were numerous and well fortified, and some of the valleys which they cultivated were extremely fertile, producing corn in abundance, while the higher ground was clothed with vines and olives. I shall want the Olympic twigs, the Pindaric olives, and the germinal sprigs of the Ceres-ian Ciros, &c., in the course of my remarks on druidical ceremonies, as evidence in my court of Cimmerian enquiry.

In the Cimmerian prehistoric province of Cilicia is to be found the subterranean druidical cave, or temple of Corycos, much celebrated by Greek and Roman authors, as well as by modern travellers of distinction. Its wonders have been canvassed under every aspect of art, religion, and social life ; and are alleged to be amalgamated with the primitive ideas of our Cimbricor Celtic giants, in the construction of such stupendous, Cyclopean monuments,

“ Vos et Cyclopea saxa “Experti.” Pomponius Mela states that the descent on a gradually-inclined plane, from the summit of the mountain to the temple-like cavern below, amounted to 10 stadia,-i.e., a measure of ground equal to 1250 paces, or yards. On this a modern author thus observes :-" This singular, romantic spot, which might vie with the gardens of Adonis, and with the grottoes of Mithras, was not neglected by pagan superstition; a temple was erected to Apollo, the Bel of the Cimbri. The bed of a river was shewn in a recess of the cave.” Others impute the shrine to Jupiter Tonans, the Taranis of the Cimbri.

In some respects this cave bears an analogy to its prototypean model, the Inkerman caverns in the Crimea, already surmised as the work of the Cimmerians, and corroborating, as far as certain facts, times, figures, and deductions can go, an identity of subterranean artistic skill for purposes of druidical worship, on the part of the same people under apposite circumstances.

Similar caverns, but on a smaller scale, will be found among the druidical fastnesses of the Carnutes in Gallia Antiqua, near the modern town of Chartres, as also among the cliffs of Colhugh, Ogfawr, the Caerau of Caercrugian, &c., in Ynys Prydain and Iwerddon.

“ Myfi wyf Taliesin
“ Pen beird y Gorllewin
“ A wn bob gorsin

Gogof Gorthewin.Which I paraphrase as follows :—"I am the ovate Taliesin, Chief bard of the West, acquainted with the secret language, or bearing, of every shrub, branch, or flower, found within the sacred Castalian cavern, well, or lake of the Arch-Druid."

In endeavoring to illustrate the correlative value of the above recorded facts by the auxiliary testimony of the Triads, and the historical bards, as well as the Cimbric interpretations of places known in the aforesaid provinces in prehistoric times, great difficulties present themselves to my mind with reference to the real Cimmerian, Persian, Assyrian, Phænician, Greek or Latin names found on the page of ancient Asiatic history; which again in modern times have become interspersed with Arabian and Turkish terminations, or in most instances with names of a totally Turkish origin,-adapted, however, in some cases, to the development of the idea conveyed in the Cimmerian expressions. A little patience and research into the arcana of past literature will perhaps enable a careful philologist to arrive at something intact as far as primeval roots are concerned; I do not pretend to decide ex cathedrâ; be it affirmed, once for all, -I am only adding my mite of help to the cosmopolitan enquirer after hidden historic pearls.

An attentive etymologist, then, from adaptations already made, and about to be forthcoming, of Cimmerian, or Cimbric names, by Greek and Latin authors into their own tongues, cannot be at a loss to discern the kernel from the husk—the root from the superincumbent branches. More dependence, however, is to be placed, I feel convinced, on the ear, when the laws of inflection

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