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This paragraph has been very skillfully handled and paraphrased by two of our most accomplished Cimbric scholars, the Rev. E. Davies, and Owen Pughe, L.L.D., as follows :

Y rhodd yn yr aur gorn
Yr aur gorn yn y llaw
Y llaw ar y gyllell
Y gyllell ar flaenor y praidd
Yn ddifriff yr addolaf dydi
Buddrodydd Feli
A Manhögan y brenin
A gedwi anrhydeddau Bel
Sef Ynys Beli.

Diod mewn aur gyrn
Aurgyrn mewn llaw
Llaw mewn gwaith
Gwaith mewn cymdeithas
Yn gyfrwys i'th folianaf
Ar blaenoriaieth oddwrth Feli
Ap Manhogan y twysog
A gedwi anrhydeddau
Ynys fel Beli.

With regard to these apparently antagonistic interpretations, Carnhuanawc, the Cimbric historian, intimates his belief that it is next to impossible to base any definite or well-regulated tenets of druidism upon fragmental portions so antique and mystified.

However mysterious or Cabiric the text may be as a tout ensem. ble, to the generality of readers, yet methinks I seem to view gleams of Eastern light issuing forth in all the formal meed of ceremonial praise and worship, as personified in Bel, during the prehistoric age of Ynys Felthe Honey Isle of the Hyperborean sea, centuries, probably, prior either to its Cimbric or Grecian designations of Ynys Prydain, Albion, or Bpitavvia, respectively.

By collating the two readings with each other and the text, and by comparing them with Homeric and Virgilian synonymes, we shall be able to arrive at something like a tangible and intelligible result. This process of reconciliation will be still further elucidated by a future study of Babylonian monograms as revealing correlative adhesiveness to Assyrian theogony.

The officiating priest or druid, then, is made to say, by one annotator,

“ Yn gyfrwys i’th foliannaf

" A'r Blaenoriaeth oddiwrth Feli.”
“ With subtleness will I give praise unto thee
“ And the supremacy from Beli,

“Son of Manhogan, the king.” acording to the other,

“ With seriousness will I pay thee worship,

“Thou Bel, bestower of gifts.” The questions to be propounded, therefore, are: To whom was praise or worship given ? From whom and to whom was supremacy delegated and conferred? At what period did this druidical act of devotion approximately originate?

Allusions to a “Creator, the arranger and architect of the universe," as introduced in the older philosophy of the druidical system, are, apparently, thrown out here and in various parts of Taliesin as pearls to be sought after and examined, when patriarchal worship was paid originally to the Supreme Being under the name of Iau, Jah, Duw, Iôr, Esus, or Hesus. Thus did the Persians and Etruscans worship Diw and Esar, as also did the Latins their Deus or primary divinity.

To arrive at anything like a solution to this difficult problem, recourse must be had to extraneous combinations of conflicting principles, which, for distinction's sake, I shall briefly designate by the epithets-eternal versus ex atomic, .designed in opposition to accidental; God-worship in antagonism to hero-worship, or man deified; the Druidical or Pythagorean at variance with what is Epicurean, both in its tendency and results.

Now, in the first place, the expression Ynys Fel, as already hinted at, pre-supposes an antiquity immemoriably in advance of any recorded history, that is, in patriarchal centuries bordering on the flood, when the very name of Hellas was, as I have already hinted, an uncoined word to Hebrew, or Greek or Punic Gentile. The chaotic gap of the then worship is necessarily un. documentary. We must, therefore, descend in the scale of time, and analyse what we can get.

The term Bel must now attract our attention. It is either an appellative or a representative of the Deity. If the former idea be meant, traces of such divinely-alleged character will not be wanting in those regions of the east whence his worship took its rise, and where it was celebrated ; if the latter acceptation be understood, and particeps nominis et Umbræ, the difficulty will, perhaps, admit of a solution, even in the midst of nominal incumbrances.

Now, Bel, or Baal in the Hebrew and Phænician languages, was originally deemed to have been the true God, the Supreme Lord, Owner, and Master of the Universe,' “ dal Bòrea all A' ustro, dal mar Indo al Mauro.” This noachidic interpretation, however, as regards the former, was discarded at a very early period, as only a trace of it is to be found in one of the minor prophets, till, in the lapse of ages, it altogether lost the savour of its divine essence, and gradually degenerated into a mere “human lord, husband, or owner,' and was made to represent the sun, under the deification or beatification of an illustrious hero, and, eventually, “the God of War,' which expression, under its synonymes of Beli and Bela in the Cimmerian and Hebrew languages of a still later date, came to signify 'havoc, war, or destruction,' in the former, and · corruption, ravage, ruin,' in the latter.

In the cognate Armorican language, however, Bel (as Bal in the Punic or Beal of the Gaedhil or Gwyddel) still retains a very

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slight adumbration of its former self in its actual signification of

power, knowledge, and authority,' as in the phrase · Dre he feli,' • through or by his authority,' as well as in the Irish balg, 'a man of erudition.' In Brittany, it is even now adopted as an appellation for a priest, as Bel-eg—as I can personally attest, from a short residence in that interesting and hospitable country.

In the Septuagint version > Bel, or ays Beal, is rendered by Hpakins, a term equivalent to one of the early Cimmerian celebrities of antiquity, surnamed indiscriminately Wrchol, Ourchol, Archol, Archles, from his prerogatives of wrch, "high, elevated, distinguished,' or arch, chief, principal,' and ol or oll, all, whole, wholly,' and corresponding with the acoustic Phoenician form of Orcul, or Orc-ul, 'light of all.'

In reference, then, to this Archol, Wrchol, or Orcul, certain expressions, philologically inapplicable to those who claim him either as an indigenous Syrian Orcul, or npakins, will be found so intimately connected with the Cimmerian as to furnish us with another link of allied support and identification.

Given, the term Carcharian dog, to find a result. What did this expression signify in the fable, as propagated in Greece, respecting Hercules ?

I refer sceptics to the Hellenic source, if any, of their own cherished and fabled predilections.

The modern Latino-Græcists, in their suicidal attempts at the root extraction of our term, seize at random upon kap or xap, the penultimate or antepenultimate of Kapyapos, from its meaningless resemblance to, and illogical deduction from a Hebrew word accidentally ending in r, with or without a correlative application.

Let us imagine the whole of the borrowed term to be dissyllabic or trisyllabic, as kap, xap-os, or kapxap. Now, the os, beiny terminal and having no legs to stand upon,' must, of course, be thrown overboard. There remain then two syllables--kap and xap. Either the one or the other is slighted, as an unworthy and useless member of Greek, Hebrew, and Phænician societies. Let car, gratia exempli, be ignored. Xap, then, is 'cut and dried' from the Hebrew na Saw, called ger, and then the whole term is forced to be very cutting'; upon this the saw, being probably rusty from want of lingual oil, they accordingly render it very rough and very rude’: yea, after a while, it turned out very wicked,'in consequence of a further unfortunate deficiency of grease. The ger or saw eventually corroded, and then it became very ‘snuppish' as a hungry, half-fed dog would be apt to do, and metamorphosed itself into two, i.e., the one (take which ever syllable you like) became a silent, the other a noisy, an empty-headed academic, member of the Græcian house of representatives. But, unfortunately for the above sample of rooted wisdom, there is another Hebrew ger, signifying “a stranger,' which, as though by prophetic instinct, seems to estrange the garbled derivation altogether. What, then, is the interpretation ?

The term, Cimmericè, is, naturally and simply, derived from carchar, “a place of detention, confinement, a prison,'—the epithet of which is, consequently, detained, confined, imprisoned, entombed,' with other analagous expressions. But how is this sense acquired ? Carchar, from the root of carch, having its elements in c-ar-ych, as c='dal neu gynnal'='a keeping,' and r or ar='inward force,' and ych, a termination implying .encircling:' hence, it means an 'encircling safeguard,' litera de literâ, a confined state.

With the merits or demerits of the myth, fable, or conte de fées, I do not interfere in any way further than by transcribing the following statement from the annotations of Carne, Oxon : “Hercules,” says the author, “was fabled to have been, when shipwrecked, swallowed by a kntos, in whose belly he remained entombed three nights and escaped again alive. This monster is termed kapxapos kvwv, or the Carcharian dog of Triton,' which Bochart makes to be, not a whale, but a shark, the epithet having relation to its terrific jaws and teeth, and which is called “ laima, from its voracious throat and monstrous swallow."

This passage requires a few words of comment.

The Cimmerian term for shark is môr-gi, or sea-dog, from môr and ci, also llamgi and tagci.

The lamia or laima is, Cimmericè, 'a generic animal,' one of the amphibious propellants, and characterised by means of legs, wings, or fins, from its its root of llam, a stride, a creep, a skip, a slide.'

This propelling idea is perceived in llymread, a sandfish; in llamidydd, a vaulter, a porpoise; in llamwr one who strides or steps; and in llymgi 'a sorry dog,' or lamiagi, a species of morgi, as above. Hence the Cimmerian and Hebrew verbs llyncu and levalong, or llyfalwng acoustically, and 1525, to swallow, radically coincide.

Whether the prehistoric lamia, or môrgi, corresponds with the squalus maximus' of modern nomenclature, I pretend not to divine; or whether, “ as a basking shark, it lay, as Kolben informs us, on the surface of the water, as if to sun itself, and capable, from the immensity of its jaws and gullet to (llyncu or) swallow a full-dressed man; or whether it was a migratory fish.” But of something else to be proved in the sequel I am not so doubtful, nor so sceptical. Bearing in mind the above, let us proceed.

The singularity of this great animal is,” says Carne, on the authority of certain naturalists, “ that it has nothing of the fierce and voracious nature of the shark kind, and is so tame as to suffer itself to be approached, and even stroked. But it is equally singular in this, that its food consists almost entirely, if not quite, of sea plants or marine vegetables. Linnæus says it feeds also on medusæ (genre de vers radieres) or stellated worms or spawn, but no remains of fish or of any devoured creatures have been discovered in the stomachs of the numbers that have been cut up, but only green stuff, the half-digested parts of Algæ (and other apparently inanimate matters). Now this clearly is the likeliest fish ever discovered for the reception of a human being, through a divine impulse, unbitten and unharmed, and which would very gladly disgorge its unusual subject again for its own relief; and as the disposition of this monster is so bland, and its fare so entirely vegetable, the interior of this capacious dag would exactly agree with the prophet's description, "The weed was bound about upon my head.'”

Now, it may be asked, What is the original idea conveyed in dag, or rather 5772 27, dag gedol, as we find it expressed in the Hebrew text.

Dag, then, Cimmericè, signifies, primarily, 'what is produced, elongated by way of opening,' as a 'cavity, expanse of entrance, a throat, a gullet, a swallow,' as in the phrase, “Y bwystfil a dagodd y creadur,' the beast swallowed, throttled, or entombed, the creature. The verb tag-u does not necessarily imply the act of bruising or emaciation.

Secondly, it signifies 'what is produced or effused as germ,' thrivable, as weed or stalks : hence the Hebrew 729, dagen, wheat, and 9920, dagah, to fecundate like fish, as in Genesis, “Let them grow [thrive or fecundate] into a multitude”.

Gedol signifies the terrible one, the monster, as cors-y-gedol in Merion, the swamp of the monster.

Bel will not allow me to prolong the application of the key any further. Let us, then, return to Baal.

At other periods Baal signified the idol of Oriental worship, and corresponded with Bali, of Hindoo mythology, as well as with the deity of the Assyrians, Babylonians, Chaldæans, Tyrians, and Sidonians. Now let us, by collating Cimmerian, Hebrew, and Greek expressions in reference to morning and evening twilight, endeavor to discover other latent truths respecting Baal. The English version addresses the king of Ba-Bel as Lucifer', son of the morning, as, “ How art thou fallen from heaven, O Lucifer, son of the morning! how art thou cut down to the ground, which didst weaken the nations.” Here the original Hebrew term hilel is rendered Ewodepos by the Septuagint; elsewhere, the Hebrew Beker is rendered - morning,' and Shecher · early dawn,' with Ews as the sole correlative interpretation.

The term hilel may be derived from the Hebrew halel, - to irradiate, to shine'; but the term, to be a light-bringing-compliment to King Bel, would be found possibly in hil, an issue, a progeny,'

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