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Hebrew ger, signifying ' a stranger,' which, as though by prophetic instinct, seems to estrange the garbled derivation altogether. What, then, is the interpretation?
The term, Cimmerice, is, naturally and simply, derived from carchar, 'a place of detention, confinement, a prison,'—the epithet of which is, consequently, 'detained, confined, imprisoned, entombed,' with other analagous expressions. But how is this sense acquired? Carchar, from the root of carch, having its elements in c-ar-ych, as c=' dal neu gynnal '=' a keeping,' and r or ar=' inward force,' and ydh, a termination implying 'encircling:' hence, it means an 'encircling safeguard,' litera de litera, a confined state.
With the merits or demerits of the myth, fable, or conte de fees, I do not interfere in any way further than by transcribing the following statement from the annotations of Carne, Oxon: "Hercules," says the author, "was fabled to have been, when shipwrecked, swallowed by a Knroe, in whose belly he remained entombed three nights and escaped again alive. This monster is termed napxapoe Kvihv, or ' the Carcharian dog of Triton,' which Bochart makes to be, not a whale, but a shark, the epithet having relation to its terrific jaws and teeth, and which is called ' laima,' from its voracious throat and monstrous swallow."
This passage requires a few words of comment.
The Cimmerian term for shark is mor-gi, or sea-dog, from mtr and ci, also llamgi and tagci.
The lamia or laima is, Cimmerice, 'a generic animal,' one of the amphibious propellants, and characterised by means of legs, wings, or fins, from its its root of Ham,, 'a stride, a creep, a skip, a slide.'
This propelling idea is perceived in llymread, a sandfish; in Uamidydd, a vaulter, a porpoise; in llamwr one who strides or steps; and in llymgi 'a sorry dog,' or lamiagi, a species of morgi, as above. Hence the Cimmerian and Hebrew verbs llyncu and levalong, or llyfalwng acoustically, and ybyD, to swallow, radically coincide.
Whether the prehistoric lamia, or mdrgi, corresponds with the 'squalus max-vmus' of modern nomenclature, I pretend not to divine; or whether, " as a basking shark, it lay, as Kolben informs us, on the surface of the water, as if to sun itself, and capable, from the immensity of its jaws and gullet to (llyncu or) swallow a full-dressed man; or whether it was a migratory fish." But of something else to be proved in the sequel I am not so doubtful, nor so sceptical. Bearing in mind the above, let us proceed.
"The singularity of this great animal is, " says Carne, on the authority of certain naturalists, "that it has nothing of the fierce and voracious nature of the shark kind, and is so tame as to suffer itself to be approached, and even stroked. But it is equally singular in this, that its food consists almost entirely, if not quite, of sea plants or marine vegetables. Linnaeus says it feeds also on medusae (genre de vers radieres) or stellated worms or spawn, but no remains of fish or of any devoured creatures have been discovered in the stomachs of the numbers that have been cut up, but only green stuff, the half-digested parts of Alga3 (and other apparently inanimate matters). Now this clearly is the likeliest fish ever discovered for the reception of a human being, through a divine impulse, unbitten and unharmed, and which would very gladly disgorge its unusual subject again for its own relief; and as the disposition of this monster is so bland, and its fare so entirely vegetable, the interior of this capacious dag would exactly agree with the prophet's description, 'The weed was bound about upon my head.'"
Now, it may be asked, What is the original idea conveyed in dag, or rather Sru it, dag gedol, as we find it expressed in the Hebrew text.
Dag, then, Cimmerice, signifies, primarily, 'what is produced, elongated by way of opening,' as a 'cavity, expanse of entrance, a throat, a gullet, a swallow,' as in the phrase, 'Y bwystfil a dagodd y creadur,' the beast swallowed, throttled, or entombed, the creature. The verb tag-u does not necessarily imply the act of bruising or emaciation.
Secondly, it signifies 'what is produced or effused as germ,' thrivable, as weed or stalks: hence the Hebrew Uj, dagen, wheat, and Ul, dagah, to fecundate like fish, as in Genesis, "Let them grow [thrive or fecundate] into a multitude"
Gedol signifies the terrible one, the monster, as cors-y-gedol in Merion, ' the swamp of the monster.
Bel will not allow me to prolong the application of the hey any further. Let us, then, return to Baal.
At other periods Baal signified the idol of Oriental worship, and corresponded with Bali, of Hindoo mythology, as well as with the deity of the Assyrians, Babylonians, Chaldoeans, Tyrians, ♦ and Sidonians. Now let us, by collating Cimmerian, Hebrew, and Greek expressions in reference to morning and evening twilight, endeavor to discover other latent truths respecting Baal. The English version addresses the king of Ba-Bei as Lueifer, son of the morning, as, " How art thou fallen from heaven, O Lucifer, son of the morning! how art thou cut down to the ground, which didst weaken the nations." Here the original Hebrew term hilel is rendered Euxr<pepoe by the Septuagint; elsewhere, the Hebrew Beker is rendered ' morning,' and Shecher ' early dawn,' with £&>e as the sole correlative interpretation.
The term hilel may be derived from the Hebrew halel, ' to irradiate, to shine '; but the term,- to be a light-bringing-compliment to King Bel, would be found possibly in hil, 'an issue, a progeny,' and el or ail, second—as thus systematically reflecting a peculiar honor on him by an imputed connection 'with the movements of the true, original hil, as hail-haul, the reflex of the primary luminary of the heavens.
Some of these nations worshipped the sun under this appellation; and others are alleged to have deified Nimrod as Baal, Bel, or Belus, a name supposed to have been generic among the the early kings of Chaldea and Babylon, as the Pharohs, Belins, or Csesars of Egypt, Prydain, and Rome. Traces of this root are also discoverable in Hannibal, and Hasdrubal, of Carthage, and resolvable into 'grace of God ' and ' help of God.'
With reference, however, to Phoenicia and Syria, this view of ultimate solar worship is substantiated by the statement of Herodian, as well as by the frequent occurrence and conjunction of both expressions (namely, Baal and the Sun, i. e„ Apollo or Bel) on "ancient Carthaginian coins and Palmyrean inscriptions." Hence it is evident that this worship has left deep traces of its existence throughout the Indo-European race, in the earlier ages of patriarchal life.
From the combined general character of Oriental and primeval western worship, as hastily sketched from above, it is therefore not highly impossible that Bel, or Baal, once signified the true Lord of the universe, and that his worship degenerated into a material element, whether of' sun, moon, or stars.' Sanchoniathon, the GCgyptian, who flourished about 1400 years before our era, that is, in the days of Joshua, son of Nun, states, as quoted by Eusebius, "That the Phoenicians in patriarchal times worshipped the sun as Tov fiovov Ovpavov Kvpiov, the only Lord of heaven, under the name of BeeXrafiev, whom, en passant, Eusebius affirms to be identical with the later prerogatives of the Greek Zevq or Latin Deus.
It is also averred that Baal-herith, or Belbrith, the Lord of Confederacy, or God of Treaties, corresponded with the functions or attributes of Zeue optcwe, of Deus Fidius, or the faithful god.
"In the British Isles," also says a distinguished Celtic writer, "the worship of Beal was celebrated by fires kindled on the mountains. This worship has left deep traces in the popular traditions. The druids kindled fires on the cairn on the eve of the first of May in honour of Beal, Bealan (the sun): that day still retains in Ireland the name of La-Beal-teine, that is to say, the day of Beal's fire." The old Irish name of the year is Bealaine, now corrupted into Bliadhain, i. e., the circle of Belus, or the circle of the sun."
This usage is primarily accounted for by the rational, and in some respects excusable, if not natural notion, in the absence, neglect, or annihilation,' bien entendu,' of purer and more sacred principles, that the solar effulgence was the representative of the deity himself, until at length that luminary was regarded by the eye of a blind and bewildered faith as the real patron deity, all worthy of adoration, until eventually the fire-worshippers of the world began, as above ciled, to multiply holy fires and temples (but never idols or images, or Roman penates, as since introduced) in honour of their deifications, on the tops of mountains. This holy fire principle has not yet ceased its round of temple lights in mid-day darkness in certain sections of our modern globe. Whence torches, or flambeaux, blessed, en role, by the chief officiating priest, and lighted at this alpine feu sacre, were seen hurrying down the slopes to feed, or replenish, the altaria of the plains, and thence to others as the exigencies of the case demanded.
These extraordinary national displays of holy fire, if not indispensable to the unique requirements of solar worship, were, nevertheless made subservient, as calendars, to historical bardic data, to festive amusements, and to degrees of fellowship in the institute.
As, from the evidence above cited, the Bel of Brydain, Ierne, Phoenicia, and Syria, seems to have, at a later period, a common identification of attributes in a solar, or heaven-dominant, aspect, let us now endeavour to re-mount the scale of time by a few cycles of Saturn, and find out whether any traces of him can be found among the mighty imperial kingdoms of Central Asia under some other hallowed prerogatives of pagan majesty.
This name, then, is, according to late discoveries, found second among the thirteen great gods of Assyria, as they occur in triadic cuneiform characters on the upright tablet of the king, as deciphered at Nimroud under the classification of Saturn, or father of the gods, as wonderfully worked out of chaos by the almost superhuman efforts of a Rich, a Botta, a Layard, and a Rawlinson, to the dismay and confusion of historic cavillers.
An inspection of Babylonian monograms cannot be otherwise than extremely interesting and important to the penetrating student of primeval druidical emblems.
The Babylonian monogram of Bel bears an analogy in some respects to the druid emblem of ' Pelydr Goleuni,' which I have humbly endeavoured to work out in another page.
The difference, however, between the Asiatic and European characteristics, whether of imperial ciphers, religious symbols, or metaphysical representations, consists merely in a detached, rather than an attached point of contact The three lines of the latter are separate and distinct, whereas the three points of the former rest severally on a triangular basis. [See plate.] Each of which has been thought to represent the Trinitas in Unitate.
In this Babylonian Bel, or Saturn, I discover, sine dubitationis umbra, the Cimbric Hyperborean Sateyr n of our druidical j
Saronides. In the course of time he became known as the borrowed 'frigida stella Saturni' of another school. This Cimbric planet, then, was astronomically proved by the Cimmerian Institute to have had, without a compeer, whether in Egypt or Chaldsea, until replaced by an Herschelian Georgium Sidus or Uranus, undisputed sovereign sway in aerial space, and to have maintained his fixed state, or regal stand, within its own self, in in the absence of a belt-discovering telescope, and other appliances of modern science, on the very verge, or point extreme, of their own true, far-sighted, solar system.
I am afraid the painted school of skins cannot comprehend the happy, the celestial appropriateness of this Cimbric planetary designation, as being so immeasureably beyond their puny ken, 'in the regions above,' and verging towards 'the firmament of stars.' 'The two-fold chrystalline heavens,' and the still more distant'primum mobile,' the' shechekim,' or 'atmospheric ethers,' of druidical, Ptolemaic, and Hebrew systems of the universe.
In addition to the above, other truths may be, and are, evolved.
Primarily, that the druids, in a strictly scientific aspect, as well as in a purely mathematical point of view, must have been geometrically cognizant of the cycles of the sun and moon, of twenty-eight and nineteen years respectively.
Secondly, that they were not ignorant of the interval of time in which Sateyrn was periodically known and proven to complete an entire circuit of the heavens in reference to the sun; and thereby to embrace a revolution of twenty-nine years and a half, in reference to the manifold requirements of the institute.
Let the additional testimony of a Plutarch, so far as it goes, convey the following astronomic piece of information to all New Zealand chiefs of history, and their school;—" That the inhabitants of the Hyperborean island kept every thirtieth year (minus six moons) a solemn festival in honour of Sateyrn, when his star entered into the sign of Taurus."
What patience! what zeal for science! what noble, what divine qualifications! what successful observations! what accuracy of detail, there must have been in the Troiau of our prehistoric Saronides! I ask what per-centage of the very learned and inquisitive Hume and Maunder school ever saw Sateyrn? How many of these self-satisfied civilisers, and promoters of modern science as applied to history, can distinguish him from Jupiter, Mars, or any other planet enrolled in the canopy of heaven? Comparisons, I admit, are odious! are they not called for, year after year, by the slanderous aspersions, by the technica memoria repetitions of the parrot order of scribes? The vastness and profundity of druidical metaphysics, the accuracy of their astronomical and other multifarious acquirements, were not ignored,