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which he shall prove by the correctness of his answering, he being examined before regular and worthy congress of bards; or, where there is no such congress, by a lawful session, granted by the subjects of the clan-chief of the territory; or by twelve of the judges of the court; or, if this be not the custom, by twelve freeholders (brawdwyr) of his court, who act as judges. Moreover, the knowledge gained by regular instruction is not to be required of the ovate to entitle him to his privilege, nor anything more than that his knowledge is well-founded. This is so well regulated for the maintenance of science, lest there should be a deficiency of regular teachers, and the arts and sciences depending upon memory and regular instruction should be lost; and, also, for further improvement of arts and sciences, by the addition of every new discovery approved by the learned and the wise, and confirmed as such by them; and, also, lest the advantage arising from the powers of natural genius and invention should be repressed.

3.—The Druid Bard, who must be a bard regularly instituted and graduated (Bardd gorseddog a graddedig), and of approved wisdom, and knowledge, and of elocution sufficient to express what his judgment and intelligence dictate. This office has its privilege by a free grant adjudged to him by the sense of a regular court of the clan, taken by ballot (coelbren). His duty is to give moral and religious instruction in the congress of bards, in the palace, in the place of worship, and in the family in which he has full privilege. Each of these has a just and lawful claim to five free acres in right of his profession, exclusive of what he is entitled to as a Cymro by birth. For the right by profession does not abrogate that by nature, nor the natural right the professional."

The particular duties of the three orders of bardism, enumerated in this triad are thus similarly described in the “Institutional Triad of Bardism”:

“ The three orders of Primitive Bards : The Presiding Bard, or Primitive Bard Positive, according to the rights, voice, and usage of the bardic conventions, whose office it is to superintend and regulate; the Ovate, according to poetical genius, exertion, and contingency, whose province it is to act from the impulse of poetical inspiration; and the Druid, according to the reason, nature, and necessity of things, whose duty it is to instruct."

It will now be my duty to analyse each term according to the definitions of subsequent bardic congresses, as well as the universally accepted interpretation of the same by the nation of the Cimbri learned in the laws of bardism and general literature.

The term bardd, then, signifies, priest, philosopher, or teacher,

as well as bard or poet. It were a work of supererogation in me to bring forward a hundredth part of passages found in the different books of triads, to illustrate the verification of each quality in proprio ordine nominum. Such a process would tax your patience and indulgence far too much. Let sceptics study these matchless antiquarian germs of thought and purity of diction in the Adamitic vernacular. Suffice it, however, to adduce the following as examples of another order of triads, to open the eyes of the world as to the imputed gross ignorance, immoral practices, and barbarian practises of the ancient pre-Roman Cimmerians :

1.-The three primary privileges of the bards of the Isle of Britain: Maintenance wherever they go; that no naked weapon be borne in their presence; and that their testimony be preferred to that of all others.

2.- The three ultimate objects of bardism : To reform morals and customs; to secure peace; and praise everything that is good and excellent.

3.—Three things forbidden to a bard: immorality; satire; and the bearing of arms. (Dwyn anfawl, dwyn anfoes, a dwyn arvau.)

4.—The three modes of instruction used by the bards of the Isle of Britain : The instruction of voice, song, and usage, by means of convention (or congress).

5.—The three delights of the bards of the Isle of Britain: The prosperity of science ; the reformation of manners; and the triumph of peace over devastation and pillage.

6.—The three splendid honors of the bards of the Isle of Britain : The triumph of learning over ignorance; the triumph of reason over irrationality; and the triumph of peace over depredation and plunder.

7.-The three attributes of the bards of the Isle of Britain : To make truth manifest, and to diffuse the knowledge of it ; to perpetuate the praise of all that is right; and to prevail with peace over disorder and violence.

3.—The three necessary but reluctant duties of the bards of the Isle of Britain : Secresy, for the sake of peace and the public good ; invective lamentation demanded by justice; and the unsheathing of the sword against the lawless and the predatory.

Again, the book of the · Institutional Triads' confirms the seventy-first triad “as to the particular duties of the three orders” as follows:

“ The three orders of primitive bards : The Presiding Bard, or Primitive Bard Positive, according to the rights, voice, and usage of the bardic conventions, whose office it is to superintend and regulate; the Ovate, according to poetical genius, exertion and contingency, whose province it is to act from the impulse of poetical inspiration; and the Druid, according to reason, nature, and necessity of things, whose duty it is to instruct."

Again, among the Constitutions and Ordinances of Bards and Minstrels," I find the order of bards classified with the appropriate duties and regulations of poets and musicians, according to their respective degrees, as Dyscy bl Yspas, Dyscybl Dyscyblaidd and Dyscybl Pencerddiad, who, as Probationary Pupil, a Disciplined Pupil, and a Master Pupil, appear to have been the three classes of graduates, immediately following the Pencerdd or Chief Bard, though the order is here inverted. As such they had the liberty to itinerate for the purpose of obtaining gratuities. The term Dyscybl, the root of disco and discipul-us is derived from dysg, learning, and cabol, polished, bright.

Further on in Section 9, I discover another redistribution of the bardic order into “ four graduated and four frivolous.'

The four kinds of graduated bards and minstrels are :I.-Poets or bards, who wore the band of their order, and who, when graduated, are intituled,

1.-A Primary Bard
2.-A Didactic or Teaching Bard

3.-A Herald Bard;
II.—Harpers (Telinorion);
III.—Performers of the Crwth, with many strings
IV.—Vocalists (Dadgeiniaid).

The four kinks of " frivolous" are:-
1.-The Piper
II.—The Juggler
III.— The Drummer
IV.—The Fiddler, or player on the crwth with three strings.-

Hence the bard Iorwerth accompanying the sounds of the melodious harp with those of the gut-breaking crwth or crowd of willow,' sings—

Tra fu'r prif-feirdd, hardd weision cerddiawn
Cyflawn o dri-ddawn ymadroddion

Nid ef a berchid berchyll son debyg
Grwth helyg terig tòr goluddion ;


In the days of the high primary bards, the fine ministers of song,
Impregnated with the three gifts of eloquence,
No honour was allowed to what resembles the noise of pigs,
The dirty gut-breaking crwth of willow.

The crwth, or crotta Britannica, is mentioned by Venantius Fortunatus, in A. D. 609. The crwth signifies ' anything bulging or protuberant.'

Romanus lyrâ, plaudit tibi Barbarus harpa

Græcus Achilliaca-crotta Britanna canit. .“ These bardic regulations (modified from age to age to the requirements of national congresses) continued,” says the Cambro Briton, “ to have an influence on Cimbric poetry until the death Dafydd ap Grufydd, in the year 1283, when the institution of bardism was dissolved, after which the poetry of Cambria, by indulging in the flights and the romances of fiction, assumed a character more resembling that of other countries than it had previously known.”

Let us now cast a serious glance to Greece and Rome and ascertain whether the druid bards had a literary—a civilised reputation before the Volusenian legend as reconnoitringly forged on Cæsar's version by the expurgating mutilations of a Scaliger, who knew as much of the Asiatic history—the prehistoric Cimmerii of Ynys Prydain in omni vel ulla re, as he did of the inhabitants of the solar system, or of the man in the moon. If he did, he either ignored the magnitude of the idea or misconceived its national bearings.

Several writers, both Hellenic and Roman, bear unequivocal testimony to this point. Hyperborean ideas, though not systematised or defined, were not ignored and nullified by Hecatæus, Herodotus, Festus Avienus, Ennius, Diodorus, Strabo, Pomponius Mela, Virgil, Pliny, Suetonius, and Possedonius, cum multis aliis, or Cæsar when rightly interpreted, without certain references to their poetic effusions, their doctrines of philosophy, or their metaphysical or astronomical attainments, and so forth, as well as to the civilised condition of the Britannic entertainers of Asiatic and European visitors, in the days of Ezekiel, the prophet of Israel.

Lucan, who flourished between 38 and 65 A.D., alludes to the doctrine of the Metempsychosis, as chanted by the bards.

Vos quoque, qui fortes animas belloque peremptas
Laudibus in longum Vates diffunditis ævum

Plurima securi fudistis carmina Bardi. * Ammianus Marcellinus, in accord with preceding centuries, draws our attention to another important fact, that the Bardi cum dulcibus lyra modulis cantârunt. The bards sang of the exploits of valiant heroes and nobles of the land “in sweet tunes adapted to the melting notes of the melodious harp.”



“How charming is divine philosophy
“Not harsh, and crabbed, as dull fools suppose,
“But musical as is Apollo's lute
“Where no crude surfeit reigns."

The second order must now engage our attention.

The term ofydd or ovydd is derived from ov or of, atoms, and ydd, 'what is clear and transparent,' and is thus explained in Owen's Dictionary, as “persons initiated into first principles or elements, a scientific personage, a natural philosopher, a 'teacher of science, the name for a member of the scientific class in the bardic system ; in short an Ovate.” This form or root was the convertible element of Vates=Ovyd=Ovidius.

Ennius, one of the earliest writers of pure or readable latinity, who flourished about 515 A. U. C., i. e., between 239 and and 169 B. C., confirins this interpretation as identical with an early Latian or Roman poet. He could have no difficulty as to its primeval Umbrian or Sabine definition, since he undertook to write, in his “Annales,' the earliest history of Latium and its bordering territories, abounding in different tongues and saturnian druidical metres.

“Scriptere alii rem
“ Versibu' quos olim fauni vatesque canebant
“Quum neque musarum scopulos quisquam superarat,
“Nec dicti studiosus erat.”

The Umbri, to make a slight digression into primeval Italy, preceded, it is computed by about 300 years, the victorious incursions of the Etrusci into their own territories. The Umbri and Sabini coalesced with the inhabitants of Latium about a century and a half, more or less, after the foundation of the city of Rome, and combinedly laid the basis of the future Latin from this forced amalgamation of tongues foreign to each other. The absence of the C in Umbri is a doctrine so well known to scholars that it requires no other comment than the citation of the following examples, which must for the present satisfy both doubt and curiosity :- Ala for Taia, lwy for Kiwv, Elia for Velia, ocles for cocles, aulon for caulon, and so forth.

Among this branch of the Cimmerian race would, therefore, be found, besides the learned ovyddion, another inferior class of minstrels, equivalent probably to the “ frivolous pipers or fiddlers"

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