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that, when the bear was viewed as the hunting animal, a mighty chase, which was afterwards developed still more, swept over the entire heavens. The bright star which the Greeks called Kvwv, and the Romans canicula, is, with the exception of the sun and moon, the only one, so far as I can discover, that occupied an important rank in the worship of the Greeks. It makes its appearance, according to Homer, in the otwpa the season which ripens the fruit of trees, (on the 27th day of the KapKiv-oç or cogwrn, according to Euctemon and Eudoxus), and emerging from the bath of the ocean, it beams with piercing brilliancy and sends parching heat to afflicted man."
Moreover, the term Orion is represented in Hebrew by sos, cesil, or cesail, hope, arm-pit, foundation. Here, then, the constellation denotes a part of an actual figure, with definite outlines, that would, perhaps, I trow, have satisfied the un-Celtic researches of a Muller and his school.
Again, the fable of Ews, or Eos, daylight,’ loving and carrying Orion, has lost, in the acoustic confusion of plagiarised terms, its own Cimmerian and traditional interpretation, as incorporated in the prehistoric bardic, or prosaic · hanesion' of antiquity.
What? I ask every poet, philosopher, and admirer of nature, what can be more beautiful to the lover of the sublime than the bardic version of the fragmental and traditional mabinogion of antiquity, when the eos, or nightingale, is silently encouraged by caifan y ser 'the star-like congress grouped, (the Kiun, or Kaivan of Persia, answering to the Cimmerian Sateyrn, or Oroian), to warble forth its inimitable notes of praise and Oraian, i.e., jubilation, to the long-expectant, yet forthcoming, gwawr-ddydd, or brilliant dawn of a day, which is, en passant, the natural source and interpretation of the aurora ? How so?
This Umbric, or Cimmerian, term is derived from aura, brilliancy, having its root in air, a gleam of light, hence the Hebrew 578, or air 'a luminous substance,' and 787), to shine, glow, &c., and awr, a portion of time, an hour. Those who go on an etymological expedition to aura, or avpa, a Latin or a Grecian breeze, will find themselves nocturnized, dazzled, and confounded by an aurea Phoebe in all her brightness, by an aurea Venus, in all her smiles, and particularly by the aureus olor, a swan of a brilliant white colour, who will, on nature's laws of right and privilege, spurn his imputed golden tints, as an insult to his own immaculate colour that was his northern birthright, as well as to the misunderstood elements of the two · aurs,' the one from aur, gold, the other from air, brightness, as in Virgil's verse below :
“Discolor unde aur-i per ramos aur-a refulsit.” But to return to our constellations. The Bear, or Wain, is Cimmerically known as Arth and Gwain. The Hebrews, as well
as Greeks and Romans, generally converted the difficult Cimmerian sound of th into sh, pt, or ct: as doeth, coeth, maethus, for doct-us, coct-us, and mact-us : hence Arct-urus, or Arth of Uria, or bear of Hyria, or, more probably, the Ur of the Chaldees, with his cubs, or cen-aw, cenach, canach, or cwnach.
Tavpos, also, from tarw, a bull.
Kapkıv-os, from cogwrn, having the elements of cog, a mass, a lump; and cyrn or gyrn, coins or horny claws.
The term bootes I derive from bua-tias, as though he were armed with ' a pair of bows, crooked weapons, or hooks,' wherewith to chase the Arth-fawr, or Ursa-major, from the Corona borealis, an object of strife, or focus of attraction between him and Wrchol, according to the idealities of our astronomical mythi.
Dolphin-us is derived from dol, « absurd, queer, ridiculous,' and twn, 'puff, a snort, a sound. This sense is entirely lost in the plagiarisms of Greece and Rome. In this dilemma let nature be consulted on her own domain; her authority, as force of law, is unimpeachable. Let the ancient name prevail, and, as such, let modern tars be requested to explain and imitate its puffing sound, when the porpoise or the dolphin, or dolffwn, is plunging up and down the ocean wave, either by the alternate retention or remission of its breath. “ Floreat natura perpetuo in omnibus operibus; objurgatores-que omnes argumentis evincat ! ”
Draco, or Apakwy, is derived from draig, a dragon, from its element of dra and ig, 'what stands out wildly,' as though in astronomical proximity to Ursa minor. As there are only six words in the Latin commencing with the consonants dr, and as dr are found only in borrowed words, such as Opaua, Drusus, and in the two obsolete Unbric onomatopecs drensio and drindio, which are purely Cimmerian, with the interpretation of “to move or act with rapidity,'. and to give trouble,' respectively, it follows,q.e.d., that the Romans as an original people knew nothing of, and consequently cannot lay claim to a knowledge, as such, of the signs of the Zodiac, but what they afterwards borrowed from the Greeks. Even Aristoteles admits that the Greeks, prior to the time of Pythagoras in 536, B.C., who was the plagiaristic general of Cimmerian druids, were ignorant of a zodiacal astronomy. Consequently the Greeks did not know how “to bring forth Mazzaroth in his season,” in 1520 B. C., i.e., to calculate the nightly or yearly appearances of the twelve signs of Mazzaroth, the delight-emblemed signs of Mawsrhith, the numerous signs of the zodiacal anime of the Lliawsrhith of the Cimmerian formula of our Taliesinian text. O, plunder of the starry past! where is thy bastard kudos gone ? Nature, indissolubly allied to truih, and faith, and argument, must prevail. Job, the man of Uz, on the one side; the begadkephath of the Hebrews, the bagad-coffu of the Cimmerii, or the memoria technica, or the technical memory of druidic lore, on
the other: radiating together without collusion on the ocean of time, towards the centre of astronomical truth, and unity of design, have unwittingly corroborated each other!!
I leave an Akerman, a De Saussaye, cum multis aliis, to decide, from coins at their command, whether the root of Pleiades, after the star-named example of other natural objects applicable to the senses, and in apparently striking accordance with the feathery and fowl-like impression of the coin marked “7” in Archdeacon Williams's essays, can be detected in the term pluad, a feathering, from the element plu, feathers; or whether the root of Hyades, in the expression hwyad, a duck, or some fowl or bird of like import. I also leave them to point out on Cimmerian or Colchisian prehistoric coins, if such be found, the impress of a draig or draco, a tarw or a bull, a llew or a lion, a cerbydwr or an auriga, a dolfwn or a dolphin, a cogwrn or a crab, an arth or an arctos, with the ' saith seren,' or the seven stars, and so forth, with the sun and moon and stars, to grace and amplify the varied prepelasgic records of our race, before the coins of Rome, or Greece, or Macedon, by later science willed, were known to fame. The molten loss of stolen coins do not, per se, invalidate this truth.
“ Fitful fancies, how ye rise,
“ Towering in your ether glory,
“ Personating varied story;
“In the chaos of the even
“High above the arch of heaven.”
Let us, now, return to modern Cæsar and the druids of that day, and ascertain whether any allusions, direct or indirect, to astronomical or other sciences were then current in the world, or whether they found a resting-place on the page of history in addition to those already cited.
“According to the commentaries, the druids are described as concerned in divine matters [metaphysical disquisitions], superintending public and private, and interpreting religious, rites. Magnus numerus adolescentium, a vast number of youths used to resort to them for doctrine and instruction. [Were these the painted barbarian savages of Volusenus and the modern European historians?] They determined public and private controversies; and if any crime has been committed, or dispute concerning inheritance or boundaries of land, [were there, then, legally-defined private properties in land ?] they assign and decree rewards or compensations and penalties, Tas in our own courts of law at the present day). A refusal to abide by their decree [as in the system of papal excommunication), is ever deemed the heaviest punishment with them. At stated intervals they assemble in a consecrated place, the discipline is thought to have been transferred from Britain into Gaul; and, even now, those who wish to gain knowledge of that subject have diligently to proceed thither for the sake of learning.” What? to barbarians for varied instruction!
Elsewhere Cæsar goes on to observe, “Illi [the disciples of the Institute) dicuntur ediscere magnum numerum versuum," “ They are said to learn by heart a great number of verses,” (descriptive, doubtless, of their ancient history, philosophical tenets, and privileges, as will be found discussed in the proper place). What volumes of untold truths are there here !
Again he adds that, “ They consider it unlawful to commit those mysteries to writing, although commonly in reliquis rationibus publicis privatisque,' they use Greek-like characters." Those over-sapient, over-scrupulous expurgators, however, in their imaginary zeal for a pure, unadulterated text, and in their culpable ignorance of the existence of two distinct alphabets—the one, sui generis, angular and unique of its kind on earth, the other bearing a greater resemblance to the Greek or Hebrew than the Latin of Cæsar-ruthlessly and Gothishly stripped the passage of the only epithet or correlative term (i. e., Græcis) by which the • original characters' could be at all explained or collated. On reference to the plate you will be able to adjudicate the difference between the prehistoric druidical alphabet and the Noachidic coelbren y beirdd, or bardic alphabet, and these again with either Greek, Phoenician, Punic, or Hebrew letters, without the intervention of designing scholiastism.
Further on, Cæsar remarks that “in addition to their magisterial and judicial functions, they deliver frequent discourses, or lectures, to the youth, [like our friends, the learned and accomplished professors of the Melbourne University), “de sideribus atque eorum motu, de magnitudine mundi ac terrarum, de naturâ rerum, de vi, ac potestate, immortalium Deorum”: “on the stars and their motion, on the magnitude of the world and earth, on the nature of things, on the influence and power of the immortal gods."
“'T is pleasant through the loopholes of retreat
“They awoke one morning and found themselves famous.”
AGAIN, Greek philosophers point out another druidical term, under the designation of Lapovides, or Saronides.
It will be my duty to discover, if possible, the meaning, as well as the applicability of the root, either to the body corporate, as they did, or to a detached professional branch, or order of the same, according to Cimmerian versions.
The name, I apprehend, owed its original signification to an observatory, or troiau, erected on an eminence, in close proximity to an aduton, allor cysegredig, or consecrated altar, which, in the lapse of prehistorical ages, became distinguished for its capacious oak-grove temple of a Saron, or Saronis, by reason of the reputed sanctity, learning, and varied attainments of its graduated cowyddion, or associates, (from caw, associated,) as the “sodalitiis astricti consortiis' of Ammianus Mercellinus, but particularly for the world-spread reputation of its astronomical professors, its Saronyddion, or Seryddion, who thus became, so to speak, the corresponding members of the Phoenician, Hellenic, Ionian, Phocoean, Punic, and other oriental philosophical and scientific schools. Hence oapovides, saronides, became the generic term for druidical astronomers, as saronyddion. The former being derived from ser, or seren, a star, and honi, “to explain, to make manifest.' The latter, also, from ser and ydd, conspicuous. Thus each form of expression tends to signify pointers out,' indicators or ex. plainers of stars : in fine, 'astronomers druidical of a Saron, Saronis, or a Troiau.
Thus foreigners of distinction would be induced, from age to age, to pay them the compliment of a visit, as evidenced in the Hellenic philosophers, and Himalco of Carthage, who, possibly, may have been sent as deputations from their respective countries to renew the bonds of literary and scientific knowledge cemented by the annual or triennial travels of an Abaris, the Hyperborean druid, his predecessors, as well as his delegated successors. Hecatæus, also, of Miletus, who flourished in the sixth century B. C., “a man of profound attainments in the science of government and philosophy,” expressly states “ that certain Hellenic philosophers, about the seventh century B. C., passed over to the Hyperboreans, and left in their (saronidaic] temples precious dedicated gifts bearing Hellenic inscriptions,” and so forth ; not unlike, I presume, certain astronomers, philosophers, and visi. tors—imperial, royal, grand ducal, and republican, who are wont to do the same at this day, with the interchange of presents from one civilized country to another.