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and el or ail, second—as thus systematically reflecting a peculiar honor on him by an imputed connection 'with the movements of the true, original hil, as hail-haul, the reflex of the primary lumi. nary of the heavens.
Some of these nations worshipped the sun under this appellation; and others are alleged to have deified Nimrod as Baal, Bel, or Belus, a name supposed to have been generic among the the early kings of Chaldea and Babylon, as the Pharohs, Belins, or Cæsars of Egypt, Prydain, and Rome. Traces of this root are also discoverable in Hannibal, and Hasdrubal, of Carthage, and resolvable into 'grace of God’and · help of God.'
With reference, however, to Phænicia and Syria, this view of ultimate solar worship is substantiated by the statement of Herodian, as well as by the frequent occurrence and conjunction of both expressions (namely, Baal and the Sun, i.e,, Apollo or Bel) on “ancient Carthaginian coins and Palmyrean inscriptions.” Hence it is evident that this worship has left deep traces of its existence throughout the Indo-European race, in the earlier ages of patriarchal life.
Froni the combined general character of Oriental and primeval western worship, as hastily sketched from above, it is therefore not highly impossible that Bel, or Baal, once signified the true Lord of the universe, and that his worship degenerated into a material element, whether of sun, moon, or stars.' Sanchoniathon, the Egyptian, who flourished about 1400 years before our era, that is, in the days of Joshua, son of Nun, states, as quoted by Eusebius, " That the Phænicians in patriarchal times worshipped the sun as τον μονον Ουρανου κυριον, the only Lord of heaven, under the name of Beedrajev, whom, en passant, Eusebius affirms to be identical with the later prerogatives of the Greek Zevs or Latin Deus.
It is also averred that Baal-berith, or Belbrith, the Lord of Confederacy, or God of Treaties, corresponded with the functions or attributes of Zevs Opklos, of Deus Fidius, or the faithful god.
“In the British Isles," also says a distinguished Celtic writer, " the worship of Beal was celebrated by fires kindled on the mountains. This worship has left deep traces in the popular traditions. The druids kindled fires on the cairn on the eve of the first of May in honour of Beal, Bealan (the sun): that day still retains in Ireland the name of La-Beal-teine, that is to say, the day of Beal's fire.” The old Irish name of the year is Bealaine, now corrupted into Bliadhain, i. e., the circle of Belus, or the circle of the sun.”
This usage is primarily accounted for by the rational, and in some respects excusable, if not natural notion, in the absence, neglect, or annihilation, 'bien entendu,' of purer and more sacred principles, that the solar effulgence was the representative of
the deity himself, until at length that luminary was regarded by the eye of a blind and bewildered faith as the real patron deity, all worthy of adoration, until eventually the fire-worshippers of the world began, as above cited, to multiply holy fires and temples (but never idols or images, or Roman penates, as since introduced) in honour of their deifications, on the tops of mountains. This holy fire principle has not yet ceased its round of temple lights in mid-day darkness in certain sections of our modern globe. Whence torches, or flambeaux, blessed, en role, by the chief officiating priest, and lighted at this alpine feu sacrè, were seen hurrying down the slopes to feed, or replenish, the altaria of the plains, and thence to others as the exigencies of the case demanded.
These extraordinary national displays of holy fire, if not indispensable to the unique requirements of solar worship, were, nevertheless made subservient, as calendars, to historical bardic data, to festive amusements, and to degrees of fellowship in the institute.
As, from the evidence above cited, the Bel of Brydain, Ierne, Phoenicia, and Syria, seems to have, at a later period, a common identification of attributes in a solar, or heaven-dominant, aspect, let us now endeavour to re-mount the scale of time by a few cycles of Saturn, and find out whether any traces of him can be found among the mighty imperial kingdoms of Central Asia under some other hallowed prerogatives of pagan majesty.
This name, then, is, according to late discoveries, found second among the thirteen great gods of Assyria, as they occur in triadic cuneiform characters on the upright tablet of the king, as deciphered at Nimroud under the classification of Saturn, or father of the gods, as wonderfully worked out of chaos by the almost superhuman efforts of a Rich, a Botta, a Layard, and a Rawlinson, to the dismay and confusion of historic cavillers.
An inspection of Babylonian monograms cannot be otherwise than extremely interesting and important to the penetrating student of primeval druidical emblems.
The Babylonian monogram of Bel bears an analogy in some respects to the druid emblem of · Pelydr Goleuni,' which I have humbly endeavoured to work out in another page.
The difference, however, between the Asiatic and European characteristics, whether of imperial ciphers, religious symbols, or metaphysical representations, consists merely in a detached, rather than an attached point of contact. The three lines of the latter are separate and distinct, whereas the three points of the former rest severally on a triangular basis. [See plate.] Each of which has been thought to represent the Trinitas in Unitate.
In this Babylonian Bel, or Saturn, I discover, sine dubitationis umbrâ, the Cimbric Hyperborean Sateyrn of our druidical Saronides. In the course of time he became known as the borrowed .frigida stella Saturni’of another school. This Cimbric planet, then, was astronomically proved by the Cimmerian Institute to have had, without a compeer, whether in Egypt or Chaldæa, until replaced by an Herschelian Georgium Sidus or Uranus, undisputed sovereign sway in aerial space, and to have maintained his fixed state, or regal stand, within its own self, in in the absence of a belt-discovering telescope, and other appliances of modern science, on the very verge, or point extreme, of their own true, far-sighted, solar system.
I am afraid the painted school of skins cannot comprehend the happy, the celestial appropriateness of this Cimbric planetary designation, as being so immeasureably beyond their puny ken, ‘in the regions above,' and verging towards the firmament of stars.' "The two-fold chrystalline heavens,' and the still more distant primum mobile,' the 'shechekim,' or 'atmospheric ethers,' of druidical, Ptolemaic, and Hebrew systems of the universe.
In addition to the above, other truths may be, and are, evolved.
Primarily, that the druids, in a strictly scientific aspect, as well as in a purely mathematical point of view, must have been geometrically cognizant of the cycles of the sun and moon, of twenty-eight and nineteen years respectively.
Secondly, that they were not ignorant of the interval of time in which Sateyrn was periodically known and proven to complete an entire circuit of the heavens in reference to the sun; and thereby to embrace a revolution of twenty-nine years and a half, in reference to the manifold requirements of the institute.
Let the additional testimony of a Plutarch, so far as it goes, convey the following astronomic piece of information to all New Zealand chiefs of history, and their school ;-" That the inhabitants of the Hyperborean island kept every thirtieth year (minus six moons) a solemn festival in honour of Sateyrn, when his star entered into the sign of Taurus."
What patience! what zeal for science! what noble, what divine qualifications ! what successful observations ! what accuracy of detail, there must have been in the Troiau of our prehistoric Saronides! I ask what per-centage of the very learned and inquisitive Hume and Maunder school ever saw Sateyrn? How many of these self-satisfied civilisers, and promoters of modern science as applied to history, can distinguish him from Jupiter, Mars, or any other planet enrolled in the canopy of heaven? Comparisons, I admit, are odious! are they not called for, year after year, by the slanderous aspersions, by the technica memoria repetitions of the parrot order of scribes? The vastness and profundity of druidical metaphysics, the accuracy of their astronomical and other multifarious acquirements, were not ignored,
passed over, and insulted by Rome's greatest orator. Go and consult Cicero ! inter alios. What causes, then, the difference? the one knew the mental calibre of the lectures given to the multitudo juvenum of Europe by the institute of druids; the other does not know a tittle, except sundry fragmental allusions, mendacious of paint, skins, and roots, in the nursery-tale-formed history of his sapient youth, and the more polished extracts in his manhood from a Macaulay redundant of ante-historical touches of sublime inaccuracies.
In addition to the corroborative testimonies of Sanchoniathon, Eusebius, Plutarch, Cicero, and Cæsar, in reference to the profound and learned instruction necessarily received by British and Gaulic youth, I will cite a quotation from Diodorus Siculus, in his own quaint style, respecting the periodical knowledge of sidereal revolutions carried into effect by the scholastic inhabitants of the Hyperborean island-our Ynys Prydain :“ The inhabitants believed [on certain data known to him and them] that Apollo (or Bel] descended into their island at the end of every nineteen years [i. e., the cycle of the moon), in which period of time the sun and moon having performed their various revolutions, return to the same point, and begin to repeat the same revolution. This is called by the Greeks the great year, or the cycle of the meton."
Again, I cannot allow myself to quit Phænicia, its gods, and Temple of Orchul, or Orchoul, with his cestus and club cut at a Saronis of the druids, without adverting to a most extraordinary historical event bearing on the stern prehistoric realities of triadic records, that took place in the reign of Ithabel, or Eth Baal, the fifth king of the Sidonians, a priest of Astarte, and father of the queen, wife of Ahab, King of Israel, (in the year 918 or 910 B. C., according to chronological versions.)
The second and third clauses of the “ triad on awful events" allude to “ the trembling of the torrent fire," and to the intensity of the summer drought that proved destructive to animate and inanimate creation.
The manifold bearings of the triad in reference to the rainless, dewless, tumps of Ynys Prydain and the far east, were never lost sight of by the bards of all ages. Certain historical allusions have been handed down to us in some of the magnum numerum versuum,' (vel sententiarum) of the druids, which Cæsar unintentionally corroborates, if not as to the nature of their historical contents, at all events as to their antiquity, from generation to generation, from local tradition to local tradition. Sometimes in a form or opus canendi vel scribendi, I am free to admit, of a hitherto unintelligible, if not inexplicable, intactness of identification, unless supported by foreign evidence bearing on the main features of the event, unless they can be made referable to the more salient points of such a catastrophe, in relation to the partial, if not total, extinction in certain cases, of divers tribes of the human family, of beasts of the field and birds of the air, as well as to the unexampled forlorn aspect of the wide domain of nature itself.
Let us, then, ascertain whether any events parallel to druid lore are to be found in any of the annals of sacred or profane literature in reference to dewless and rainless phenomena about the age of Homer, and the early kings of Israel, coincident and coexisting with the antiquity of the triad under consideration,
In the year 1056 before the Christian Era we read in Samuel relative to a corresponding 'twmpath diwlith' of prehistoric Prydain, the following remarkable natural similarity of convulsed action in Palestine and neighbouring countries :"Ye mountains of Gilboa,” says the sacred writer, “ let there be no dew, neither rain, nor fields of offerings.” Again, in the years 918, or 910 B. C., as stated by the author of the “ Evidence of Profane History," chapter xiv, I find these words : "The prophet Elijah was sent by the Lord to Ahab and his idolatrous queen, the daughter of the King of Sidon; and his threats of divine judgment were followed by a drought of three years, during which time neither dew nor rain fell from heaven; and in consequence of it a famine devastated not only the land of Israel, but that of Phænicia.” This fact is substantiated by the Jewish historian, Ant. C., viii. c. 13. The Tyrian annals recorded one or other of these droughts, as we learn from Josephus, who thus quotes the historian Menander: “ In the time of Eth-Baal there was an extreme drought, which lasted from the month of Hyperberetcus, till the same month of the following year. Prayers being put up for averting the judgment were followed by mighty claps of thunder," of a character and intensity till then unknown.
Again, in 1 Kings, xvii.—“As the Lord God of Israel liveth, before whom I stand, there shall be no more dew nor rain three years but according to my word.”
Also, in St. James's Epistle, in allusion to some of the above recorded events, it is stated that “ It rained not on the earth by the space of three years and six months.”
With the preceding confirmatory extracts let us compare a parallel or analogous result in the distant Indies with the triadic
thundering, trembling torrent of fire,' as a never-dying Umbric tradition of the then Imperial Rome:
Jam rapidus torrens Sitientes Sirius Indos