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and Salmatius, would anti-chronologically derive it from spus; whereas, Picard, similarly imbued, imagines it to have sprung from Drius or Dryius, the fifth king of Gaul. The Teutonic school, as if by magic spell, force it from the Saxon root of dry, a magician, a term of a comparatively modern coinage. The Jewish doctors, probably from ocular or acoustic experience of the order, derive it from 497, or darash, as, one employed in study and contemplation.' Does not this Hebrew etymology, even on this assumption of posterior date, convey something more than a conjecture that the Hebrew and Cimmerian languages could not have been, at some pre-historic period, strangers to the internal economy of each other? or that the elements of each other were not unattainable and not misunderstood by Noachidic or prepolytheistic druids and priests, and the generations of a Terach? Be this as it may, the oak was immemorially dedicated to Iau (or Jah, or, more phonetically correct, Yah, as Yehovah, not Jehovah), as glans Chaonii patris, and was ever regarded as a peculiar gift or emanation sent from heaven itself, in order to celebrate his religious rites with no other canopy than that of its own sacred foliage and the azure heaven above.
: De cælo tacitas memini predicere quercus. It received an additional air of veneration in its connection with the awyrbren or misletoe, when clinging to its majestic and shady branches.
“Ad viscum druidæ, druidæ clamare solebant."
“Run, druids, to the misletoe, the druids used to cry." Ancient records state, that, whenever the misletoe reached the upper brances of the ilex, a druid, dressed in white linen garments, would ascend the tree, and cut it with a gold reaping-hook (a'i thorri a chryman aur), and drop it carefully into a species of sach, a sagum or woollen mantle that was spread round the trunk by officiating priests, to prevent the misletoe from touching the ground. Virgil also alludes to the viscus in connection with the oak
“Quale solet silvis brumali frigore viscum .
“Ilice, sic leni crepitabat bractea vento.” Let us now, my friends,
« Expatiate free o'er all this scene of man,
“A mighty maze! but not without a plan.” The united talents of these Cimmerian and learned orders formed the first Hyperborean institute or philosophical society on record, and was the venerable parent of all the Royal and British universities, colleges, or societies of Prydain and the world at large. No university, however egotistic its views may now be, need be ashamed of, or deny, the primeval teaching of its unknown and venerable parent.
The institute had its penderwydd or pontifex maximus, elected out of the body corporate, or college of cardinals so to speak, and held in reverential esteem throughout the length and breadth of druidism, for his pre-eminent worthiness-excellit dignitate-and his presidential dignity, as admitted even by Cæsar in the following passage :
“ Autem omnibus his druidibus unus præest, qui habet summam auctoritatem inter eos.” “But over all these druids one presides, who holds the chief authority over them.”
It had also its vice-presidents and other officers, en rôle, of distinguished merit, elected by suffrage, “adleguntur suffragio druidum.' In those days they gave merit its due. No forced, or squeezing patronage to clan, or kin, or creed was there. No favour under the sun was there, as in the Ecole Politechnique of modern France, and in our own Eisteddfodau !!
Questions of deep import were discussed and adjudicated in these prehistoric literary reunions. Treasure them in your memories. Amongst them would be found, according to Diodorus Siculus and Cæsar: “ Professors of different sciences, as that of astronomy, augury or astrology, geography, moral philosophy, ethics and divine disquisitions, lyric poetry, and musical compositions." What more do modern professorial curricula insist upon ?
Of this learned assembly Pomponius Mela thus writes : “ They profess to know the magnitude and figure of the earth and of the universe; the motion of the firmament and fixed stars ; also that they have their own school of eloquence and professors of philosophy.” Think of Cambridge, Greenwich, and their troiau !
The same author also appears to be acquainted with the contents of some of the triads, for, in reference to the institute, he confirms the doctrine of the pre-existence and immortality of the soul inculcated by them in their schools to the vast numbers' of Cimbric or European youths who used to resort to them for doctrine and discipline, “ut forent ad bella meliores, æternas esse animas vitamque alteram ad manes.” Contrast the tenets of Greece and Rome.
Taliesin, a most illustrious · fellow' or ovate of this order, corroborates the external testimony of the outer world with regard to the doctrine of the metempsychosis, in the following allegorical, or symbolical, yet mysterious, passage :
“ Bum yn lliaws rhith
“ Bum Serwau syr.' In this religious and astronomical formula, reference is distinctly made to the rhith or roth, form, or sign, i.e., the mutable guise, or external instability of the enaid, or anima, as having been a domiciled or zodiacal guest in various bodies, whether theogonic or heroogonic, whether celestial or terrestial, whether human or or animal in its symbolism.
The lux alma vitæ-the genial spark of life, had represented, during this oft-recurring state of transmigration, varied signs, or forms of intelligencies or of brute force. At one time that of a legislator, as dysgryfrith ; at another that of a warrior or hunter with a sword in his hand, as cleddyf culfrith, as a measure of deified recompense for the display of certain patriotic achievements or warlike virtues. Sometimes even that of an aerial, tearful emotion,' as deigr yn awyr ; at others that of an astronomer, as serwau syr. This floating essence of humanity would float along the · Rhodle Huan poeth,' or 'Huan's scorching path,'(Huan being the bardic symbol of the haul, (from hau, to strew, and wl, what is fine and subtle,) the root of ne-os, sol, or Phaeton (the latter possibly borrowed from Huan sepithet of poeth, or phoeth), on either side of Caer Gwiddon ffaeth y nef,' or 'heaven's luxuriant milky way.' Here the 'via lactea' is represented as a formation of gwiddon, or rotted and mited particles among the Serwau Syr, the “stellas ardentes,' or • brilliant stars 'in the atmospheric ethers, beyond 'y gyfan-drefn heulog,' or solar system, whether of an Orion or Oroian in aerial space above, or of a Dolffwn in the depths of oceanic life below.
“There is none like unto AI, O Jesherun !
Deut. xxxiii, 26. The expression “bum deigr yn awyr, fui lacryma in aura, seems also to indicate another doctrine which the world would scarcely expect to discover in druidical or paganistic tenets, and which subsequently constituted a part of the Pelasgic creed, namely, the doctrine of contrition and its consequent reward among the starry signs of heaven, as a 'being living in heaven in human form, a theogonic being.'
According to the opinion of a Greek historian, " tears shed in secret were deemed solemn acts of religion, as sincere evidences of contrition to appease the anger of heaven.” In connection with this idea let us compare the Hebrew lament, “ O that mine eyes were a fountain of tears," with the Cimmerian 'deigr yn awyr,' and the Sophoclesian anyn dakpuwv, the fons lacrymarum, or fountain of tears. This view is also contained in the evangelist, who, when in reference to « afflictions falling on man,” states that they were not necessarily regarded as evils, for by suffering the soul was considered as “purified, chastened, and endowed with wisdom." "Sweet are the uses of adversity :' akin to this is the Greek proverb of nanua ta uaOnuara. Hence the Cimmerian philosophical expression, · Poenau deigronol disgleirdeb y naf,' or pænæ lachrymosæ splendoris in cælis, in other words, human toils, watered with tears, must be gone through below, prior to a transmigratory development of a brilliant career in the ether above.
These ideas require further elucidation by way of comment. Muller, while discussing the question of astronomical mythi, says " that the most ancient poet extant mentions merely the following constellations (which term, however, must not be understood to denote actual figures with definite outlines), viz:—the Pleiades, the Hyades, the Mighty Orion, the Bear of Wain, together with Bootes, and, lastly, the Dog of Orion. He does not appear to have known any others; and Hesiod, also, who had so frequent opportunities of naming stars, never alludes to any but these.'
Let us not forget in this astronomical calculation the following chronological data, for the question involved is of the utmost importance. Be it, then, understood that Job, “ the most ancient poet extant,” who mentions these constellations as being, even in his day, a very old astronomical nomenclature, flourished about one thousand five hundred and twenty years before Christ, i. e., say, according to Tytler's chronological table, nine hundred and fifty-eight years before the alleged introduction of letters into Greece by Cadmus; or about five hundred years before the birth of Hesiod, or of Homer; or nine hundred and eighty-two years before their first astronomer, Thales; and, consequently, prior to the formation of any literature which could as such have naturally and logically embodied any Achean, Doric, or Ionic scientific knowledge of the heavens.
Muller then goes on to insinuate, on the conjectural authority · of posterior ages, that the Pleiades were doubtless resolvable into
the ship stars (simply, I presume, from the correct or incorrect root of adev, to swim, or sail, which he assigns them), and that “ in ancient (how ancient ?) Greece the season of navigation commenced with their rising and closed with their setting.” Did not the Pleiades receive their name centuries prior to the season of this quasi posthumous alev, or Greek navigations ?1 He afterwards describes the Peloponnesian legends ascribed to each of the Pleiades, as “ virgins who had lived on earth and were afterwards placed in the stars." And again he adds, on the authority of Ovid's Fasti, that “ the Hyades were the rain-stars."
· The most ancient poet extant' will, I doubt not, be our best guide and interpreter. What does Job, the sacred penman, dictate to our judgment? Let him state his own version, either in his own Hebrew, in that of the Septuagint, the vulgate, or in our authorised version, according to the curiosity of mankind.
• Canst thou bind the sweet influences of Pleiades, or loose the bonds of Orion ? Canst thou bring forth Mazzaroth in his season? or canst thou guide Arcturus with his sons? Knowest thou the ordinances of heaven ? canst thou set the dominion thereof in the earth ?” as some astronomers, probably of preceding eras, had boasted of having done, without divine light.
“ The Pleiades, or seven stars, were, according to the mythi of Greece, as deduced by Volcker, the seven historic daughters of Atlas, the never-resting adventurous mariner, and served him as a guide in the ocean."
Though conscious of navigating through a mass of contradictory evidence, I still persist in hoisting my sail with a view of being wafted into some secure haven or other wherein I might glean some information that can and will withstand the tidal shocks of ages, and expose to mid-day view the everlasting wear and tear of my Cimmerian bark.
My port is the Hebrew text. Accordingly, 10, or Cimah, is the term translated alelades by the Septuagint, and when cognately resolved into its own primary elements as astronomicaily propounded by druidical nomenclature, resolves itself into cenaw, 'a cub of a bear,' having its root in ci, a dog or cwn, and mah, or ma, a place, location. Hence, possibly, arose the expression KUWV of Orion=Cimmericè, Oraian, jubilation, joy :' as the joyful day on which the early inhabitants, either of Ur in Chaldea, or of Hyria, or Uria in Baotia, periodically began the dogchase, and jubilantly “worshipped the gigantic Orion with his brazen or bronzed club, as their ancient hero, or rather god of war and of the chase.”
In the Phænician and la Bearla feni of Ireland the term 'cam ceacta' corresponds with the Arctos, or seven stars which roll about the pole, and is derived, according to Schindler, from 70's, cimah, and 1373, cochaf (stella Mercurius, plur, cocauth), also that the Hebrew non, chamah, heat, or sol, has its root therein.
Let us compare dates and notes of antiquity. Let Muller decide, though unconsciously, respecting the adaptation of Cimmerian discoveries to the usages of Greece—how long after Cadmus I care not. “The kuwv of Orion is a lucky combination of ante-Homeric times, by which a dog already stationed in the sky was brought into connection with Orion, the god of hunting; so