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Cornuto teste, et me indigno judice rerum,

Græcia ! Roma! abiit gloria, lausque Deûm. Virgil, also, from traditions then at Rome, gave utterance to the following recondite language, as gleaned from a Cimmerian source:

“Magnus et integro Sæclorum nascitur ordo
“ Jam redit et Virgo, redeunt Saturnia regna

“Jam nova progenies coelo demittitur alto." Ouluunos, Olympus must primarily engage our attention as the

peculiar inspired mountain abode of the gods. The term
is derived from ol, or oll, omnis vel totus, and lamp (the
root of launw, to shine), a blaze of light, natural or meta-
phorical, in allusion to the immemorial “ arfer o gyneu tâ-
nau, a tewynau ar hyd bennau y bryniau ar nos galan ganauf
ae amservoedd ereill, hyr yn a elwir llosgi Coelcerth ;' or
the custom of lighting fires, torches, or firebrands, on the
summit of mountains, on the first night of the druidical
year, and other appointed times, which was called Llosgi
Coelcerth, or the burning a bonfire in honour of Bel, Sateyrn
and other divinities, amid the muse-inspiring acclamations
of the watchful devotees.

“Dum flammas Jovis et sonitus imitatur Olympi.”
“Et quidam seros hyberni ad luminis ignes

“ Pervigilant.”

“Quatuor hic invectus equis et lampada quassans.Compare also the Cimmerian prehistoric coins with the chariot of horses, the sun, the lunar crescent, stars, &c. Cælum=Coel=Col, or Pater Saturni, from coel, belief, trust,

omen, hence $73, col, 353, a sacrifice, a holocaust. Kpovos, Cronos, god of time, and father of Jupiter, &c., may be

derived from coron-nos=corona noctis, crown of night, sovereign of nocturnal ages, hence uetokpovov, crown of the head, or from crwn, signifying 'round, circular,' in reference to its 'solar orbit' of 30 years, as historically proved in

another page. Saturnius=Sadwrn, or Sateyrn, from sa, fixed sway, a stand, and

teyrn, sovereign, the root of Tupavvos, a king or tyrant, hence is he called “ Rex Siderurn," et frigida stella Saturni, “ Dommitor Maris," and astronomically situated at the extreme boundary of the planetary system of druidical and Ptolemaic

antiquity. Rhea, the feminine noun of rhi, prince, or king, as Bel ap Man

hogan Rhi, of the triads; or Bel, the son of Manhogan the. king ; Hence · Re-gina Sacerdos 'applied to her, (from re, as

below, and gina, from geni, to be born, the root of yelvoua,,) a druid priestess of a royal line of ancestors. The Italian still retains its Umbric, or Cimbric, form of re, as Re d'Armi, King at Arms; Il Re di Napoli, non fa se non bombardare i

suoi suddetti- o meglio, Vittorio, il Re unico dell'Italia felice. Uranus=Orion=oroian, day of jubilation, as elsewhere explained ;

or, it may be, derived from the Punic ur, or uir, land, and

an, water. This derivation holds good in the Irish. Zevs, hence Zevyuos, a yoke, equivalent, or akin, to iau, a ‘yoke,' according to the bard, when he sang

“Duw oedd pan nad oedd Iau.”

“God was, when Jupiter was not.” Jupiter, or Ju-piter=Jov, or Juv, of the Ugubian tablet, and pi

ter ; but what is Jov, or Juv? what is piter ? Is the latter an
Umbric or Etruscan corruption of pater? then it would signify
father of Jove or of himself, which is inadmissible. Why, also,
the sudden change of Jupiter into Jovis ? The first syllable,
juv, is derived from jau, a yoke, and pedair, Cimbricè four, or
Umbricè petur, in allusion to the dethronement of his father,
and the division of his kingdom into four yokedoms, when he
obtained for himself two, as aer, air, and tîr, earth; Neptune
the third, as môr, the sea; and Pluto the fourth, as uffern, or
the infernal regions: hence the force and applicability of
the expressions, 'Jovis omnia plena,' i.e., all things are under
his yoke, empire, or control;

“ Ille colit terras, sub Jove frigido!
Cælo tonantem Jovem • Regni in ipsos imperium Jovis,'
“Tum pater omnipotens fæcundis imbribus æther
Conjugis (terræ) in gremium lætæ descendit.”

“Jupiter illa piæ secrevit litora genti.
What gens was this ? Let the scholiasti reply, “genti Cim-
merica Colchidis !” once the prehistoric abodes of the Cim-
merians. In derivatives à is frequently substituted for 5,
the change is observed in the Æolic dialect, as Aɛos, or Zevc,
whence the Latin Deus. Jau, however, was one of the
three primitive names for the Deity prior to its repre-

sentative adaptation and monopoly by a Jovian idea. Hon=i'r iau, to the yoke, belonging to the Iau, as wife of Jupiter,

or Jaupetur of the Umbri, as the aer, air, one of his newly-acquired possessions; hence from this yriau, ornatural yoke, arose the Hebrew 7777, harah, to conceive. Certain grammarians derive it from an imaginary coined Hpa, a heroine, a term unknown to classic Greece. Let us, again, consider this idea in an historical, or fabled, point of view. The goddess is called Bowmic! Why? not, assuredly, that she had the eyes and form of a cow, which is absurd, unnatural; but that cows were sacred to her, and, as such, subjugated to her yoke-were, in fine, sacrificed to her honour and worship. It is also stated that, according to ancient usage, the perfuineexhaling servant of the goddess, Iw KallOveroa, i.e., Io, Iou, or Iau, Callithuessa, appeared at Argos, and elsewhere, in the form of a cow; which, doubtless meant that the Priestess was drawn by cows to the altar, under the disci

plined subjugation of the yoke. Juno=Iau-uno=J'uno, united to Jau, married, or yoked, to Zevs,

or Jupiter : hence the traditionally understood origin, and nature-appropriating definition, of this idea in conjux Jov-is, from cum and jug-um, i. e., yoked to, or joined to Jovi, or Juvi, as his wife.

“E l'un dell altro degni e Sposo e Sposa

“Qui congiungon le palme.bolßoc=Phæbus, from ffaw, “radiancy, glory,' the root of paos,

light, and byw, to live, the root of Bios, life. Arollwv, or Bel=Apollo, akin to, and corresponding with, the

solar worship and deified functions of Ap-Bel' of Taliesin's sacred formulæ, as of the druidical Hyperborean Belus of the Cyclades, and of Asia Minor also. The Beal, or Baal of the Libyans, and the La Bearla Feni, or the Irish Punic dialect, as well as the Grynæus Apollo, from the Celto-Hiberno grian, or sun. The Irish expression ‘Bal mhaith art,' 'may Bal be propitious to thee,' or 'Bal dhia dhuit,' (or, Cimmericè, .y Duw Bal i ti'), 'the god Bal to you,' were deemed complimentary addresses to a stranger along the sequestered banks of the Shuir, in the south of Ireland, about twenty-two years ago. Its antique reference, however, was but rarely understood as far as my experience went.

“Delius et Patareus Apollo.”

“Genitor tum Belus opimum
« Vastabat Cyprum, et Victor ditione tenebat.”
“ His tibi Grynæi nemoris dicatur Apollo

Ne quis sit lucus, quâ se plus jactet Apollo.”

“Sed hunc Italiam magnum Grynæus Apollo
“ Italiam Lyciæ jussere capessere sortes

“ Hic amor, hæc patria est.” Titan is also a “nomen solis,’ as Ty-tan, or haul, from ty, abode,

residence, and tan, fire, and haul, from hau, to sow, scatter, and wl, what is fine, subtle, ambient, the root of nalog, the sun.

“Ubi primos crastinus ortus " Extulerit Titan, radiisque retexerit orbem.”

Titan, however, by a change of sound, becomes Tethan in the Carthaginian, and Tithan in the Phænician dialect of

Ireland, and each signifies the planet of heat or fire, HPALOTOS, from 'fusto,' to beat, to thrash, to handle roughly, to

hammer,-hence vulgò, to beat away with a ffust, a flail, as

with a fist. Vulcan, Vwlcan, or Fwlcan, from ow, a breathing out, a moan,

and alcan, or ystaen, tin, white metal,hence the corresponding expression, opifex stanni,' worker in tin. • Fornacibus ignis anhelat,' · Vulcani domus,'· Vulcanus ardens ardet

officinas.' Apns, from aeru, to slaughter,—hence alpw, 'to take off, torment,

kill.' Mars, Mavors, or Marmar, “unfailing destroyer,' from mar, 'what

is devastated, laid flat, rankled, or dead,' and ws, 'action,
effort, ardour,'—hence pap-alvw, to fester, and uavp-ow, to
darken, to obscure.

« Et arva
Marte coli populata nostro.”
“ Vedér di sdegni acceso il fiero marte
“E crudo ferro trar dalle fucine
“Del Dio di Senno, e minacciar ruine

E stragi, e morte in questa, e in quella parte." Mogelêwv, from posiaw, to examine, enquire into, from its element

of pos, increase, and don, or ton, the wave of the sea. Neptunus, or Nafdon, bears a striking analogy to the one de

picted in that clause of “ the triad of primary achievements," wherein it treats of a ship of Nwydd Naf Neifion, which carried in it the male and female of all living, when the lake of floods was broken. The term Nep-tun(us) is derived either from 'naf or nav,' . he that forms, or no-nof-nofio,' 'he that moves or swims,' and ton, a wave, as nav-ig-a-tor, i.e., Cimbricè vel Umbricè, nav, or navis, a ship, ig, blended, or interwoven, a, with, tor, or dwr, water. Compare “ Cic de nat. Deorum II, 26.” Hence “Neptunus alto hibernus Sale.. Again, classical allusions are possibly made to figures of animals, fishes, and birds, on British prehistoric coins in such passages as the following :

“Quippe ita Neptuno visum est, inmania cujus

Armenta, et turpes pascit sub gurgite phocas.

“Est in Carpathio Neptuni gurgite Vates
“Cæruleus Proteus, magnum qui piscibus æquor

“ Et juncto bipedum curru metitur equorum.
With these, and other passages of similar import, our home-

friends may compare the British prehistoric coins of Williams, Akerman, &c., with the druidical pisces, the currus,

dracones, &c. Epuns is derived from ermaes, external, absent on the field, envoy,

outward, travelling, from er, for, from, towards, and maes, a field, level plain, open space, as the deaktopos ayyelos alavatwy, the 'celer nuntius' of the gods across aerial and terrestrial space.

“ Te canam magni Jovis et Deorum

Nuntium." Sometimes, however, in contradistinction to his peculiar external attributes, he is propitiously present, as

“Præda quam præsens Mercurius fert.” Mercurius, or Mercher, akin either to the appellative Mercher,

or Marchwr, or Machnadwr. If the two former interpretations be taken, which I merely give on their possible acoustic bearings, the first may be derived, though I do not attach much importance to it, from merch puella, and wr, vir scilicet, amator puellarum. Compare Hor. Carm., lib. 1, xxx.; where “ Mercury is enumerated among the retinue of Venus ;" if the second, from march, a horse, and ri, running, as an equestrian mercantile messenger ;' or, again, from the Hiberno-Celtic mer, energetic, ci, or cu, a dog, or greyhound, and ri, running, according to certain imputed representations of him on coins, jars, and so forth; if the latter, which is more worthy of attention, the root will be found in marchnadwr, a merchant (in prehistoric, tin, bronze, &c.), from marchnad, akin to merx, a mart of commerce, merchandise, and cur, a throb, anxiety, business, care, or wr, vir, in reference to his being “ the patron of merchants and of gain,” the “custos Mercurialium virorum,”-hence "gemini commercia mundi," and

“ Hortos egregiasque domos mercarier unus
“ Cum lucro nõram.”

A podirn. What Venus has to do with appos, foam, as usually

derived by scholiasts, and how foam is or can, in any way, be reconciled or explained by diw, “ I am seared, run, flee, dread," and how she “nata est e spumâ maris," I leave the dread foam-like absurdity to modern scholiasts to decide and adapt. The root is admittedly difficult to an un-celtic element; still such an interpretation would doubtless shock the nerves of nature-depicting Hyperborean nomenclators of the theogony of the Hellenes," as preserved and handed down

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