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The crwth, or crotta Britannica, is mentioned by Venantius Fortunatus, in A. D. 609. The crwth signifies 'anything bulging or protuberant.'

Romarms lyra, plaudit tibi Barbarus harpa
Grsecus Achilliaca—crotta Britanna canit.

"These bardic regulations (modified from age to age to tbe requirements of national congresses) continued," says the Cambro Briton, "to have an influence on Cimbric poetry until the death Dafydd ap Grufydd, in the year 1283, when the institution of bardism was dissolved, after which the poetry of Cambria, by indulging in the flights and the romances of fiction, assumed a character more resembling that of other countries than it had previously known."

Let us now cast a serious glance to Greece and Rome and ascertain whether the druid bards had a literary—a civilised reputation before the Volusenian legend as reconnoitringly forged on Csesar's version by the expurgating mutilations of a Scaliger, who knew as much of the Asiatic history—the prehistoric Cimmerii of Ynys Prydain in omni vel ulld re, as he did of the inhabitants of the solar system, or of the man in the moon. If he did, he either ignored the magnitude of the idea or misconceived its national bearings.

Several writers, both Hellenic and Roman, bear unequivocal testimony to this point. Hyperborean ideas, though not systematised or defined, were not ignored and nullified by Hecatseus, Herodotus, Festus Avienus, Ennius.Diodorus, Strabo, Pomponius Mela, Virgil, Pliny, Suetonius, and Possedonius, cum multis aliis, or Csesar when rightly interpreted, without certain references to their poetic effusions, their doctrines of philosophy, or their metaphysical or astronomical attainments, and so forth, as well as to the civilised condition of the Britannic entertainers of Asiatic and European visitors, in the days of Ezekiel, the prophet of Israel.

Lucan, who flourished between 38 and 65 A. D., alludes to the doctrine of the Metempsychosis, as chanted by the bards.

Vos quoque, qui fortes animas belloque peremptas
Laudibus in longum Vates diffunditis cevum
Plurima securi fudistis carmina Bardi.

Ammianus Marcellinus, in accord with preceding centuries, draws our attention to another important fact, that the Bardi cum dulcibus lyra modulis cantdrunt. The bards sang of the exploits of valiant heroes and nobles of the land " in sweet tunes adapted to the melting notes of the melodious harp."

108

THE OVYDDION OR VATES.

"How charming is divine philosophy

"Not harsh, and crabbed, as dull fools suppose,

"But musical as is Apollo's lute

"Where no crude surfeit reigns."

The second order must now engage our attention.

The term ofydd or ovydd is derived from ov or of, atoms, and ydd, 'what is clear and transparent,' and is thus explained in Owen's Dictionary, as " persons initiated into first principles or elements, a scientific personage, a natural philosopher, a 'teacher of science, the name for a member of the scientific class in the bardic system; in short an Ovate." This form or root was the convertible element of Vates=Ovyd=Ovidius.

Ennius, one of the earliest writers of pure or readable latinity, who flourished about 515 A. U. C, i. e., between 239 and and 169 B. C, confirms this interpretation as identical with an early Latian or Roman poet. He could have no difficulty as to its primeval Umbrian or Sabine definition, since he undertook to write, in his ' Annales,' the earliest history of Latium and its bordering territories, abounding in different tongues and saturnian druidical metres.

"Scriptere alii rem
"Versibu' quos olim fauni vatesque canebant
"Quum neque musarum scopulos quisquam superarat,
"Nec dicti studiosus erat."

The Umbri, to make a slight digression into primeval Italy, preceded, it is computed by about 300 years, the victorious incursions of the Etrusci into their own territories. The Umbri and Sabini coalesced with the inhabitants of Latium about a century and a half, more or less, after the foundation of the city of Rome, and combinedly laid the basis of the future Latin from this forced amalgamation of tongues foreign to each other. The absence of the C in Umbri is a doctrine so well known to scholars that it requires no other comment than the citation of the following examples, which must for the present satisfy both doubt and curiosity:—Ata for Yaia, tmv for Kiuiv, Elia for Velia, odes for lodes, avlon for caulon, and so forth.

Among this branch of the Cimmerian race would, therefore, be found, besides the learned ovyddion, another inferior class of minstrels, equivalent probably to the " frivolous pipers or fiddlers" of the other branch, and termed Ffavn/n-au=Bauyn-a.Vi=Fawn-i =Faun-i, 'dirty strolling fellows,' or minstrels who went about singing for similar gratuities, in contradistinction to the honorable position and acquirements of either Gaulic or Britannic bardi and vates.

Hear what Scaliger and Lord Macaulay, the Arcades Ambo of ancient lore, intimate about fawns, bards, and vates of Umbria:—

"Scaliger, in a note on Varro (de linqua Latina), suggests, with great ingenuity, [I quote Lord Macaulay,] that the Fawns, who were represented by the superstition of later ages as a race of monsters, half gods and half brutes, may really have been a class of men who exercised, in Latium, at a very remote period, the same function which belonged to the magians in Persia and to the bards in Gaul." Scaliger and Lord Macaulay, if we take the above as truth-suspecting samples of their historic wisdom, knew as much about druidic-bardic distinctions of the Cimmerian race as the Chinese know of the value to be placed on the wreckless expurgation of the one, or on the validity of the history of the other.

Further on, however, he is compelled to admit that Cato the Censor, who also lived in the days of the second Punic war, mentions this lost literature (of the prehistoric vates) in his lost work on the antiquities of his country. Many years before his time there were ballads in praise of illustrious men, and these ballads it was the fashion for the guests at banquets to sing in turn while the piper played. "Would," exclaims Cicero, "that we had the old ballads of which Cato speaks." Again, he mournfully asks—

"Quid? nostri veteres ubi sunt? "Quos olim fauui vatesque canebant."

I contend that those lost verses of which Cicero and others speak, formed part of Umbric and early Latin literature, and would have been understood by their cognate Cimmerians of Ynys Prydain for divers reasons to be hereafter explained.

But, in the mean time, I find it incumbent on me to select a few expressions from this Cimmerian district, so as to test the validity of my bare assertions in regard to doctrines about to be broached, as well as to confound the impotency of a mere flippant denial of a scholastic sceptic—compact in his own little nutshell, plucked from the tree of ages and lying dormant at his feet.

I purport adopting a similar analysing process with Hebrew and other cognate dialects, which cannot be so patent to the world at large, in connection with my base of ovatian operations.

But, at present, in addition to the hundreds of terms which will be found scattered on my page, I ask my opponent, whoever he may be, what are the roots and primary interpretations of the following Umbric mixed expressions. I warn him that I will not take as solved a word, though similar in sound and sense in Latin and Greek, without a definite root in either, as, for instance, Deus or Aeve, schola or Itkoxt), mola or fivXn, which T consider a mere shuffling of the question, unless the Greek term does really present a tangible natural meaning of its own. I want to know why they were called cncoXn, pvXn, and not KvXn, yvXn, €vXn, and so forth. These terms I have merely taken at hazard as examples.

Now, then, I ask, what are the direct and primary roots of agnus, arcus, arma, asdula, avernus—carrea, caterva, cuneus, clypeus, elementum, facultas, frsenum, garrio, gens, gladius, gnosco, jaculum, lares, lorica, mactus, menavia, meistreis, moneta—nuceria, oleum, Padus, penates, petorrita, populus, pretium, pruina, schola —testis, Tiora, Trebula, verus, Velinus, vulgus, which, now, are enough, as samples, to prove, not merely the closest possible affinity of the early Umbric with our own Cimmerian tongue, but also to demonstrate that the natural key to their proper logical solution is to be found simply and solely in Cimmerian principles of acoustic philology.

I will, for the present, briefly analyse one or two, and leave these and others for a more enlarged exposition in my lecture on our Adamitic language:—

P<wte=padwys=padwy=padoas=padoa, in fact, the River Po. It is derived from pad (pa-ad) ' what tends to proceed,' and wys or wry, water. This stream, as we are informed by Poly forms and Livy, (the one about 150 B. C, the other about 50 years B. C.J was called Padoas and Padoa.

Nuceria, or Nocera, or Nu-cer-(ia)=«e«;-caer from caer, or car, a wall, a fort, a city; plural, ceirau or ceirae, ' the new city'— i. e., the nu or new being the contraction of new-id, or newydd =nov-us or new.

Tiora, from ti or ty, a house, and eira, snow—the root of ora, cold; oraf, most cold. This residence of Matyn was situated on the summit of the Sabine mountains.

Privernum, from pri or prif, primitive, and gwem, alder-wood; as, Ti-fernum=Ty-wern, a wood-house, &c. The laws of mutation are sufficiently understood by cosmopolitan sholars, so that I need not recapitulate them here.

Caterva Umbrica. The latter has a similar root to Cimbrica, already explained.—Caterva. Now let terva, though not sanctioned by the dictionary before me, have its equivalent in turba, and that, if you will, in rvptr). What then is the root, if any, of either of them? and, if the root be found, what becomes of the unfortunate ca, which we Cimmerians cannot allow to remain neutral or dormant, as is the case with more than half of terms derived by classic schools— who seize a supposed arm or leg and leave the hody uncared for, or who lay hold of the body and reject the arms. Collate examples given to the world: the prefix ca or cat formed a part of the term for some purpose or other, when originally framed^; so also did the suffix va or fa belong to the body corporate in some capacity or other, and, as such, must have participated in the blessings of the whole term. It must not, however, be imagined that the doctrine of terminals in a, er, um, us, whether of nouns or adjectives, as well as the formation of tenses, or other rejectable forms of necessary elongation, are not to be adhered to under certain restrictions in this inquiry after roots. With this understanding, let us return to caterva.

Now, tyrva or terva, Cimmerice, signifies a multitude, a host. But how had it this meaning?—from twrf, a crowdy noise, a multitudinous stir or turmoil; and twrf, again, from twr, a heap, accumulation, a crowd, a mass of people; and fa, a place. Catena, then, implies, 'a troop of defence," and cat-terva, ' an army in line of battle.' From this union tyrva with its prefix element of ca, a 'holding,' or with its other element of cad, from its primary root of ca-ad, a striving, a battle. Moreover, cattyrva, in ancient druidical enumeration, represented the number of 100,000, as the Hebrew Elef did that of 1000.

Popul (us) or popol-us=pupel or popel Umbrice==pobl (pobolpobawl) Cimbrice is derived from pob or pawb, each, every, i.e. everybody, the generality of people, all persons, and ol or oll, the whole; or from hawl, a claim, a privilege, a demand. , This idea is beautifully conveyed even by a modern bard, in 'Bibl i bawb o Bobl y byd,' literally, 'a rolled book to all of the people of the world.' The rootof/3t€\oc is from 6i, 'itwill be,'and bwl, interpreted as 'corph neu rhol crwn a cheuol, 'a body or roll, round and shut.' Let us put the case hypothetically: Certain boisterous or aggrieved inhabitants of any newly-established community would, I imagine, lay claim to certain rights or immunities withheld from them by the ruling powers, whether justly or unjustly, as, for instance, the jura justa vel injusta, as inhabitants or citizens of a city, say Rome, or as claimants of certain institutional privileges attached to pob-ol Rhyfeinig or populus Eomanus; just as modern communists, chartists, and other demagogues, calling themselves, par excellence, the people, will insist upon giving the oll, the whole, or property in general, to pob-un, i,e., to everybody, or upon claiming certain privileges beneficial or otherwise to all, by means of some chart or bill or enactment, as the only rational panacea for the commonwealth, in the sense of 'people, the whole people, and nothing but the people.' But, perhaps, it would be better, though 1 detect several Cimmerian expressions, as sva, pod, meistreis, cum multis alliis in garbled Latin

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