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to us by Hesiod and Homer, since “ the myth-creating people
of antiquity were homogenous." Certain peculiar gifts or
appropriate attributes are invariably assigned to the gods :
Where, then, are those assigned to Venus in appoç and dw?
On acoustic principles a Cimmerian would, by a little reflec-
tion, perhaps, detect the original theogonic term, either in
• hoff-rhodd-i-ti,' even from its corrupted and mutilated form
of Appod-l-on, as hoff, lovely, rhodd, a gift, i-ti, to thee; or
otherwise more compactly expressed in hoffderiti,' in the
sense of fondness, delight, pleasure,,hence hoff, or grata,
Venus, akin to xapis, loveliness, pleasures of love, “ Veneris-
que gratoe vocibus,” and rhodd, or munus, Veneris muneribus
potens,“ et trahit sua quemque voluptas.”

Or, again, Aphrodite, may be philologically derived from the simple term of afradu, to lavish, to squander,-hence afradwys, the prodigal one. Hanno in the fifth act of Plautus, asks a young Carthaginian, “Quid suæ gnatæ apud ædem Veneris fecerunt? Pænus respondit, “ Aphrodisia hodie Veneris est festus dies.” Upon this M. L'Abbè Banier remarks, “they who would be initiated gave a piece of money to Bene, or Venus, as to a courtisane, and received a gift, or (rhodd), from her." Venus, our Gwen, or Olwen, was known in Carthage as Bene, or Bean, i.e., fæmina sumptuosa loci. The Punic term

is still retained in Ireland, in bhean, or bean, a woman. Venus, or Gwen, is derived from gwên, 'a bewitching smile,'

and us, a term implying plenitude, debasement, thus,— gweniaethus, a woman plunged in flattery, or apt to flatter.

6. Con un sospir dolcissimo d'amore ;
“ Il cùi nome tra caldi ingegeni ferve.

Hence, Ridet hoc inquam, Venus ipsa, and epithets, 'decens, grata, læta,' 'ardentes acuens sagittas,' 'Perfidium ridens,' and dulcia barbare.

“Lædentem oscula, quæ Venus
“Quintà parte sui nectaris imbuit.”

Illovrwv, from plaau, scourges, torments, and twn, fractured, the

root of teuvw, either with reference to torments in general, or to a subdivison of paternal spoils -hence domus exilis

Plutonia. Minerva, or Minerfa, from minio, to sharpen, or point, from min,

edge, and arfau, “tools, weapons, instruments,'-hence “operosæque Minervæ studium aufert," and tolerare colo vitam tenuique Minerva.

Diana, akin to the unknown deity' of the Cimbri, and equiva

lent to the Armorican Dianhoff, i. e., di-anhoff, the not unlovely, unexceptionable, irreproachable

“ Notus et iutegree “ Tentator Orion Dianæ

“ Virginiâ domitus sagittæ.” The 'tria Virginis ora Dianæ,' also claim a passing note.

“Luna in cælo, Diana in terris, et Hecate in inferis.” Thus Luna, or Cimbric Llun, is derived from llu, 'a host of heaven,' and 'un, uno, una,''united with,' or 'one with,' as Llu-un, and Llu-una, Llun and Luna. The Etruscan tablet has Llus, or Lus, and na=Lusna.

The 'cælo,' from ceulaw, to coagulate, or ceulo, a vacuum, the root of kollos,—hence 'cav-eis ad sidera coli,' from cau, hollow. There is, however, another root to cæl-um, in coel, • belief, trust, omen,' which I believe to have been primarily the druidical Umbric or Cimbric interpretation of the

heavenly abode. Diana, as above,-hence the Thana of the Etrusci, probably cor

rupted by them after the capture of Umbrian territories about 300 years before the foundation of Rome.

The · terris ’ is derived from tir, earth, land. The d and t were mutable into th. Hecate, or He-cast-e, from he, daring, and cast, gast, a canis fæminia, a bitch,-hence,

“Visæque canes ululare per Umbram

Adventante Deâ.” Proserfina=Prosarffyna, from pro, across, against, sarff, a creeping thing, a serpent, and yna, there,i.e., in the regions below.

“ Serpentes atque Videres

“Infernas errare canes.”
The 'inferis,' or uffern, a place of torment, is derived from
uf, what is over, or spread, and ffer, or ffern, dense, con-
crete,'-hence infern-us, avern-us. The latter term is derived
from gwern, a swamp, or palus inferna.

“Tardaque palus inamabilis undâ
“ Allegat, et novies styx interfusa coercet.”

“ Giù nel Tartaro
" Giù nell' Erebo
“L'empie Belidi l'inventárono
“E Tesiphone, e l'altre furie
“ A Proserpina il ministrarono.'

Ceres-Cir-es, from cir, a bounty, a boon, an offering a benefit,

and es, a germinal sprig,-hence 'flava, et alma Ceres,' nutrit rura Ceres,' in allusions to the drink-offerings and gifts of placenta, cakes or dough, and loads of branches, made to her by men, women, and children of Israel, as one of the frame-work of heaven,' a 'Regina Cæli,' and the pollicitatrix pluviarum, as we learn in Tertullian and in Jeremiah.

“Et rigidi Getæ (coed-tai) “Immetata quibus jugera liberas

Fruges et Cererem ferunt.” Vesta, or Gwèste, from gwês, heat, fire, and eiste, the act of sitting, (safiad would have been the act of standing),-hence,

"Hic locus est Vestæ, qui Pallada servat et ignem." Whence coria, a focus. Compare Cic. de nat. ii., 67. As Vesta is invariably represented and spoken of as sitting before a table of perpetual fire, would not sedendo’ be the better reading, according to Roman artists, who must have been supposed to have accurately sketched the Goddess, either from ocular demonstration, or historical recollections, in that verse of Ovid commencing with “stat vi terra suâ, vi stando Vesta vocatur,” or “stat vi terra suâ, sedendo Vesta

vocatur.” Bellona, Bellawn, or Bellon, from bel, war, and llawn, "full,

abounding in,' or llon, glad, exulting in,-hence, “Dea bel

lorum proses." Janus, the “God of the Year, who presided over the gates of heaven,"

was taken from the Cimmerian Dianws, or Dianaf, i. e., dia, or di, a negative prefix, signifying without, and anaf, a blemish, a wound, as a guardian of peace and suppressor of war. It is equivalent to the Dianan of our cognate Veneti, “the amiable deity,'the dispenser of tranquility. Let the student, irrespective of former prejudices, analyse the following expressions, as Jo-vis for dio-vis, dia for ja or da, as dia-eta=

zeta, and Jan-us for di-anaf, or Dian-us. Æolus, Deus Ventorum, from awel, a gale, a breeze, a wind,

hence the Hebrew 193, aawl, ael, or cnaawl, a tempest,
a storm, and acol-os, changeable, inconstant.

“ Hic vasto rex Æolus antro
“Luctantes ventos, tempestatesque sonoras

“Imperio premit.” Aes-culap=Ais-culap=Æs-culap-ius, is derived either from ysu, to

consume, to do away with, or iachau, to heal, and clwyf, a disease. Vallancey, however, derives it from aisci in the

Phenian, or Phoenician dialect, to heal, and scalp, a rock, on which it is surmised “ that a temple was built to perform healing miracles." In either case the true interpretation has been elicited from the Cimmerian, or Celtic; whether the medicus practised as a Druid meddyg, a Punic fider, or an Irish Feathair, i. e., a teacher, or a doctor, on an âs, a plane, or on an alp, a craggy rock, or exclusively on a rock abutting on the plane, as as-alp, or scealp.

The Ilatakot, though mentioned in Herodotus, are not: embraced in the category of Grecian gods, yet still come within the compass of the Cimmerian, as imaged off-shoots of its primeval Asiatic stock, and were early borrowed by the Phænician and Carthaginian mariners to form the figureheads of their commercial navy. The obsolete expression

p'atas, or ffatas, is derived from ffad, 'a mask,' and tas, a · fascia, a band, a fillet whereby to form a grouped-head as a grotesque representation of their heroes whom they invoked in time of danger during their oceanic voyages. The Spaniards and the Maltese have not yet given up this pagan absurdity. Now, let us see how others have derived this term. “Some,” says Vallancey, “ from the ignorance of the Grecian authors, have thought that it was an ape, from its affinity to miOnkos.“ Monsieur Morin agrees with Scaliger, and both think it should be read fatas ; the letter p with an hiatus being equal to f; they therefore ascribe this divinity to Vulcan, the supreme deity of the Egyptians, remarkable for his skill and knowledge.” [But where, in all this, is the derivation and interpretation ?] Fathas, in Irish, signifies 'skill, knowledge, and also divine poetry. But M. Bullet very justly derives Patakoi from the (Cimbro) Celtic pat vel vat vel båd, a boat, a skiff; to which may be added that oichi signifies champions,—and thence bâd, oichi, or Patakoi, may signify main champions, or skilful mariners.”

Whether these Scaligerian or Bulletian derivations throw any new or extra light on the dwarfish figure-heads of Phænician ships described by Herodotus, I leave the philological and historical student to decide for himself as to the

naturalness of each interpretation. From the examples already given of the unmistakeable Cimmerian origin of Hellenistic and Roman theogony, I find I must draw a line of demarcation somewhere, as I only purported to give a dozen Hyperborean plagiarisms to satisfy the unrequited appetite of the root-eating school of detractors; and must now proceed to discuss the mysterious contents of a bardic druidical document that will necessarily entail on us a flying visit to the far east, even to the Babylonian and Ninevehian banks of the

Pereth and Hiddekel, in quest of other gods or goddesses, who, also, must have had a corresponding share of universal wonderment in days of yore, and who, directly, or indirectly, have something to do, as will be seen in the sequel, either by way of comment or illustration, with our Britannia antiquissima, and the Παμπαλαιοι Δρυιδαι of an immemorial world.

Gronyn bâch o wîr etto yn erbyn y byd.


“What though the field be lost?
All is not lost; *
“ With thee conversing I forget all time,
“ All seasons and their change, all please alike."

Let us pursue this subject from another point of view, and try to work out afresh the problem as partially developed by Taliesinian formulæ in reference to Bel and his worship. The subjoined passage from Taliesin, and supposed to be an immemorial liturgical formula of devotion, will, I trust, when analogically examined and put into juxtaposition with authors of the past, help to interpret shades of thought in connection with objects of druid worship, hitherto but ill understood. True it is that the enigmatical language in which the ideas are clothed was adopted on certain fixed principles of reticence and exclusiveness, so that the outer world, uninitiated in the classics of the druids, might not penetrate the veil of mystery attached to the ceremonial. The Sibylline phraseology, so to speak, independently of the sentiments therein contained, must have seemed as figurative and enigmatical to the audience of that day as the knowledge of Latin is to the spell-bound majority of Papal adherents, or as the style and allusions of Bantine or Ugubian tables, or the roots of primeval Umbrian or Etruscan formulæ are incomprehensible to the un-Celtic classic of our own day, however prominent or imposing his learning as regards the elementa et semina rerum vel radices linguarum mortuarum.

“ Llad yn Eurgyrn
“ Eurgyrn yn llaw
Llaw yn ysci
“ Ysci ymodrydaf,
“Fur itti iolaf
“ Buddug Veli
“Ab manbogan Rhi,
“Rhygeidwei deithi
“ Ynys Fel, Feli."

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