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eyes were a fountain of tears," with the Cimmerian ' deigr yn awyr,' and the Sophoclesian jnjyij Saicpvwv, the fons lacrymarum, or fountain of tears. This view is also contained in the evangelist, who, when in reference to "afflictions falling on man," states that they were not necessarily regarded as evils, for by suifering the soul was considered as "purified, chastened, and endowed with wisdom." 'Sweet are the uses of adversity:' akin to this is the Greek proverb of iradr)pa ra padnfiara. Hence the Cimmerian philosophical expression, ' Poenau deigronol disgleirdob y naf,' or psense lachrymosse splendoris in ccelis, in other words, human toils, watered with tears, must be gone through below, prior to a transmigratory development of a brilliant career in the ether above.
These ideas require further elucidation by way of comment. Muller, while discussing the question of astronomical mythi, says "that the most ancient poet extant mentions merely the following constellations (which term, however, must not be understood to denote actual figures with definite outlines), viz:—the Pleiades, the Hyades, the Mighty Orion, the Bear of Wain, together with Bootes, and, lastly, the Dog of Orion. He does not appear to have known any others; and Hesiod, also, who had so frequent opportunities of naming stars, never alludes to any but these."
Let us not forget in this astronomical calculation the following chronological data, for the question involved is of the utmost importance. Be it, then, understood that Job, " the most ancient poet extant," who mentions these constellations as being, even in his day, a very old astronomical nomenclature, flourished about one thousand five hundred and twenty years before Christ, i. e., say, according to Tytler's chronological table, nine hundred and fifty-eight years before the alleged introduction of letters into Greece by Cadmus; or about five hundred years before the birth of Hesiod, or of Homer; or nine hundred and eighty-two years before their first astronomer, Thales; and, consequently, prior to the formation of any literature which could as such have naturally and logically embodied any Achean, Doric, or Ionic scientific knowledge of the heavens.
Muller then goes on to insinuate, on the conjectural authority of posterior ages, that the Pleiades were doubtless resolvable into the ship stars (simply, I presume, from the correct or incorrect root of Ttxeiv, to swim, or sail, which he assigns them), nnd that "in ancient (how ancient?) Greece the season of navigation commenced with their rising and closed with their setting." [Did not the Pleiades receive their name centuries prior to the season of this quasi posthumous trXeiv, or Greek navigations ?] He afterwards describes the Peloponnesian legends ascribed to each of the Pleiades, as " virgins who had lived on earth and were afterwards placed in the stars." And again he adds, on the authority of Ovid's Fasti, that " the Hyades were the rain-stars."
'The most ancient poet extant' will, I doubt not, be our best guide and interpreter What does Job, the sacred penman, dictate to our judgment? Let him state his own version, either in his own Hebrew, in that of the Septuagint, the vulgate, or in our authorised version, according to the curiosity of mankind.
"Canst thou bind the sweet influences of Pleiades, or loose the bonds of Orion? Canst thou bring forth Mazzaroth in his season? or canst thou guide Arcturus with his sons? Knowest thou the ordinances of heaven? canst thou set the dominion thereof in the earth?" as some astronomers, probably of preceding eras, had boasted of having done, without divine light.
"The Pleiades, or seven stars, were, according to the mythi of Greece, as deduced by Volcker, the seven historic daughters of Atlas, the never-resting adventurous mariner, and served him as a guide in the ocean."
Though conscious of navigating through a mass of contradictory evidence, I still persist in hoisting my sail with a view of being wafted into some secure haven or other wherein I might glean some information that can and will withstand the tidal shocks of ages, and expose to mid-day view the everlasting wear and tear of my Cimmerian bark.
My port is the Hebrew text. Accordingly, 1TO3, or Cimah, is the term translated irXfia&c by the Septuagint, and when cognately resolved into its own primary elements as astronomically propounded by druidical nomenclature, resolves itself into cenaw, 'a cub of a bear,' having its root in ci, a dog or cum, and mah, or ma, a place, location. Hence, possibly, arose the expression Kvuv of Orion=Cinimerice, Oraian, 'jubilation, joy:' as the joyful day on which the early inhabitants, either of Ur in Chaldea, or of Hyria, or Uria in Boeotia, periodically began the dogchase, and jubilantly "worshipped the gigantic Orion with his brazen or bronzed club, as their ancient hero, or rather god of war and of the chase."
In the Phoenician and la Bearla feni of Ireland the term ' cam ceacta' corresponds with the Arctos, or seven stars which roll about the pole, and is derived, according to Schindler, from rroo, cimah, and 3313, cochaf (stella Mercurius plur, cocauth), also that the Hebrew noti, chamah, heat, or sol, has its root therein.
Let us compare dates and notes of antiquity. Let Muller decide, though unconsciously, respecting the adaptation of Cimmerian discoveries to the usages of Greece—how long after Cadmus I care not. "The Kvwv of Orion is a lucky combination of ante-Homeric times, by which a dog already stationed in the sky was brought into connection with Orion, the god of hunting; so that, when the bear was viewed as the hunting animal, a mighty chase, which was afterwards developed still more, swept over the entire heavens. The bright star which the Greeks called Kvwv, and the Romans canicula, is, with the exception of the sun and moon, the only oue, so far as I can discover, that occupied an important rank in the worship of the Greeks. It makes its appearance, according to Homer, in the tnruoa the season which ripens the fruit of trees, (on the 27th day of the rapictv-oe or cogwrn, according to Euctemon and Eudoxus), and emerging from the bath of the ocean, it beams with piercing brilliancy and sends parching heat to afflicted man."
Moreover, the term Orion is represented in Hebrew by b'DS, cesil, or cesail, hope, arm-pit, foundation. Here, then, the constellation denotes a part of an actual figure, with definite outlines, that would, perhaps, I trow, have satisfied the un-Celtic researches of a Muller and his school.
Again, the fable of Ewe, or Eos, 'daylight,' loving and carrying Orion, has lost, in the acoustic confusion of plagiarised terms, its own Cimmerian and traditional interpretation, as incorporated in the prehistoric bardic, or prosaic ' hanesioti' of antiquity.
What? I ask every poet, philosopher, and admirer of nature, what can be more beautiful to the lover of the sublime than the bardic version of the fragmental and traditional mabinogion of antiquity, when the eos, or nightingale, is silently encouraged by 'caifan y ser ' the star-like congress grouped, (the Kiun, or Raivan of Persia, answering to the Cimmerian Sateyrn, or Oroian), to warble forth its inimitable notes of praise and Oraian, i. e., jubilation, to the long-expectant, yet forthcoming, gwawr-ddydid, or brilliant dawn of a day, which is, en passant, the natural source and interpretation of the aurora? How so?
This Umbric, or Cimmerian, term is derived from aura, brilliancy, having its root in air, a gleam of light, hence the Hebrew or air 'aluminous substance,' and "vsni, to shine, glow, &c., and awr, a portion of time, an hour. Those who go on an etymological expedition to aura, or avpa, a Latin or a Grecian breeze, will find themselves nocturnized, dazzled, and confounded by an aurea Phoebe in all her brightness, by an aurea Venus, in all her smiles, and particularly by the aureus olor, a swan of a brilliant white colour, who will, on nature's laws of right and privilege, spurn his imputed golden tints, as an insult to his own immaculate colour that was his northern birthright, as well as to the misunderstood elements of the two ' aurs,' the one from aur, gold, the other from air, brightness, as in Virgil's verse below :—
"Discelor uncle aur-i per ramos aur-a. refulsit."
But to return to our constellations. The Bear, or Wain, is Cimmerically known as Arth and Gwain. The Hebrews, as well as Greeks and Romans, generally converted the difficult Cimmerian sound of th into sh,pt, or ct: as doeth, eoeth, maef/tus. for doc?-us, coct-us, and mac/-us: hence Arci-urus, or Arth of Uria, or bear of Hyria, or, more probably, the Ur of the Chaldee's, with his cubs, or cen-aw, cenach, canach, or cwnach. Tavpoe, also, from tarw, a bull.
KapKiv-oq, from cogwrn, having the elements of cog, a mass, a lump; and cyrn or gyrn, corns or horny claws.
The term buotes I derive from bwa-tias, as though he were armed with 'a pair of bows, crooked u'eapons, or hooks,' wherewith to chase the Arth-fawr, or Ursa-inajor, from the Corona borealis, an object of strife, or focus of attraction between him and Wrchol, according to the idealities of our astronomical mythi.
Dolphin-ns is derived from dol, 'absurd, queer, ridiculous,' andffwn, 'puff, a snort, a sound.' This sense is entirely lost in the plagiarisms of Greece and Rome. In this dilemma let nature be consulted on her own domain; her authority, as force of law, is unimpeachable. Let the ancient name prevail, and, as such, let modern tars be requested to explain and imitate its puffing sound, when the porpoise or the dolphin, or dolffwn, is plunging up and down the ocean wave, either by the alternate retention or remission of its breath. "Floreat natura perpetuo in omnibus operibus; obj urgatores-que omnes argumentis evincat!"
Draco, or Apaicu)v,is derived from draig, a dragon, from its element of dra and ig, 'what stands out wildly,' as though in astronomical proximity to Ursa minor. As there are only six words in the Latin commencing with the consonants dr, and as dr are found only in borrowed words, such as Spa/xa, Drusus, and in the two obsolete Umbric onomatopecs drensio and drindio, which are purely Cimmerian, with the interpretation of 'to move or act with rapidity,' and'to give trouble,' respectively, it follows, q.e.d., that the Romans as an original people knew nothing of, and consequently cannot lay claim to a knowledge, as such, of the signs of the Zodiac, but what they afterwards borrowed from the Greeks. Even Aristoteles admits that the Greeks, prior to the time of Pythagoras in 536, B. c., who was the plagiaristic general of Cimmerian druids, were ignorant of a zodiacal astronomy. Consequently the Greeks did not know how "to bring forth Mazzaroth in his season," in 1520 B. c., i. e., to calculate the nightly or yearly appearances of the twelve signs of Mazzaroth, the delight-emblemed signs of Mawsrhith, the numerous signs of the zodiacal anima of the Lliawsrhith of the Cimmerian formulas of our Taliesinian text. O, plunder of the starry past! where is thy bastard Kvsog gone? Nature, indissolubly allied to trulh, and faith, and argument, must prevail. Job, the man of Uz, on the one side; the begadkephath of the Hebrews, the bagad-coffu of the Cimmerii, or the memoria technica, or the technical memory of druidic lore, on the other: radiating together without collusion on the ocean of time, towards the centre of astronomical truth, and unity of design, have unwittingly corroborated each other!!
I leave an Akerman,a De Saussaye, cum multis aliis, to decide, from coins at their command, whether the root of Pleiades, after the star-named example of other natural objects applicable to the senses, and in apparently striking accordance with the feathenj and jowl-like impression of the coin marked " 7 " in Archdeacon Williams's essays, can be detected in the term pluad, a feathering, from the element plu, feathers; or whether the root of Hyades, in the expression hwyad, a duck, or some fowl or bird of like import. I also leave them to point out on Cimmerian or Colchisian prehistoric coins, if such be found, the impress of a draig or draco, a tarw or a bull, a llew or a lion, a cerbydwr or an auriga, a dolfwn or a dolphin, a cogwrn or a crab, an arth or an arctos, with the ' saith seren,' or the seven stars, and so forth, with the sun and moon and stars, to grace and amplify the varied prepelasgic records of our race, before the coins of Rome, or Greece, or Macedon, by later science willed, were known to fame. The molten loss of stolen coins do not, per se, invalidate this truth.
"Fitful fancies, how ye rise,
"Towering in your ether glory,
"Personating varied story;
"In the chaos of the even
"High above the arch of heaven."
Let us, now, return to modern Ctesar and the druids of that day, and ascertain whether any allusions, direct or indirect, to astronomical or other sciences were then current in the world, or whether they found a resting-place on the page of history in addition to those already cited.
"According to the commentaries, the druids are described as concerned in divine matters [metaphysical disquisitions], superintending public and private, and interpreting religious, rites. Magnus numerus adolesventiuni, a. vast number of youths used to resort to them for doctrine snd instruction. [Were these the painted barbarian savages of Volusenus and the modern European historians?] They determined public and private controversies; and if any crime has been committed, or dispute concerning inheritance or boundaries of land, [were there, then, legally-defined private properties in land ?] they assign and decree rewards or compensations and penalties, [as in our own courts of law at the present day]. A refusal to abide by their decree [as in the system of papal excommunication], is ever