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“ There are three kinds of heirs: a son by marriage with a native by descent; a natural son, acknowledged upon oath by the father, for the sake of heirs (but it is to be noted that a son, taken as such on the oath of the father, cannot claim rank); and an adopted son, who is the clan, when there is neither a legitimate nor natural, son.”
“ Three things that appertain to every man personally: inheritance, right and kind. Inheritance is according to the right (to it); and the right according to the kind; and kind is whether male or female, native or foreigner, young or old.”
“ The three reasons for making laws: to teach men to avoid what is unlawful; to prevent what is unlawfully attempted; and to punish unlawful acts, according to their culpability, and the demands of justice.
“ The three excellencies of law: to prevent oppression; to punish evil deeds; and to assure a just retribution for what is unlawfully done; and thus to maintain justice and peace in general, in country and clan, by means of these three.”
• Three indispensible requisites to a voter. 1. That he be a Cymro by descent, without default as to descent, total or partial in his pedigree. 2. That he be a complete man, (of perfect use of his natural powers.) 3. That he be the master of a family, that is, lawfully married, and having children by marriage. For that, without these, there is no family in the understanding of the law, and that for their sake, a man, who is master of a family, will avoid anything prejudicial to the rights or ties of society.
“ Three things indispensably requisite to a chief of clan. 1. That he have perfect use of his natural powers. 2. That he be the eldest of those who have that use of them in his clan to the ninth degree of relationship. 3. That he be master of a family, having a wife and children by worthy marriage. Then, every other man of the clan shall be his man and his relation, and his word shall prevail over the word of every one else of his clan,"
“ Three pleas that are admissible for not obeying a summons to court or sessions. 1. Floods in rivers which have neither bridges or ferry boats. 2. Cry of the country to defend the borders against an incursion of the enemy, when the person is within hearing of the horns*. 3. Unavoidable illness oppressing him.”
* “ This has reference to the ancient custom of summoning the inhabitants together upon certain emergencies by the sound of trumpet or horn, and which was obviously of primitive origin. Accordingly, in the Triodd y Cludau, already referred to in these notes, the three trumpet motes or conventions' are stated to be the convention of a country by elders and heads of tribes, the horn of judicature, and the horn of battle and war'; and, in another Triad, the horn of harvest, the horn of pleadings, and the horn of worship,' are enumerated as the three horns of general convention.' It thus aspears that the horn was emploved on most public occasions
TRIADS OF WISDOM.
I will now give you a few examples of the logical acumen of the pre-historic Cimmerians, as traditionally handed down the stream of time. The reflex of a nations soul is here.
“ The three indispensibles of wisdom; genius, science, and discrimination.
“ The three stabilities of wisdom : what is right, beautiful, and possible.
“ Three things will be obtained by wisdom : the good (things) of the world, mental comforts, and the love of God.
“ In three things wisdom is apparent : genius, science, and demeanour.
• The three exertions of wisdom : to understand nature by genius, to perceive truth by studying it, and to cultivate love and peace.
“ Three things in a man that make him wise and good : qualities, science and power.
- Three things with which wisdom cannot exist: inordinate desire, debauchery, and pride.
“ Three things without which there can be no wisdom; generosity, abstinence, and virtue.”.
These examples, which I have culled at random out of the triad-books of history, bardism, theology, ethics, and jurisprudence, and so forth, will, I trust, be deemed sufficient to prove the nature and contents of these philosophic documents. “Although,” says the Cambro-Briton, “all that now remains must have borne but a small proportion with those once in existence,
their number is sufficient (to adopt the words of the estimable author of the 'Early History of the Cymry') to determine some essential circumstances as to the origin and history of the nation, and the real doctrines of the bards; and it is, so far, a pleasing reflection that a discovery is made of authorities that point out an origin in conformity with a general opinion, built upon the systems and ideas of the historians of other nations, without a knowledge of such records being possessed by the nation itself.'”
“ Type of the wise, who soar, but never roam,
on which it was necessary to bring the people together, as, we believe, it was until lately in the gathering of the clans' among the Highlands of Scotland. And, with respect to the particular instance, in which the use of the horn is above noticed in the text, the Triodd y Cludau further describe it as one of the conventions of mutual compact,' in which the cooperation of every free native was required, which will explain the reason why the attendance of a person on the cry of the country,' when within · hearing of the horns,' was to be admitted as a plea for not obeying the summons of a court."
THE BEIRDD, OFYDDION, AND DERWYDDON.
“ There are more things in heaven and earth, Horatio,
DRUIDISM, as an institute of primæval ages, was the mighty lever of post-diluvian literature. It was the parent, framer, or nomenclator, as well as custodian, of Adamitic letters, as of lettersounds-of symbols and of art. It was the precursor of Oriental and Western astronomy, metaphysics, and theogony, during the undocumental colossal epoch of a consecrated or covenanted cromlech— 2017, cherem-lech, that history quails to ponder over (chronologically) and define.
The archives or record-offices of this patriarchal teaching were lodged in the druidical tablets of the heart. From this indestructible, if not inexhaustible, fountain of knowledge emanated the elementary fibres of ideal life and heat to the mental sustenance of the body-corporate of humanity, surviving successive wrecks of tottering empires and of races.
These propositions, however startling they may appear to the warped prejudices of certain intelligences, will be found, I trust, during an earnest analysis of this profound question, to be as tenable of demonstration as are the primitive rocks of creation to the now uniformly agreed decision of the geologist, though the elements of realized deductions, de naturâ rerum, be but few, and out of sight as it were, in proportion to the other Noachidic revelations.
Certain inborn facts will gradually reveal themselves to our perceptive faculties, through the page of strife and density of unbelief, amid the rugged paths of life beyond the mystic grave of Ionic, Doris, or Pelasgic tribes, as will enable the eye of antique faith to scan and probe, as a prelude to our mighty theme τα ποιηματα των αρχαιων των τε μυθολογων και των ποιητωνnot merely of our Cimmerian principles of philosophy, and other cognate doctrines standing out in bold relief, but of other extraneous imitations or happy admixtures of the same in distant east and west.
It is, of course, a matter of impossibilty to summarily condense all the proofs and arguments in favor of one or other poposition in one or two ephemeral lectures, so as to satisfy the cravings of conviction, and erase the incredulities of foregone conclusions from the superfice of the soul.
In the first place, therefore, let patriarchal druidism be responsible only for the development of its own modicum of a hitherto unrevealed truth, as far as the outer world is concerned. Let other subject-matters in their turn incur not the brunt and tug of self-defence hitherto ignored, but put on the armour of justifiable aggression in defence of our maligned druidic lore and nation in omni parte mundi. Let each subject, then, proclaim a potent fact, long lost to mortal ken. Let each impress the stamp of truth-of truths beyond the scope or cavil of notions old or new, when preconceived by imaged errors of the past. Perverted repetitions of mythic or of classic ignorances and prejudices are not, per se, and cannot be, as such, in the all-detecting manifestations of nature, from within and from without, imputed objects or sources of infallibility to the antagonistic faith of philological, traditional, and antiquarian researches. The light of truth-of bardic Triad truth-though ever hovering off and on, as a plucked olive-dove, with its Taliesinian “tablet of device,” outside the barrier-clouds of ages, or darting to and fro, like meteoric fire, above, around the vapoured fumes of error based on loss of unrecorded proofs, cannot, dare not fail, e'en then, for ever, by reason of its own aerial impulse and force of natural law divine ; nor can this heaven-born ray e'er nullify itself so far as not to pierce, some day or other, its fiery shafts of genial Adamitic warmth from outlets here and there, across the myths of cyclic fame, through rythmical quantities unknown or lost, or never solved if known, to Hebrew, Zend, Arabic, or Sanscrit elements of Cimmerian date, or thence to modern elements of Greece and Rome revealed, so as to prove, beyond the veil of mass condensed, its Eden mission from its source on high—its destined neverflagging hold of man and earth below, till solar rays of “Gwîr yn erbyn byd' shall be no more, and verify “ Oes y byd i'r iaith Gymraeg."
The Druidical Institute was composed of three orders, as Beirdd, Ofyddion, and Derwyddon-græcised by the Pythagorean school, by Strabo, by Diodorus Siculus, and by others of lesser note, into Bapool, Ovates, kai Apvidal—latinised by Ennius, Cæsar, and Pliny, into Bardi, Vates et Druidæ-anglicised into Bards, Ovates, and Druids.
“There is a pleasure in poetic pains
THE Greeks and Romans, though they partly agree in the nomenclature of the Triadic corps, as above given, yet do not all exactly coincide with the Cimbric prehistoric memorials as regards the number or the functions they appropriate to the classes or subdivisionary forms of the institute, but they all concur in the high order of instruction, attributed, more or less, to each according to their own conjectures or other unreliable sources of information. This partial conformity of designation is a sufficient guarantee, I apprehend, to establish in a candid mind the undoubted antiquity of their tenets, as well as the authenticity of their contents, be they what they may, in that respect, if it does no more.
Such being the case, I will allow the legal Triad of Dyfnwal Moelmud, a Cimmerian legislator who flourished some centuries before the Roman invasion, to vindicate the original functions and privileges of the order in its own emphatic declaration, before I adduce other corroborative evidence.
The seventy-first Triad, here translated, is taken from the archaiology of Cambria, and constitutes: one only of the two hundred and twenty-four of the 'Legal Classification' which, since then, consecutive congresses of bards have here and there amplified so as to meet the contingencies of the occasion.
There are, says Dyfnwal Moelmud, one of the learned and accomplished kings of Ynys Prydain, three orders of the profession of Bardism :
1.—The Prif-fardd, the Chief Bard, that is to say, a bard of full privilege (a cowydd or an associated fellow), who has acquired his degree and privilege of a bard of session, by regular instruction by an approved teacher. His office is to keep up a memory of arts and sciences, this being his duty as a bard regularly and fully instituted ; and also to preserve the memory of that which concerns the country, as families, marriages, pedigrees (arwyddion), armorial bearings (emblems or banners), divisions of land, and the rights of the Cimbric territory or nation.
2.—The Ovate (Ovydd), whose degree is acquired in right of his possessing natural poetic genius or praiseworthy knowledge,