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the 12th or 13th century, had anything to do with these stupendous druidical constructions must be treated with passing indifference, as unworthy of serious consideration. In
It also appears, according to the Greek authorities already cited, that the whole extent of country, i.e., west, north, and east of the Peninsula included between the river Tiras, (Dniester) the reclaimed and desiccated province of Bastarna, from the Cimbric root bas, a shallow, and tarn, a drying up, and the western slopes of Mount Caucasus, was known under the appellation of Kepuepia (Cimmeria), the primeval land of the Cimbri, or Cymry; and that those states or tribes occupying the fertile agricultural land between the Borysthenes and the Tanais, were settled husbandmen, while the others, dwelling in upland and hilly districts, were pastoral and nomadic, living in waggons' or any extemporaneous wooden accommodations-not very unlike ourown colonial settlers of the past. They were also milkers of mares (as now there are milkers of asses for invalids), cows, sheep, and goats; somewhat, I presume, after the fashion of the ancient and modern Arabs, according to personal observation.
Again we have an accumulation of evidence, if indeed it were wanting in the fact “that the sepulchres of their kings rich in gold and other ornaments” were yet shewn “in fence-enclosed T&uevn" in the time of Herodotus, " on the banks of the river Tyras,” even after they had ceased as a nation to occupy their former territories.
The expulsion of the Cimmerians from the Crimea, and consequent invasions elsewhere, already hinted at, require a few comments to modify the ill-understood and apparent antagonistic version of certain portions of our Cimmerian history.
The first colonizing batches of Asiatic Cimmerians from the shores of the Crimean Bosporus (y Beisfor Cymreig), to Asia Minor, to Ynys Prydain, to the north of Italy, under some · Hu Gadarn' (Hu the mighty), or Prydain ab Aedd Mawr, in the age, possibly, of the Cimmerian astronomer Idris Gawr (Idris, the Bardic Giant), a name, par parenthese, not unknown to Arabian and Egyptian traditions, must necessarily have occured long prior to the times of the early prophets of Israel, much more to the Scythian or Assyrian invasions of the Crimea, Cimmeria, and Asia Minor, alluded to in the Cyclic, Homeric, Hesiodic, and Arismaspean poems, in fact, centuries anterior to the reign of King David, who was contemporary with Homer, as I shall have occasion to dilate upon when I come to the discussion of druidism and of the prehistoric commerce of the island, and other matters of universal interest bearing on this subject as extracted, vi et armis, from nature's code, or the unwilling records of mankind.
“ Though in Time's record nearly wrought,
The gweddilion, reliquiæ, or remnants of the original Cimmerians on the sea-boards of the Axinus, must also, in the lapse of ages, though left unchronicled as their sires, either on Hebrew marble slabs, or on Arabian camel-bones, have become numerous bodies of people, who again, either from the suddenness of a hostile attack from without, or from a surplus population and consequent personal bickerings and disagreements amongst themselves, must have been obliged, like Lot and Abraham, to split into two or more grand divisions, and pursue in amity different routes under elected chiefs or kings, prior to their departure, either as overpowered indigenæ, or as over-populated and discontented colonists, now intent on distant lands of east and west and south. This hypothesis seems to do away with the difficulty of reconciling the conflicting statements of Herodotus, Strabo, and other Greek writers, with their respective commentators on sundry date—unfixed, undefinable primeval Cimmerian invasions, which otherwise would present an aspect of inextricable confusion to those who desire to trace their steps ever so little along the sea coast of Thracia, the alleged Cimbric land of the Deffrobani of our druidical triads, or through the length and breadth of Asia Minor in their settled abodes in Dardania, at Caer Troiau in the extreme north-west down to Mynydd Tor, or Mt. Taurus, in south east, in ages, be it observed, long prior to their subjugation or dispersion by the Assyrians and Lydians under a Cresus or an Halyattes, or by the Medes and Persians under a Cyrus and a Darius, or by the Scythian hordes of Nothern Europe, alluded to by the Cyclic poets.
This conditional principle of action, outgrowing itself, from tiine to time, by the progressive laws of nature and social progress, would, I humbly conceive, coincide with the bearings of this admittedly abstruse question, in the transitory invasion, occupation, or colonization of different parts of Asia Minor; in some cases far beyond, in others, within, the partial grasp of historical tradition,-at different epochs referred to by Aristeas, Hecatous, and our own historical bards.
Å division then must, according to Herodotus, and at a very early period of the world's history, after the principle enunciated, have coasted along the eastern shores of the Palus Mæotis, a term which, according to ocular and acoustic principles of language, I derive, en passant, from the original name Pallus Maæthus, or Mæatoe, given by the early Cimmerians, and easily corrupted by Greek and Roman geographers, who first heard it pronounced, into a græcised and latin form as above. The conjoint expressions in the former language mean absolutely nothing; whereas in the latter, the term Mæotis does not fare any better, though by an extraordinary freak of fancy, and coincidence of sound, but not of meaning, the term pallus is forced into that of palus a marsh, by those that were and are unskilled in the Celtic languages, What, then is their interpretation? The word meathus, or mæata, in the Celtic languages signifies a marshy flat, a meadow, a plain,-from the root maeth, nurture, fosterage; and pallus, fallacious, from pall, a failure, nought, neglect. (From this root meath is derived the name of the Caledonian maatæ,—which, however, Chalmers derives from the term meiadi, warriors.) This divisionary corps then went along the borders or embankments of this neglected, sterile, swampy, putrid, marshy flat of the Palus Mæotis, or Putridum Mare of the earlier and later dates, and skirting the shores of the Môr Du, Aigswn, or Euxine, and passing the west of Mount Caucasus (from cau a mountain hollow, and cas disagreeable), made their way into the encircling curved shore of Colchis (from the Cimmerian root cylch, a circle, a zone, a cycle, a circuit, a rim, a hoop, &c.,—the original derivative form of Kuklos, the circle, of the Greeks), because the coast here makes a detour, or curve, from the Crimea to Pontus.
These roots, I am afraid, will cause you to lose the ramifications of my narrative, I will therefore on a future occasion enter more deeply into them, while discussing the capacity and beauty of the Cimbric language. Let us, then, hurry on to catch our migrating friends, and lead them after a given settlement at Colchis, through the Sarmatian Gates, or passes, to the bridgespanned province of Pontus, and the clustered herbal, (or orachatriplex silvestris) district of Paphlagonia, where the major portion of the first division located themselves permanently for ages on the briny banks of the River Halys, on its extreme promontory at or near the site of Sinope, a later superimposed colony of the Pelasgi.
In the vicinity of the new settlement vast quantities of iron ore were discovered on the sloping sides of a hill, to which, in accordance with the fortunate “trouvaille,' the discoverers gave the name of Chalybos, from the root cael, to get to find, and llab, ironstone. The working of this useful mineral commodity must have induced the Phænician and Pelasgi traders to visit their port, their graves officinas ferri, and bring in their train all the usual concomitant advantages of friendly intercourse. Cimmerian, or Chalybian iron was in great demand for its ductile and malleable quality, throughout Asia Minor, and in all the rising adjacent Hellenistic colonies.
Lib. 8, V. 419.
Validique incudibus ictus
And Again, V. 443
Impediunt. Appolonius Rhodius, in allusion to certain prehistoric opifices ferri vel stanni (workers in iron and tin), and especially to Vulcan, if I remember rightly, who were accustomed to go early in the morning to their laborious brazier's forges and anvils, has these words :-0 uey de Els Xalkswva kal akuovaç nou Benkél. A propos of the mythic Vulcan-can the term be derived from ow, a breathing out, or W, augmentative power, and alcan, tin or metal ? Walcan, or Valcan? as one of the early apprentices in the Chalybian or Cimmerian craft?
The Phænicians and Pelasgi claim a passing remark. The former (according to Sanchoniathon, who flourished about 1440 B.C., as preserved by Eusebius), began to colonize in the time of the Hebrew judges, about 1400 years B.C. Their first in-sea settlement was Cyprus; Rhodes, also, is alleged to have been, but without reliable proof, another. I claim it on perfectly similar grounds of identification, as a more ancient Cimmerian colony. Let it remain for the present 'sub judice lis; ' and let the Phænicians pass on into Greece, Sicily, Sardinia, Spain, and Ynys Prydain—to dispense the blessings of commercial interchange.
The term Pelasgi, according to Keightley, “is another, and probably an older, form of Pelargi, which would come from melw, to be, or to be engaged on, and apyos or aypoc, ager, land.” I shall make no comment upon the probability of this forced interpretation. I, on the other hand, derive it, in accordance with its inward and outward bearings of interpretation, from pil-io, to pare, to peel, to strip, from its root pel, a moving body, a ball, a skin or thin rind of anything; and usawg, having husks, shells, or pods :-hence pel usawg, Pel-asg-i, and the Cimbric verb, diflisgo, to decorticate. This natural derivation is in perfect harmony with the (to some) very unpalatable “theory of the poets and philosophers, that their forefathers, the Pelasgi, had been at one time wandering acorn-husk-pod-eating savages ; ” till they had, on the maritime confines of Aigswn and the Beisfor, in prehistoric times, been indoctrinated into a better, a wider sphere of social life, by their intercourse “ with the parent instructors of all around' les Cimmerians, les habitents primitifs de la Caucase et de l'Asie Mineur.”
In the distant precyclic horizon, I seem, with my inmost soul, to catch a glimpse of one of these 'nations primitives et civilisées,' in the Acolonnas of Homer, who in the circumscribed knowledge of the age, “speaks of two divisions of them, one dwelling near the rising of the sun, the other near the setting,--both having
'imbronzed visages !' from their proximity to that luminary, and both leading a blissful existence, because living amid a flood of light; and, as a natural concomitant of a blissful existence, blameless, pure, and free from any kind of moral defilement.” Now, in our hearts and consciences, to what people or race of peoples can this florid scholiastic eastern description apply? Stand for a moment on the central or upper divisions of the Aigwm, and, turning your back to the isles, you will of necessity, as Homer did, turn your eyes towards Codiad yr haul (the rising of the sun)-the native lands of the Cimmerii.
The Moonian bard must have heard something of their manners and beliefs, either from some one of themselves, or from others who had seen them, otherwise he could not have depicted their name so emphatically,—which is of native growth (i.e. a term given to the nation by themselves), and would, in consonance with their principles of nomenclature, be derived from the primary aspects and productions of the country. Now listen, as Homer must have done, to the borrowed sound of Acolonas, Aith-io-pas, or pis, and to its equivalent Cimmerian, Aeth-y-pys,—not be assured, from arow, to burn, and wt, an eye, which dazzled the eyes, reddened and imbronzed the visages of ancient and modern scholiasts,—but from Aeth, a prickly scrub, also gorse and furze, and y, of the, and pys, seeds not reaped, but gathered by the hand '-pulse, beans, peas, and so forth—in fine leguminous plants, answering to the real or imaginary classified appellation in certain lexicons, of Salvea Argentea, for I am at present unable to compare it; hence have we Ac0c04, a leguminous-planted country, in which these innocent, unwarlike, independent, luminous druids, of immemorial Colchis and its vicinity, reigned in a quasi paradisiacal, patriarchal bliss. Volcker is, I am proud to add, in favour of making the legend of the eastern Æthiopians to have arisen from an obscure acquaintance with the inhabitants of Colchis and the eastern seaboard of the Aigswn, centuries anterior to the Argonautic expedition to these very localities. The early Pelasgi, call them what you may, whether Argeians, Danaans, or Achæans, during their commercial transactions with the Cimmerian ports of the Aigswn (Axin-us), the Beisfor (Bosporus), the Crimea (Cimmeria); with the harbour of the Caellabiaid (Xalußos), at or near Sinope, with the ports of Anarchia and Meini-cedyrn, in Colchis (Cylch); or, again, with Deffrobani, and other sea ports within the Allwysfor (Helles-pontus), down to, and along, the coasts of Aigwm (Ægæum), and the isles of the Cylchiad and Myrtaw (myrto-um-mare). The Pelasgi, I repeat, must have picked up, in their primitive, unsophisticated condition, fragmental, or sectional portions, of the druidical religion; and adopted words, and occasionally a phrase or two, as did the Roman citizen of Tarsus two thousand years afterwards, more or less :