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deemed the heaviest punishment with them. At stated intervals they assemhle in a consecrated place, the discipline is thought to have been transferred from Britain into Gaul; and, even now, those who wish to gain knowledge of that subject have diligently to proceed thither for the sake of learning." What? to barbarians for varied instruction!

Elsewhere Csesar goes on to observe, "Illi [the disciples of the Institute] dicuntur ediscere magnum numerum versuum," " They are said to learn by heart a great number of verses," (descriptive, doubtless, of their ancient history, philosophical tenets, and privileges, as will be found discussed in the proper place). What volumes of untold truths are there here!

Again he adds that, "They consider it unlawful to commit those mysteries to writing, although commonly 'in reliquis rationibus publicis privatisque,' they use Greek-like characters." Those over-sapient, over-scrupulous expurgators, however, in their imaginary zeal for a pure, unadulterated text, and in their culpable ignorance of the existence of two distinct alphabets—the one, sui generis, angular and unique of its kind on earth, the other bearing a greater resemblance to the Greek or Hebrew than the Latin of Csesar—ruthlessly and Gothishly stripped the passage of the only epithet or correlative term (i. e., Grsecis) by which the 'original characters' could be at all explained or collated. On reference to the plate you will be able to adjudicate the difference between the prehistoric druidical alphabet and the Noachidic coelbren y beirdd, or bardic alphabet, and these again with either Greek, Phoenician, Punic, or Hebrew letters, without the intervention of designing scholiastism.

Further on, Csesar remarks that "in addition to their magisterial and judicial functions, they deliver frequent discourses, or lectures, to the youth, [like our friends, the learned and accomplished professors of the Melbourne University], " de sideribus atque eorum motu, de magnitudine mundi ac terrarum, de natura rerum, de vi, ac potestate, immortalium Deorum": "on the stars and their motion, on the magnitude of the world and earth, on the nature of things, on the influence and power of the immortal gods."

"'T is pleasant through the loopholes of retreat
"To peep at such a world."


"They awoke one morning and found themselves famous."

Again, Greek philosophers point out another druidical term, under the designation of SapoyiSec, or Saronides.

It will be my duty to discover, if possible, the meaning, as well as the applicability of the root, either to the body corporate, as they did, or to a detached professional branch, or order of the same, according to Cimmerian versions.

The name, I apprehend, owed its original signification to an 'observatory, or troiau, erected on an eminence, in close proximity to an aduton, allor cysegredig, or consecrated altar, which, in the lapse of prehistorical ages, became distinguished for its capacious oak-grove temple of a Saron, or Saronis,by reason of the reputed sanctity, learning, and varied attainments of its graduated coxiyddion, or associates, (from caw, associated,) as the ' sodalitiis astricti consortiis' of Ammianus Mercellinus, but particularly for the world-spread reputation of its astronomical professors, its Saronyddion, or Seryddion, who thus became, so to speak, the corresponding members of the Phoenician, Hellenic, Ionian, Phoccsan, Punic, and other oriental philosophical and scientific schools. Hence aapovileg, saronides, became the generic term for druidical astronomers, as saronyddion. The former being derived from ser, or seren, a star, and honi, 'to explain, to make manifest.' The latter, also, from ser and ydd, conspicuous. Thus each form of expression tends to signify 'pointers out,' indicators or explainers of stars: in fine, 'astronomers druidical of a Saron, Saronis, or a Troiau.'

Thus foreigners of distinction would be induced, from age to age, to pay them the compliment of a visit, as evidenced in the Hellenic philosophers, and Himalco of Carthage, who, possibly, may have been sent as deputations from their respective countries to renew the bonds of literary and scientific knowledge cemented by the annual or triennial travels of an Abaris, the Hyperborean druid, his predecessors, as well as his delegated successors. Hecatseus, also, of Miletus, who flourished in the sixth century B. c, "a man of profound attainments in the science of government and philosophy," expressly states " that certain Hellenic philosophers, about the seventh century B. C, passed over to the Hyperboreans, and left in their [saronidaic] temples precious dedicated gifts bearing Hellenic inscriptions," and so forth; not unlike, I presume, certain astronomers, philosophers, and visitors—imperial, royal, grand ducal, and republican, who are wont to do the same at this day, with the interchange of presents from one civilized country to another.

In triad eighty-nine we read of three illustrious astronomers as " Tri Gwyn seronyddion Prydain. Idris gawr a Gwyddion niab Don, a Gwyn ab Nudd. A chan faint eu gwybodau am y ser a'u hansoddau y darogenynt, a chwennychid ei wybod hyd yn nydd brawd.'

From this triad we learn that these three celebrated astronomers, Idris the Giant, Gwydion, and Gwyn ab Nudd, had observed and studied the phenomena of the heavens, were cognizant of the motions and revolutions of the planets, and were capable not only cf predicting their periodical return, but of calculating their movements, ' hyd yn nydd brawd.' This expression is considered by some as rather ambiguous, and as such demands a passing investigation. It admits of two interpretations; first, nydd, signifying a twisting, or retrograde motion of the judgment; secondly, the day, or era, of judgment: what judgment? If the former Interpretation be accepted reference is made, possibly, to a 'prorsum et rursum ' action of the intellect, so as to be able by the exercise of their judgment to re-calculate the precise epochs of the orbits of the heavenly bodies at any given period, as demanded by the institute. If the latter opinion, which I prefer, be taken, it refers back to the deluge as a day of retribution, a day of judgment, ever to be remembered by the children of men. In either case these astronomers were able to 'make observations,' and ' found calculations ' thereon, up to the deluge, or vice versa, which is all I contend for.

Tn reference to the latter clause of this triad the learned author of " Hanes Cymry" gives the following annotation, which I have endeavored to anglicise :—

"There is a tradition," says Carnuanhawc, the historian, "among the Arabians respecting a skilful and erudite astronomer of the name of Idris, who, they assert, was no other than Enoch, the antediluvian; the latter clause of the 97th triad containing these memorable words, 'main Gwyddon Ganhebon, lie y darllenid arnynt holl gelfyddydau a gwybodau y byd ;' i. e.,' the slabs or blocks of stone of Gwyddon Ganhebon, on which the arts and knowledge of the world can be read or deciphered,'—seems to point out a remarkable similarity to the eastern tradition respecting the alleged antediluvian slabs carved and modelled by Enoch in order to keep the arts and sciences from being lost in the deluge; but how, and in what manner, such traditions came to Prydain I know not. It is manifest that they have existed here centuries upon centuries, for it cannot be a name derived from the mountain in Meirion, as Cader Idris is an appellation of a comparative modern date in our sense of modernity. The triad appears to retain certain vague notions of the deluge. It is clear that the tradition was not taken out of the scriptures." Since elsewhere direct reference is made to the ship of Nefydd Naf Neifion, containing male and female of animals across the waters of Llyn Llion.

Gwydion ab Don, the other astronomer, was, it is recorded, buried at Caer yn arfon, ' under a stone of enigmas.'

History, as far as I am aware, is silent otherwise respecting the third astronomer, except that he combined, like Ptolemy, of Egypt, the peculiar doctrines of sicywjyfaredd, or astrology with the nobler principles of astronomical science.

"Heaven from all creatures hides the book of fate,
"All but the page prescribed, their present state."


"Such is the aspect of this shore;

"Tis Greece, but living Greece no more!

"So coldly sweet, so deadly fair,

"We start, for soul is wanting there."

Time and space prevent me from entering into a categorical description of the theogony of the Cimmerian druids, their philosophic principles, dogmas, or tenets, as well as into a minute analysis of the Hyperborean memorial trees and plants of the sages—into "a delineation of the element iry trees and reeds," and " the authority of the sprigs," and so forth, alluded to by Taliesin and the bards. I shall not eventually lose sight of these questions, pregnant with results to the historian and philosopher.

T will now merely take a rapid sketch of the pre-Pelasgic Hyperborean worship of the druids, as perceived through the Herodotusian glass darkly; and apply an historic eyeglass here and there till the subject matter shall be reviewed more distinctly, and laid bare, I trust, to open day of frank conviction.

I fearlessly advance two propositions in reference to the prehistoric attainments of the Hyperborean Cimmerii.

I.—That they supplied the groundwork not merely of the Hellenic alphabet and language, but also the basis of their philosophical system as taught by the Pythagorean school.

1. —That the very names, sounds, and significations, of their alphabet are not understood as innate self-elucidating elements of the language.

2. —Vast numbers of Greek words, imputed as such, have no defined and tangible roots or key of self-interpretation, and are consequently lost, save what the running comment of the context supplies the sagacity of the translator.

3.—That all these elements are, generally speaking, traceable to the Cimmerian, or its Hebrew dialect.

II.—That the Hyperborean Celtic druids supplied the majority of the fables, or certain early mabinogion, which originated the attributes and nomenclature of eastern or western deities; in other words, that the Cimmerians were the inventors of the theogony of the Hellenes as a whole; and as, inter alia, adequately exemplified in their Appollinarian worship, which was borrowed, according to the un-Celtic version, or traditionary conjectures, of the stoic philosopher Cornutus, or Phurnutus, from various nations, namely, the Egyptians, Phrygians, and Libyans, as extracted from the following passage: "Ton Se noWac mi TroiKtKas Trepi deiov yeyovevai, izapa Toiq Tcokloiq EXXij<rt fiadowoiac, his aXXat fiev eiri Mayotc; yzyovaaiv, aXXai de 7rap' AiyvTVTioig rat KeXrotc Kai At/3uot, rat ^>pv£i, rat rote aXXoie Eovt)vi. K. T. X., cap. xvii.

I shall leave the former propositions to be proved while incidentally discussing various matters affecting the immeasurable superiority of the Cimmerian language, in its various correlative bearings of divine originality, over all the languages of the world.

Relative to the second proposition, let us at once collate lib. iv., cap. 35, of Herodotus and Cornutus, with the cyclic poets, and examine facts stated there and elsewhere with each other, bearing directly, or inferentially, on this point.

"The Delians," then, according to Herodotus, " also say that both Arge and Opts, being virgins from the Hyperboreans, came to Delos long before Hyperoche and Laodice; that the latter came to bear to Ilithyia [the tribute imposed for quick childbirth, from its root of i, to, llith, enticement, temptation of pleasure, and iaa, (s. m.) a yoke, a bond, payment in acknowledgment, or iau, (adj.) junior, younger.] But that Arge and Opis had come with the deities themselves, and that other honours were paid to them by the Delians; that their matrons in assemblies invoked their names in a hymn composed for them by Olen, a Lycian ; - and that both the islanders and the Ionians had learned from them to invoke in their sacred assemblies the names of Arge and Opis," and so forth.

Hear, also, as corroborative evidence in this court of enquiry, what Callimachus states on the Hyperborean worship of the institute in his hymn to Delos, as translated by Archdeacon Williams.

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