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"All states lead up your choice dances;

"Those who in the east, west, and south,

"Have fixed their lots, and also those

"Who dwell beyond the Boreal shore, a long-lived race,

"These commencing, send forth the sacred sheaves

"Of wheat-stalks, and the Pelasgi of Dodona

"First receiving them arriving from afar."

Again, according to Herodotus, as remarked by Archdeacon Williams, there had been a time when the Pelasgi had no names for the numerous Hellenic gods. He had heard this from Dodonean priests and priestesses, who were also aware of the time when Dodona was the only oracle in the country afterwards called Hellas. Here is his extraordinary testimony:—" Now whence sprang each of the gods, and whether all of them always existed, and what were their figures? men knew not, to use the expression, until yesterday and the day before; for, as I think, Hesiod and Homer were only four hundred years older than myself. But these [on a similar conjectural basis] are the men who invented the theogony of the Hellenes, and who gave names to the gods, who assigned to them several offices and arts, and who shaped forth their figures."

"If such was the case, the connection between the Hyperboreans and the well-known Pelasgian oracle of the Dodonsean Zeus of the oak grove, at a period long anterior to Homer and Hesiod, leads us naturally to infer that in the earlier ages the Hyperboreans were as free as the Pelasgi from the pollution of Polytheism."

Now, though the Hellenic and Roman gods and goddesses, with their pontifices maximi vel sacerdotes beatse, are no more alive to modern faith, (save two, who, in heaven and earth, under one representative form or other, still remain, here below, workable problems of enthroned man and woman deity, a ' sub judice lis' among certain conscientious theologians and zealous adherents of the ' regina cceli,') the Cimmerian, or primary Celtic language, which gave the former a local habitation and a name, is still an ever-living miracle, a standing monument of durability, not merely in our own Cambria, but in the fraternal fastnesses of America, notwithstanding the impotent assaults and vaticinations of Anglo-Saxon and Cimbro-Saxon croakers respecting its ever-impending annihilation from the face of the earth for upwards of a thousand years. Of all the tongues of ancient or of modern times it is indisputably the only surviving instrument whereby to solve the problem of Herodotus, the Cyclic poets, of Cornutus or Phurnutus, as well as of our own Taliesin and the triads, the only key to unravel the pre-cyclic theogony of the Hellenes, and of the polytheism of Roman adaptations, and other countless events and realities untold to collegiate schools of science and seminaries of art, that seem to waste away their glory either in an apathetic isolation, or else in a thundering ex cathedra denunciation of vapoury conjectures against everything previously, and, yet not strangely, unknown to their own verbal un-Celtic code of Cesarean criticism, and groundless idealities!

Taliesiu, having in view the contents of the ' magnum numerum versuum' vel sententiarum of the institute, chants the universality of his bardic knowledge in reference to the arts and sciences of the world, as follows:—

"Mawr gefais innau
"Yn fy mardd lyfrau
*' Holl gelfyddydau

"Gwlad Europa," &c. [Citing other places.]

And then:—

"Mi wn eu cerdded
"A'u twng a'u tynged
"A'u tro a'u trwydded
"Hyd ultima."

Or, " I aUo(as it were, amongprehistoric orhistoric multitudes of bards, and philosophers of the order), have profoundly discovered in my bardic books a knowledge of all the sciences of the land of Europe;" and further on the learned ovate remarks:—

"I am acquainted with their original bearings and ramifications, whether on oath or asseveration, by flux of time or passport of reception, even to the very uttermost:" or, as it were, to the ultima of Roman innovations.

This Cimmerian idea is furthermore confirmed by the passage from the stoic philosopher Cornutus, tallying, as you will observe, with the doubts and misappropriation of Herodotus in relation to primitive aspect of Celtic and other un-Hellenic theogonic inventions.

"TouSe iroXXae Kai iroiKtXae irept Deu)v yeyovevai wapa Toiq iraXtoic Exxjjo-i fiaOoiroiae, U)q aXXat fiey em Mayotc yeyovaaiv, aXXai 2e irap' AtyvTtTioie Kcu Kextoiq Kai Aifivoi, Kai *pu£i, Kai Toiq aXKoie eQvr)ai. Cap. 17.

To this intent, let us critically analyse some of the Dii Majorum minorumque gentium, and philologically ascertain whether there be any historical, rational, and national grounds for the assumptions of traditional antiquity as to the authenticity of an Hyperborean theogony, of Hyperborean astronomy, of Hyperborean metaphysics, poetry, and so forth, being Cimmerian systems or fountains of learning—in fine, innovations transplanted into Greece and Rome by the peripatetic druids of primeval ages. Let us begin with the former wholesale, but hitherto unacknowledged, plagiaristic element.

Comuto teste, et tne indigno judice rerum,
Grsecia! Roma! abiit gloria, lausque Deum.

Virgil, also, from traditions then at Rome, gave utterance to the following recondite language, as gleaned from a Cimmerian source:—

"Magnus et integro Saeclorum nascitur ordo
"Jam redit et Virgo, redeunt Saturnia regna
"Jam nova progenies ccelo demittitur alto."

OvXvfiiroe, Olympus must primarily engage our attention as the peculiar inspired mountain abode of the gods. The term is derived from ol, or oil, omnis vel totus, and lamp (the root of Xafiirb), to shine), a blaze of light, natural or metaphorical, in allusion to the immemorial " arfer o gyneu tanau, a tewynau ar hyd bennau y bryniau ar nos galan ganauf ae amservoedd ereill, hyr yn a elwir llosgi Coelcerth;" or the custom of lighting fires, torches, or firebrands, on the summit of mountains, on the first night of the druidieal year, and other appointed times, which was called Llosgi Coelcerth, or the burning a bonfire in honour of Bel, Sateyrn and other divinities, amid the muse-inspiring acclamations of the watchful devotees.

"Dum flammas Jovis et sonitus imitatur Olympi."

"Et quidam seros hyberni ad luminis ignes
"Pervigilant."

"Quatuor hie invectus equis et lampada quassana."

Compare also the Cimmerian prehistoric coins with the chariot of horses, the sun, the lunar crescent, stars, &c.

(7«Zitm=Coel=Col, or Pater Saturni, from coel, belief, trust, omen, hence pli>, col, 3^3, a sacrifice, a holocaust.

Kpovoe, Cronos, god of time, and father of Jupiter, &c., may be derived from coron-nos=corona noctis, crown of night, sovereign of nocturnal ages, hence \iei,oKoovov, crown of the head, or from crwn, signifying ' round, circular,' in reference to its 'solar orbit' of 30 years, as historically proved in another page.

Saturnius=S&dY/rn, or Sateyrn, from sa, fixed sway, a stand, and teyrn, sovereign, the root of rvpavvoe, a king or tyrant, hence is he called " Rex Siderutn," etfrigida stella Saturni, " Dommitor Maris," and astronomically situated at the extreme boundary of the planetary system of druidical and Ptolemaic antiquity.

Rhea, the feminine noun of rhi, prince, or king, as Bel ap Manhogan Rhi, of the triads; or Bel, the son of Manhogan the king; Hence ' ifo-gina Sacerdos ' applied to her, (from re, as i

below, and gina, from geni, to be born, the root of yuvopai,) a druid priestess of a royal line of ancestors. The Italian still retains its Umbric, or Cimbric, form of re, as He d'Armi, King at Arms; II Re di Napoli, non fa se non bombardare i suoi suddetti—o meglio, Vittorio, il Re unico dell' Italia felice.

rVn)iH«=Orion=oroian, day of jubilation, as elsewhere explained: or, it may be, derived from the Punic ur, or uir, land, and an, water. This derivation holds good in the Irish.

Zeuc. hence Zivypoe, a yoke, equivalent, or akin, to iau, a 'yoke,' according to the bard, when he sang— "Duw oedd pan nad oedd Iau." "God was, when Jupiter was not."

Jupiter, or Ju-piter=Jov, or Juv, of the Ugubian tablet, and piter; but what is Jov, or Juv? what is piter? Ts the latter an Umbric or Etruscan corruption of pater? then it would signify father of Jove or of himself, which is inadmissible. Why, also, the sudden change of Jupiter into Jovis? The first syllable, juv, is derived from jau, a yoke, and pedair, Cimbrice/our, or Umbrid petur, in allusion to the dethronement of his father, and the division of his kingdom into four yokedoms, when he obtained for himself two, as aer, air, and ttr, earth; Neptuno the third, as mdr, the sea; and Pluto the fourth, as uffein, or the infernal regions: hence the force and applicability of the expressions, 'Jovis omnia plena,' i.e., all things are under his yoke, empire, or control;

"Ille eolit terras, sub Jove frigido!

"Ciclo tonantem Jovem ' Regni in ipsos imperium Jovis,'

"Tum pater omnipotens fsecundis imbribus tether

"Conjugis (terroe) in gremium lsetse descendit."

"Jupiter ilia piae secrevit litora genti."

What gens was this? Let the scholiasti reply, "genti Cimmericse Colchidis!" once the prehistoric abodes of the Cimmerians. In derivatives I is frequently substituted for £, the change is observed in the .SColic dialect, as Aeoe, or Zeve, whence the Latin Deus. Jau, however, was one of the three primitive names for the Deity prior to its representative adaptation and monopoly by a Jovian idea. Hpn—tV iau, to the yoke, belonging to the Iau, as wife of Jupiter, or Jaupeturof the Umbri, as the aer, air, one of his newly-acquired possessions; hence from this yriau, or natural yoke, arose the Hebrew mn, harah, to conceive. Certain grammarians derive it from an imaginary coined Ilpa, a heroine, a term unknown to classic Greece. Let us, again, consider this idea in an historical, or fabled, point of view. The goddess is called Houjtrie! Why? not, assuredly, that she had the eyes and form of a cow,—-which is absurd, unnatural; but that cows were sacred to her, and, as such, subjugated to her yoke—were, in fine, sacrificed to her honour and worship. It is also stated that, according to ancient usage, the perfumeexhaling servant of the goddess, ho KaXKidvctraa, i. e., Io, Iou, or Iau, Callithuessa, appeared at Argos, and elsewhere, in the form of a cow; which, doubtless meant that the Priestess was drawn by cows to the altar, under the disciplined subjugation of the yoke. Juno=Iau-uno =J'wno, united to Jau, married, or yoked, to Zcve, or Jupiter: hence the traditionally understood origin, and nature-appropriating definition, of this idea in conjux Joy-is, from cum and jug-urn, i. e., yoked to, or joined to Jovi, or Juvi, as his wife.

"E 1' un dell altro degni e Sposo e Sposa
"Qui congiungon le palme."

*oi/3oc=Phcebus, from ffaw, 'radiancy, glory,' the root of ipaoe, light, and byw, to live, the root of (3we, life.

AiroXXwv, or Bel=Apollo, akin to, and corresponding with, the solar worship and deified functions of 'Ap-Bel' of Taliesin's sacred formulas, as of the druidical Hyperborean Belus of the Cyclades, and of Asia Minor also. The Beal, or Baal of the Libyans, and the La Bearla Feni, or the Irish Punic dialect, as well as the Grynseus Apollo, from the Celto-Hiberno grian, or sun. The Irish expression 'Bal mhaith art,' 'may Bal be propitious to thee,' or 'Bal dhia dhuit,' (or, Cimmerice, 'y Duw Bal i ti'), ' the god Bal to you,' were deemed complimentary addresses to a stranger along the sequestered banks of the Shuir, in the south of Ireland, about twenty-two years ago. Its antique reference, however, was but rarely understood as far as my experience went.

"Delius et Patareus Apollo."

"Genitor tum Belus opimum
*' Vastabat Cyprum, et Victor ditione tenebat."

"His tibi Grynsei nemoris dicatur Apollo

"Ne quis sit lucus, quS. se plus jactet Apollo."

Also,—

"Sed hunc Italiam magnum Grynseus Apollo
"Italiam Lycias jussere capessere sortes
"Hie amor, hoec patria est."

Titan is also a 'nomen solis,' as Ty-tan, or haul, from ty, abode, residence, and tan, fire, and haul, from hau, to sow, scatter, and id, what is fine, subtle, ambient, the root of i)Xwc, the sun.

"Ubi primos crastinus ortus "Extulerit Titan, radiisque retexerit orbein."

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