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Titan, however, by a change of sound, becomes Tethan in the Carthaginian, and Tithan in the Phoenician dialect of Ireland, and each signifies the planet of heat or fire. HQaioToe, from 'ffusto,' to beat, to thrash, to handle roughly, to hammer,—hence vulgo, to beat away with a ffust, a flail, as with a fist.
Vulcan, Vwlcan, or Fwlcan, from ow, a breathing out, a moan, and alcan, or ystaen, tin, white metal,—hence the corresponding expression, 'opifex stanni,' worker in tin. 'Fornacibus ignis anhelat,' 'Vulcani domus,'' Vulcanus ardens ardet officinas.'
Apqc, from aeru, to slaughter,—hence atpw, 'to take off, torment, kill.'
Mars, Mavors, or Marmar,' unfailing destroyer,' from mar, 'what is devastated, laid flat, rankled, or dead,' and ws, 'action, effort, ardour,'—hence fiap-aivw, to fester, and /xavp-ow, to darken, to obscure.
"Veder di sdegni acceso U fiero marte
"E crudo ferro trar dalle fucine
"Del Dio di Senno, e minacciar mine
"E stragi, e morte in questa, e in quella parte."
Hoauiuv, from posiaw, to examine, enquire into, from its element of pos, increase, and don, or ton, the wave of the sea.
Neptunus, or Nafdon, bears a striking analogy to the one depicted in that clause of " the triad of primary achievements," wherein it treats of a ship of Nwydd Naf Neifion, which carried in it the male and female of all living, when the lake of floods was broken. The term Nep-tun(us) is derived either from 'nqf or nav,' 'he that forms,' or 'no-nof-nofio,' 'he that moves or swims,' and ton, a wave, as nav-ig-a-tor, i. e., Cimbrice vel Umbriee, nav, or navis, a ship, ig, blended, or interwoven, a, with, tor, or dwr, water. Compare "Cic de nat. Deorum II. 26." Hence "Neptunus alto hibernus Sale." - Again, classical allusions are possibly made to figures of animals, fishes, and birds, on British prehistoric coins in such passages as the following :—
"Quippe ita Neptuno visum est, inmania cujus
"Est in Carpathio Neptuni gurgite Votes
"Cseruleus Proteus, magnum qui piscibus aquor
"Et juncto bipedum curru metitur equorum."
With these, and other passages of similar import, our homefriends may compare the British prehistoric coins of Williams, Akerman, &c, -with the druidical pisces, the currus, dracones, &c.
Ep/ii/c is derived from ermaes, external, absent on the field, envoy, outward, travelling, from er, for, from, towards, and maes, a field, level plain, open space, as the Staia-opoe ayyeXoc adavarwv, the ' celer nuntius ' of the gods across aerial and terrestrial space.
"Te canam magni Jovis et Deorum
Sometimes, however, in contradistinction to his peculiar
"Prseda quam prcesens Mercuiius fert."
Mercurius, or Mercher, akin either to the appellative Mercher, or Marchwr, or Machnadwr. If the two former interpretations be taken, which I merely give on their possible acoustic bearings, the first may be derived, though I do not attach much importance to it, from merch puella, and tor, vir scilicet, amator puellarum. Compare Hor. Carm., lib. 1, xxx.; where " Mercury is enumerated among the retinue of Venus if the second, from march, a horse, and ri, running, as an 'equestrian mercantile messenger;' or, again, from the Hiberno-Celtic mer, energetic, ci, or Cm, a dog, or greyhound, and ri, running, according to certain imputed representations of him on coins, jars, and so forth; if the latter, which is more worthy of attention, the root will be found in marchnadwr, a merchant (in prehistoric, tin, bronze, &c), from marchnad, akin to merx, a mart of commerce, merchandise, and cur, a throb, anxiety, business, care, or wr, vir, in reference to his being "the patron of merchants and of gain,." the " custos Mercurialium virorum,"—hence " gemini commercia mundi," and
'• Hortos egregiasque domos mercarier unus
A<ppo$iTr/. What Venus has to do with a(j>poe, foam, as usually derived by scholiasts, and how foam is or can, in any way, be reconciled or explained by Stio, "I am seared, run, flee, dread," and how she "nata est e spuma maris," I leave the dread foam-like absurdity to modern scholiasts to decide and adapt. The root is admittedly difficult to an un-celtic element; still such an interpretation would doubtless shock the nerves of nature-depicting " Hyperborean nomenclators of the iheogony of the Hellenes," as preserved and handed down to us by Hesiod and Homer, since " the myth-creating people of antiquity were homogenous." Certain peculiar gifts or appropriate attributes are invariably assigned to the gods: Where, then, are those assigned to Venus in tuppoe and Siw? On acoustic principles a Cimmerian would, by a little reflection, perhaps, detect the original theogonic term, either in 'hoff-rhodd-i-ti,' even from its corrupted and mutilated form of A<ppoS-i-Tt], as hoff, lovely, rhodd, a gift, i-ti, to thee; or otherwise more compactly expressed in 'hoffderiti,' in the sense of fondness, delight, pleasure,—hence hoff, or grata, Venus, akin to xaP'c, loveliness, pleasures of love, " Venerisque gratce vocibus," and rhodd, or munus, " Veneris muneribus potens," " et trahit sua quemque voluptas."
Or, again, Aphrodite, may be philologically derived from the simple term of afradu, to lavish, to squander,—hence qfradwys, the prodigal one. Hanno in the fifth act of Plautus, asks a young Carthaginian, " Quid suse gnatse apud sedem Veneris fecerunt? Psenus respondit, "Aphrodisia hodie Veneris est festus dies." Upon this M. L'Abbe Banier remarks, "they who would be initiated gave apiece of money to Bene, or Venus, as to a courtisane, and received a gift, or (rhodd), from her." Venus, our Gwen, or Olwen, was known in Carthage as Bene, or Bean, i. e., fsemina sumptuosa loci. The Punic term is still retained in Ireland, in bhean, or bean, a woman.
Venus, or Gwen, is derived from gwen, 'a bewitching smile,' and us, a term implying plenitude, debasement, thus,— gwen-methus, a woman plunged in flattery, or apt to flatter.
"Con un sospir dolcissimo d'amore;
Hence, Bidet hoc inquam, Venus ipsa, and epithets, 'decens,
"Loedentem oscula, quas Venus
UXovrtov, from plaau, scourges, torments, and turn, fractured, the root of TEfivio, either with reference to torments in general, or to a subdivison of paternal spoils,—hence domus exilis Plutonia.
Minerva, or Minerfa, from minio, to sharpen, or point, from min, edgc,and arfau, 'tools,weapons,instruments,'—hence "operosceque Minervro stadium aufert," and tolerare "olo vitam tenuique Minerva.
Diana, akin to the 'unknown deity' of the Cimbri, and equivalent to the Armorican Dianhoff, i. e., di-anho-j 'the not unlovely, unexceptionable, irreproachable'
"Notus et iutegrce
The ' tria Virginis ora Dianse,' also claim a passing note.
"Luna in ccelo, Diana in terris, et Hecate in inferis."
Thus Luna, or Cimbric Llun, is derived from llu, 'a host of heaven,' and 'un, uno, una,' 'united with,' or ' one with,' as Llu-un, and Llu-una, Llun and Luna. The Etruscan tablet has Llus, or Lus, and na=Lusna.
The ' ccelo,' from ceulaw, to coagulate, or ceulo, a vacuum, the root of Koixos,—hence ' cav-eis ad sidera cceli,' from cau, hollow. There is, however, another root to cal-um, in coel, 'belief, trust, omen,' which I believe to have been primarily the druidical Umbric or Cimbric interpretation of the heavenly abode.
Diana, as above,—hence the Thana of the Etrusci, probably corrupted by them after the capture of Umbrian territories about 300 years before the foundation of Rome.
The ' terris' is derived from tir, earth, land. The d and t were mutable into th.
Hecate, or He-cast-e, from he, daring, and cast, gast, a canis ffflminia, a bitch,—hence,
"Vis#que canes ululare per TJmbram
Proserfina=Prosarffyna, from pro, across, against, sarff, a creeping tiling, a serpent, and yna, there,—i. e., in the regions below.
"Serpentes atque Videres
The ' inferis,' or uffern, a place of torment, is derived from
"Tardaque palus inamabilis unda "Allegat, et novies styx interf-usa coercet."
"Giii nel Tartaro
"Giu nell' Erebo
"L' empie Belidi 1' inventarono
"E Tesiphone, e 1' altre furie
"A Proserpina il ministrarono."
Ceres=Cir-es, from cir, a bounty, a boon, an offering a benefit, and es, a germinal sprig,—hence 'fiava, et alma Ceres,' 'nutrit rura Ceres,' in allusions to the drink-offerings and gifts of placenta, cakes or dough, and loads of branches, made to her by men, women, and children of Israel, as one of the 'frame-work of heaven,' a 'Regina Cadi,' and the pollicitatrix pluviarum, as we learn in Tertullian and in Jeremiah.
"Et rigidi Getse (coed-tai) "Immetata quibus jugera liberas "Frugcs et Cererem feiunt."
Vesta, or Gweste, from gwes, heat, fire, and eiste, the act of sitting, (safiad would have been the act of standing),—hence,—
"Hie locus est Vestse, qui Pallada servat et igncm."
Whence etrna, a focus. Compare Cic. de nat. ii., 67. As Vesta is invariably represented and spoken of as sitting before a table of perpetual fire, would not 'sedendo' be the better reading, according to Roman artists, who must have been supposed to have accurately sketched the Goddess, either from ocular demonstration, or historical recollections, in that verse of Ovid commencing with " stat vi terra sua, vi stando Vesta vocatur," or "stat vi terra sua, sedendo Vesta vocatur."
Bellona, Bellawn, or Bellon, from bel, war, and llaim, 'full, abounding in,' or lion, glad, exulting in,—hence, "Dea bellorum praises."
Janus, the " God of the Year, who presided over the gates of heaven," was taken from the Cimmerian Dianws, or Dianaf, i. e., dia, or di, a negative prefix, signifying without, and anaf, a blemish, a wound, as a guardian of peace and suppressor of war. It is equivalent to the Dianan of our cognate Veneti, 'the amiable deity,' the dispenser of tranquility. Let the student, irrespective of former prejudices, analyse the following expressions, as Jo-vis for cZio-vis, dia for ja or da, as rfia-eta= zeta, and Jan-us for dt-anaf, or Dian-us.
yEolus, Deus Ventorum, from awel, a gale, a breeze, a wind,— hence the Hebrew aawl, ael, or cnamvl, a tempest,
a storm, and aioX-oe, changeable, inconstant.
"Hie vasto rex ^Eolus antro
Aes-culap=Ais-culap=iEs-culap-ius, is derived either from ysu, to consume, to do away with, or iachau, to heal, and clwyf, a disease. Vallancey, however, derives it from aisci in the