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of country and country, ruler and ruler, and the agreement of privilege and privilege to act for the sake of peace and justice. And this shall bind all parties. No weapon is to appear drawn in these sessions, or within their limits, or during their continuance.
"There are three national sessions by privilege, to which are subject of right those who are interested as to protection, office, or dignity, or advantages accruing from trade or science, which are in the cognizance and jurisdiction of one or other of these sessions, and the subjection to them is of right, and due to the session whilst in deliberation: viz.—1. The session of the bards of the island of Britain, which has a judicial cognisance of every one who desires to profit by his talents in music, artificers' employment, or bardism; and all who attend the session are under its protection during the sitting, until its office and business are terminated. 2. The session of the king, or lord of the district (shire), and his assessors, judges, and barons; that is, every Cymro (Cimmerian), who is a proprietary of land—thus forming a court of justice and of law. 3. The session of general constitutional assembly; that is, a general assembly of country and its dependencies, to which the two preceding are amenable. For, though the bardic session be prior in dignity, and the parent of all science, yet the session of general constitutional assembly takes precedence by right of power and necessity for the regulation and establishment of justice, privilege, and protection, in the country, its dependencies, and annexed and separated territories, in alliance. And without this general constitutional assembly, the other two .could possess neither privilege nor power. For this session of general determination of country and clan has three qualifications, that is to say, it consists of wisdom, the power, and the will of country and dependency, clan and united clan, in order to make, amend, and conform law and union; and to conform equity and privileges as to neighbouring countries, and territories in alliance, whether of borders or separate, whether of foreigner or Cimmerian, by common consent, so that in no part of the territories can it be withstood. This general session controuls all other right of determination and of power, law, or authority, so that none other is equal to it; and it was this general constitutional assembly which first conferred the privileges of the lord of district, and his territory, and of the session of bards. In fact, it is evident that no privilege can exist but by the respect paid to it [this court] by country and clan."
"There are three branches of erudition (llenoriaeth) as to language. 1. That of interpretation of a court of law between a Cimmerian and a foreigner, who know no language in common. 2. Skill in portraying arms, laudable actions and marvellous occurrences, so that they who see (the portraiture) may understand
its signification: and such portrayer is called the Emblem Bard. And, 3. The knowledge of book and letter, and of reading and writing the Cimbric language correctly, and keeping book-memory of the three subjects of the records of the bards of Britain; viz. pedigrees of rank by marriage, descent of estates, and actions and information worthy of record. He, whose occupation is that of either of these three branches of erudition, claims five free acres in right of his profession, exclusive of his right as a native Welshman, and is to attend the court of country and lord, and be obedient to the court, the judges, and the assessors, when court or session is lawfully held; and, in remuneration for the information they afford, they are entitled, moreover, to free entertainment and presents by stipulation.
"There are three principal branches of mechanic employment: viz. smith's work, carpenter's work, and mason's work, and the three are of equal privilege; and whoever is of either of these trades has a full right to five free acres, exclusive of his right as a native Cimmerian, and is to be at the will of the lord of the district to instruct the slaves of the king or the lord, or any of their vassals, as far as the law permits; that is, under the obligation that no degree of the craft shall be granted to any of them but by consent of their lord proprietary and of the king."
There are three principal branches of household arts: cultivation of land; management of the dairy; and weaving. And it is the duty of the chief of the clan to enforce their being taught, and answer for their being so in court, and in place of worship, and at every assembly (cyrch) for worship."
"There are three city professions: medicine, merchandise, and navigation. Each of these has a peculiar city privilege, which privilege is by grant of lord of the district, with a security of the administration of justice, and is distinct from the privileges common to country and clan, for the security of regular commerce protected by justice.
"The privileges of cities are three. 1. That citizens shall not be compelled to serve in any office except such as are comprised in the right and within the limits of their citizenship. 2. A protection which shall secure strangers or foreigners who frequent the cities for commerce from imposition or injury. And, 3. That no privileged markets shall be held except in respectable cities.
"Three things that are not to be taken to a foreign country without permission of country and lord: gold, books, and wheat."
"Three things that bar the rejection of a son by a clan: if the son be born in lawful bed, and reared for a year and a day without denial (of his legitimacy); if his nursing shall have been paid for, though he be the son of an harlot; or if he be acknowledged by proclamation. After either of these things is done, .the father cannot deny him."
"There are three kinds of heirs: a son by marriage with a native by descent; a natural Sod, acknowledged upon oath by the father, for the sake of heirs (but it is to be noted that a son, taken as such on the oath of the father, cannot claim rank); and an adopted s,on, who is the clan, when there is neither a legitimate nor natural, son."
"Three things that appertain to every man personally: inheritance, right and kind. Inheritance is according to the right (to it); and the right according to the kind; and kind is whether male or female, native or foreigner, young or old."
"The three reasons for making laws: to teach men to avoid what is unlawful; to prevent what is unlawfully attempted ; and to punish unlawful acts, according to their culpability, and the demands of justice.
"The three excellencies of law: to prevent oppression; to punish evil deeds; and to assure a just retribution for what is unlawfully done; and thus to maintain justice and peace in general, in country and clan, by means of these three."
"Three indispensible requisites to a voter. 1. That he be a Cymro by descent, without default as to descent, total or partial in his pedigree. 2. That he be a complete man, [of perfect use of his natural powers.) 3. That he be the master of a family, that is, lawfully married, and having children by marriage. For that, without these, there is no family in the understanding of the law, and that for their sake, a man, who is master of a family, will avoid anything prejudicial to the rights or ties of society.
"Three things indispensably requisite to a chief of clan. 1. That he have perfect use of his natural powers. 2. That he be the eldest of those who have that use of them in his clan to the ninth degree of relationship. 3. That he be master of a family, having a wife and children by worthy marriage. Then, every other man of the clan shall be his man and his relation, and his word shall prevail over the word of every one else of his clan,"
"Three pleas that are admissible for not obeying a summons to court or sessions. 1. Floods in rivers which have neither bridges or ferry boats. 2. Cry of the country to defend the borders against an incursion of the enemy, when the person is within hearing of the horns*. 3. Unavoidable illness oppressing him."
* "This has reference to the ancient custom of summoning the inhabitants together upon certain emergencies by the sound of trumpet or horn, and which was obviously of primitive origin. Accordingly, in the Triodd y Cludau, already referred to in these notes, the 'three trumpet motes or conventions' are stated to be 'the convention of a country by elders and heads of tribes, the horn of judicature, and the horn of battle and war'; and, in another Triad, 'the horn of harvest, the horn of pleadings, and the horn of worship,' are enumerated as the 'three horns of general convention.' It thus aspears that the horn was emploved on most public occasions 100
TEI-ADS OF WISDOM.
1 will now give you a few examples of the logical acumen of the pre-historic Cimmerians, as traditionally handed down the stream of time. The reflex of a nations soul is here.
"The three indispensibles of wisdom; genius, science, and discrimination.
"The three stabilities of wisdom: what is right, beautiful, and possible.
"Three things will be obtained by wisdom: the good (things) of the world, mental comforts, and the love of God.
"In three things wisdom is apparent: genius, science, and demeanour.
'' The three exertions of wisdom: to understand nature by genius, to perceive truth by studying it, and to cultivate love and peace.
"Three things in a man that make him wise and good: qualities, science and power.
"Three things with which wisdom cannot exist: inordinate desire, debauchery, and pride.
"Three things without which there can be no wisdom; generosity, abstinence, and virtue."
These examples, which I have culled at random out of the triad-books of history, bardism, theology, ethics, and jurisprudence, and so forth, will, I trust, be deemed sufficient to prove the nature and contents of these philosophic documents. "Although," says the Cambro-Briton, "all that now remains must have borne but a small proportion with those once in existence, 'their number is sufficient (to adopt the words of the estimable author of the 'Early History of the Cymry') to determine some essential circumstances as to the origin and history of the nation, and the real doctrines of the bards; and it is, so far, a pleasing reflection that a discovery is made of authorities that point out an origin in conformity with a general opinion, built upon the systems and ideas of the historians of other nations, without a knowledge of such records being possessed by the nation itself.'"
"Type of the wise, who soar, but never roam,
"True to the kindred points of heaven and home."
on which it was necessary to bring the people together, as, we believe, it was until lately in the 'gathering of the clans' among the Highlands of Scotland. And, with respect to the particular instance, in which the use of the horn is above noticed in the text, the Triodd y Cludaufvatker describe it as one of the 'conventions of mutual compact,' in which the 'cooperation of every free native was required,' which will explain the reason why the attendance of a person on the 'cry of the country,' when within 'hearing of the horns,' was to be admitted as a plea for not obeying the summons of a court."
"There are more things in heaven and earth, Horatio,
Druidism, as an institute of primseval ages, was the mighty lever of post-diluvian literature. It was the parent, framer, or nomenclator, as well as custodian, of Adamitic letters, as of lettersounds—of symbols and of art. It was the precursor of Oriental and Western astronomy, metaphysics, and theogony, during the undocumental colossal epoch of a consecrated or covenanted cromlech—irbQin, cherem-lech, that history quails to ponder over (chronologically) and define.
The archives or record-offices of this patriarchal teaching were lodged in the druidical tablets of the heart. From this indestructible, if not inexhaustible, fountain of knowledge emanated the elementary fibres of ideal life and heat to the mental sustenance of the body-corporate of humanity, surviving successive wrecks of tottering empires and of races.
These propositions, however startling they may appear to the warped prejudices of certain intelligences, will be found, I trust, during an earnest analysis of this profound question, to be as tenable of demonstration as are the primitive rocks of creation to the now uniformly agreed decision of the geologist, though the elements of realized deductions, de naturd rerum, be but few, and out of sight as it were, in proportion to the other Noachidic revelations.
Certain inborn facts will gradually reveal themselves to our perceptive faculties, through the page of strife and density of unbelief, amid the rugged paths of life beyond the mystic grave of Ionic, Doric, or Pelasgic tribes, as will enable the eye of antique faith to scan and probe, as a prelude to our mighty theme ra Troir)fxaTa Tuiv apKaiwv Ttov re fivdoXoyiov Kcu Tuiv iroir)ruiv— not merely of our Cimmerian principles of philosophy, and other cognate doctrines standing out in bold relief, but of other extraneous imitations or happy admixtures of the same in distant east and west.