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Richard II. Robert Vere, earl of Oxford, was the first, who, as a distinct dignity, received the title of marquis, ist Dec. anno nono Ricardi Secundi. See Alhmole's history of the order of the garter, p. 456.
Johns. L. 32. The lips of those, that breathe them in the air] i. e. Of those who make a practice of curfing their enemies, and do it as often as they breathe. So that the sense is, the curses of such never ascend to the throne of vengeance. Never pass the lips, i. e. get past or further than the lips. WARB.*
P. 449. 1. 28. He is frank'd up to fatting for bis pains.] A frank is an old English word for a bog-fty. 'Tis possible he uses this metaphor to Clarence, in allusion to the crest of the family of York, which was a boar. Whereto relate those famous old verses on Richard III.
The cat, the rat, and Lovel the dog
Rule all England under a hog. He uses the same metaphor in the last scene of act 4. POPE. P. 451.
1. 14. Faithful man.] Not an infidel. Johns. P. 452. 1. 13. That woo'd, the simy bottom.] By seeming to gaze upon it. Dr. Warburton lays woo'd fignifies ogled.
Ibid.] The figure of wooing the deep is as far fetched, as the extremity of metaphorical writing will admit; but Mr. Warburton thinks, there can never be too much of a good thing; and so by his explanation, wooed for ogled, makes downright burlesque of it.
CAN.* Ibid.] The metaphor appears not only so overstrained beyond all proportion of nature, but so nauseous too, that I can scarce think the common reading genuine, but should rather imagine the poet might have written,
That strew'd the slimy bottom of the deep. Revis.* P. 453. 1. 4.] Fleeting is the same as changing fides.
JOHNS. L. 18. O God! if my deep prayers, &c.] The four following lines have been added since the first edition. Pope.
L. 25. Sorrow breaks seasons, &c.] In the common editi. ons the keeper is made to hold the dialogue with Clarence till this line. And here Brakenbury enters, pronouncing these words : which seem to me a reflection naturally refulting from the foregoing conversation, and therefore contie
nued to be spoken by the same person, as it is accordingly in the first edition.
Popi. L. 27. Princes bave but their titles for their glories,
An outward bonour, for an inward toil.] The first line may
be understood in this sense. The glories of princes are nothing more tban empty titles : but it would more impress the purpose of the speaker, and correspond better with the following lines, if it were read, Princes bave but their titles for their troubles. Jonxs.
For unfelt imaginations, Tbey often feel a world of reftless cares.] They often suffer real miseries for imaginary and unreal gratifications.
JOHNS. P. 455. 1. 28. Take the devil in thy mind, and believe him not: he would infinuate with thee, &c.] One villain says, conscience is at his elbows persuading him not to kill the duke. The other says, take the devil into thy nearer acquaintance, into tby mind, who will be a match for thy conscience, and believe it not, &c. It is plain then, that bim in both places in the text should be it, namely, confcience.
Ibid.) The common reading was, believe bim not, be would infinuate,' which Mr. Warburton altered in both places to, it, in order to make room in the construction for conscience, which is plainly and undoubtedly intended here. But he forgot to use the same precaution in the reply, which full as much requires it.
I am strong-fram’d, be cannot prevail with me. This threefold repetition, bis, be, and, be, gives me a ftrong suspicion, that the mistake is in the first part of this sentence, and not in what follows; and I am confirmed in it by the aukwardness of the expression, 'take the devil in thy mind,' for, “take the devil for thy counsellor.' I am inclined therefore to believe that the poet might have written,
Shake off this devil in thy mind, and believe him not: he would infinuate with tbee but to make thee figh. With this the reply, according to the common reading, will be perfectly confiftent.
Revis. L. 31. Spoke like a tall fellow.] The meaning of call, in old English, is frout, daring, fearless and strong, Johns.
P. 456. 1. 6. Will reason. ) We'll talk. JOHNS.
L. 27. Are you callid
forth from out a world of men.] I think it may be better read, cull’d forth.
Johns. L. 30.] Quest is inquest or jury.
JOHNS. P.457. 1. 29. reje&ted by
HANMER.* P. 458. 1. 2. Springing Plantagenet.] Blooming Plantagenet; a prince in the spring of life.
Johns. L. 3. Novice.) Youth; one yet new to the world. Johns.
L. 9. If you are bir'd for need, -] I have chose to restore the word, which poffeffes all the old copies, meed; TheoB.*
L. 19. And charg'd us from bis Soul, &c.] This necessary line is restored from the old edition.
Popt. * P. 459. 1. 7. - and save your souls, &c.] The fix following lines are not in the old edition.
Pope.* Ibid.) They are not necessary, but fo forced in, that some. thing seems omitted to which these lines are the answer.
Johns. L. 8, 9. 10, 11, 12. rejected by
HANMER. L. 18. What beggar pities not] I cannot but suspect that the lines, which Mr. Pope observed not to be in the old edition, are now misplaced, and should be inserted here, somewhat after this manner.
Clar. A begging prince what beggar pities not ?
Clar. Wbich of you if you were a prince's son, &c.
Johns. Ibid.] This and the following line rejected by HANMER. *
P. 463. 1. 21. Tbe forfeit] He means the remision of the forfeit.
Johns. L. 24. Have I tongue to doom my brother's deatb?] This lamentation is very tender and pathetick. The recollection of the good qualities of the dead is very natural, and no less naturally does the king endeavour to communicate the crime to others.
Johns. P. 466. 1. 22. His images] The children by whom he was represented.
JOHNS. P. 467. 1. 11, 12, 13, rejected by
HANMER.* L. 12. Being governed by the watry moon] That I may live hereafter under the influence of the moon, which governs the tides, and, by the help of that influence, drown the
world. The introduction of the moon is not very natural.
JOHNS. P. 469. 1. 3. Forthwith from Ludlow the young prince be fetch'd,] Edward the young prince, in his father's life-time and at his demise, kept his houshold at Ludlow as prince of Wales; under the governance of Antony Woodville earl of Rivers, his uncle by the mother's side. The intention of his being sent thither was to see justice done in the Marches; and, by the authority of his presence, to restrain the Wellmen, who were wild, dissolute, and ill-disposed, from their accustomed murders and outrages. Vid. Hall, Holingshead, &c.
THEOB. L. 27. To give your censures --] censures, for counfels.
WARB.* P. 470. 1. 2. My other self, my counsel's confiftory,
My oracle, my propbet, my dear coufin !? I have alter'd the pointing of this passage, whereby a strange and ridiculous anticlimax is prevented.
WARB. L. 20. Which in his nonage] The word which has no antecedent, nor can the sense or connection be easily restored by any change. I believe a line to be lost in which some mention was made of the land or the people.
Jorns. P. 472. I. 17. the wretched'It ihing] Wretched is here used in a sense yet retained in familiar language, for paltry, pitiful, being below expectation.
JOHNS. L. 22. Been remembered] To be remembered is in Shakespeare, to have one's memory quick, to have one's thoughts about
Johns. P. 473. 1. 15. For what offence ?] This question is given to the archbishop in former copies, but the messenger plainly speaks to the queen or dutchess. ..
Johns. L. 22. Awless] Not producing awe, not reverenced. Το jut upon is to encroach.
JOHNS. 1. 4. Or let me die, to look on earth no more] This is -the reading of all the copies, from the first edition, put out by the players, downwards. But I have restored the reading of the old quarto in 1597, which is copied by all the other authentick quarto's, by which the thought is finely and' properly improved.
Or let me die, to look on death no more: THEOB.
to your chamber] London was antiently called Camera regia.
Pope, P. 476. 1. 11. Too ceremonious, and traditional] Ceremonious for superstitious; traditional for adherent to old customs.
WARB. L. 12. Weigh it but with the grossness of this age] But the more gross, that is, the more superstitious the age was, the stronger would be the imputation of violated fanctuary. The question, we see by what follows, is whether sanctuary could be claimed by an infant. The speaker resolves it in the negative, because it could be claimed by those only whose actions necessitated them to fly thither; or by those who had an understanding. to demand it; neither of which could be an infant's case: It is plain then, the first line, which in. troduces this reasoning, Mould be read thus,
Weigh it but with the greenness of his age. i. e. the young duke of York's, whom his mother had fled with to fanctuary. The corrupted reading of the old quarto is something nearer the true. the greatness of his age.
WARB. Ibid.] This emendation is received by Hanmer, and is very plausible; yet the common reading may fand. Weigh it but wiih the groliness of this age, you break not sanctuary. That is, compare the act of seizing him with the gross and licentious practices of these times, it will not be considered as a violation of sanctuary, for you may give such reasons as men are now used to admit.
Johns. P. 477. 1. 13. As 'twere retail'd to all posterity ;] And so it is: And, by that means, like most other retail'd things, became adulierated. We should read,
intail'd to all posterity ; which is finely and sensibly expressed, as if truth was the natural inheritance of our children; which it is impiety to deprive thein of.
Ibid.] Retailed may signiíy diffused, dispersed. JOHNS.
I moralize two meanings in one word] By vice, the author means not a quality but
a person. There was hardly an old play, till the period of the reformation, which had not in it a devil, and a droll character, a jester; (who was to