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Hence do we discover, separate and uncollusive, yet, on the main points, not inaptly corresponding evidences of extraordinary phenomena of a peculiarly miraculous order, revealing at unknown epochs, the recollections of each other, so to speak, on perfectly neutral ground of far distant accuracy, wonderment and dismay. In other words, the authenticity of the Hyperborean triads is seen thus amply guaranteed by an inspired chronicler of Israel, by a Jewish historian, by an annalist of Tyre, and, lastly, by the historic effusions of a Roman poet.

When doctors, learned in the law, agree,
Who shall dispute the soundness of their plea?

But, to revert once more to the text of Taliesin's formula of ceremonial worship. The expression, Llad yn Eurgrawn,' is paraphrased by Dr. Owen Pughe into

“ Diod mewn aurgyrn,.
“Aurgyrn mewn llaw";

i. e., “a libation of wine in a golden goblet in the hand,' and prefigures or answers to the Virgilian description of Gravem gemmis auroque pateram,' i.e., “a golden patera, studded with gems': hence,

“Quare agite, o juvenes, tantarum in munere laudum
“ Cingite fronde comas, et pocula porgite dextris,
“Communemque vocate deum, et date vina volentes
“Dixerat, Herculeâ bicolor quum populus umbra
“ Velaritque comas, foliisque innexa pependit
“Et sacer implevit dextram scyphus.'

With these and similar passages, as well as those referring to the flowers and to the trees of the field, as symbols of a druid creed, compare the Homeric expressions, 'Edegato XELİL KUTEMlov,' deras aubikuteklov,' and `Kuvpor uey Kontnpaç eneoTeWavto TOTOLO,' and other passages of like import. The next four lines of the Taliesinian formula have been interpreted by the other learned annotator to signify « The hand on the knife and the knife' ar flaenor y praidd,' the spem gregis,' or the first-born of the flock or herd.” Thus we find the druidical sacrifice here performed corresponding also with another passage from the same author :

“ Quatuor hic primum nigrantes terga juvencos
“ Constituit, frontique invergit vina sacerdos
“Et summas carpens, media inter cornua setas
“ Ignibus imponit sacris libamina prima,
“Voce vocans Hecaten coloque Ereboque potentem
“Supponunt alii cultros, tepidumque cruorem
“Suscipiunt pateris —ipse atri velleris agnam
“ Ense ferit, sterilemque tibi Proserpina vaccam.

Again, in the Georgics, the sacrificial ceremony was thus celebrated :

“Sæpe in honore deûm medio stans hostia ad aram,
“ Lanea dum niveâ circumdatur infula vitta
“Inter cunctantes cecedit moribunda ministros,
“ Aut si quam ferro mactaverat ante sacerdos,
“ Inde neque impositis ardent altaria fibris
Nec responsa potest consultus reddere vates,

“Ac vix supposite tinguntur sanquine cultri. We now come to the Buddrodydd Feli, or · Bel, the bestower of gifts, as banquets and wines, and so forth,' in his dignity or quality of deified king and priest, by the intermediation of his vates, sacerdotes, and ministri.

“Instaurant epulas et mensæ grata secundæ

Dona ferunt.” Again let Virgil describe the generic Bel of Ynys Prydain, in his regal attributes of Rhi, as prince or king. Let him also point out and antedate his chronological appearance on the stage of primeval life, as a pure emanation of gorgeous Orientalism transplanted westwards :

Atque equidem Teucrum memini Sidona venire
Finibus expulsum patriis, nova regna petentem
“ Auxilio Beli. Genitor tum Belus opimam

“ Vastabat Cyprum et victor ditione tenebat." And elsewhere he goes on to depict and sanction his title of · Buddrodydd' in the forthcoming ceremonial banquet:

“Postquam prima quies epulis, mensæque remotæ
Crateras magnos statuunt, et vina coronant
“Hic regina gravem gemmis auroque poposcit,
Implevitque mero pateram, quem Belus et omnes

“A Belo soliti.” In another poem, of a different order, and referring to other subjects of later antiquity, Taliesin speaks allegorically of

“A serpent with chains,
“ Towering and plundering,
“ With armed wings,

“From Germania.” Compare these passages with the above :

“Fugit ilicet ocyor Euro
“Spelumcamque petit; pedibus timor addulit alas
“Ut sese inclusit; ruptisque immane catenis
“Dejecit saxum."

“Paribusque revinxit Serpentem spiris-ventosque addidit alas.Compare, also, ‘Draco multifidas linquas vibrare' of Valerius Flaccus.

And, finally, in reference to the Virgilian and druidical doctrines implanted on a knowledge of the “herbæ, flores, como, populus, arbores, et folia,' there is more than a mere poetic or Cimmerian co-incidence of floricultural and arborean allegory of language. The science was one of Oriental origin, and grew into vitality and magnitude of religious dimensions under the fostering aid of druidical cultivation and traditionary lore, at epochs anterior to the written and borrowed verse or prose of Greece and Rome.

As Taliesin must necessarily have represented the ever-recurring viva voce germs of druidical knowledge, as acquired by him and communicated by members of the institute, and by him and others again to other bardic European students, it might perhaps be not uninteresting to ascertain something respecting the recondite allusions or insinuating processes of deduction arrived at in that mysterious free-mason-like school in reference to the symbols of the forest. I am indebted to Michelet's history of France for the following quotations, as found in the illustrations,' but derived from Armorican and Cimbric sources. I reserve the application to a future occasion.

“I know," says Taliesin, “ the intent of the trees; I know which was decreed praise or disgrace, by the intention of the memorial trees of the sages,” and he celebrates the engagement of the sprigs of the trees or of devices, and their battle with the learned; he could delineate the elementary trees and reeds, and tells us when the sprigs were marked in the small tablet of devices, when they altered their voice: and so forth.

The Bucolics and Georgics of Virgil abound in druidical or allegorical mysteries, both floral and arborean.

“ Trees,” according to the same authority, “are still used symbolically by the Welsh and the Gaels, [but in a totally different aspect]. The hazel, for instance, signifies ' love betrayed. The Caledonian Merlin [Taliesin is Cambrian] laments that the authority of the sprigs was beginning to be disregarded.' The Irish word aos, the primitive meaning of which was 'tree,' was applied to a man of letters. Feadha, wood or tree, became the designation of the prophets, or wise men. In like manner, in Sanscrit, bôd'hi signifies the Indian fig, and buddhist means • the sage.'”

“ And, as imagination bodies forth
“ The form of things unknown, the poet's pen
“'Turns them to shape, and gives to airy [something]
“A local habitation and a name."

152

LECTURE IV.

SYMBOLA ELEMENTORUM VEL SEMINA RERUM.

Signs are either to represent or resemble things, or only to intimate and

suggest them to the mind. And our ideas being the signs of what is intended or supposed therein, are in such sort and so far right as they do either represent or resemble the object of thought, or as they do at least intimate it to the mind, by virtue of some natural connection or proper appointment."

SYMBOL I.

“ As I walked by myself I said to myself,

“And thus myself said to me,
“ Look to thyself, and take care of thyself,

For nobody takes care for thee!
“So I turned to myself and I answered myself

“In the self-same reverie,
“Look to thyself, or look not to myself

The self-same thing will it be.”

The symbol |, under the idea of its entire alphabetical unity, and perpendicularity of struke or bar, as exemplified in Coelbren y Beirdd, inherently represents man, in his mynediad uniongyrchawl,' as the first person, the pronoun par excellence, the prenomination, the supreme head or ruling power, in contradistinction to the general horizontal or zig-zag attitude of the brute creation, and signifies an upright, dependent yet independent quality, as far as regards dignity of creation and destiny, the elements of intelligence, and the instincts of forethought, whether as a poetical, a religious, or judicial agent in the scale of druidism. Hence the traditional adaptation of the sign or expression to an unique aspect or condition of the mind, as '| fawr,' ego magnus, I the great ; ‘yf | fawr,' ego ipse magnus, I myself the great one—to him who egotistically arrogates, right or wrong, a superabundance of any authority or personal importance, as “man, proud man, dressed in a little brief authority.”

Unigol wyf a syth

O fewn Drywyddiaeth. or,

Apart am I, and erect,
Within the circle of druidism.

SYMBOL II.

“Set thine house in order.”

The symbol conveys to my mind an idea of protection to man (on the authority of the first axiom) from the inclemency of the weather, on account of the projecting ledges jutting out from the summit of the wall, and encircling him, so to speak, with arms or wings of defence, and thereby representing the To, or to, a roof with its gable-end, against animate or inanimate aggressors—either from the heavens above or the blasts of the plain, when thus reposing beneath the shelter offered. Hence, by a process of natural induction peculiar to the divine originality of Eden and the Adamitic dispensation of the language, this emblematica) shelter became resolvable into that of residence-in fine, a

Ny, or ty, a house, and thereby originated the name and exact sound of the antediluvian Noachidic Coelbrennic character, which, in its turn, has given birth to and assumed, in cycles of ages, a variety of shapes, and, in the majority of cases, an analogy of pronunciation adapted to the euphonic caprice of nations. Compare this character with those of other nations.

Thus did other nations, on a similar principle of original copyism or adaptation, borrow and improve their incorporated Grecian or Hebrew nomenclature from its forced or apparent resemblance between the shape of the letters and the natural form of the object so denominated, as the following samples must for the present suffice: Aleph, elyf, cattle ; beth, a house=bwth, a hut; gimel, or, more phonetically correct, gamal=gamyll, a male camel, gamell, a female camel ; daleth, a door or leaf=dalen, a leaf, or dalaeth, foliage, or the Arabic dal; wav, a hook or plug; caph=caf, a cave; ain=cnaen, the eye, bud, or shoot of a nut; and so forth. I have heard several distinct pronunciations of ain by different Jewish nations: I therefore fixed upon cnaen, not merely from the comparative identity of sound, but also from the inborn resemblance it bears to its own interpretation.

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