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cedent is at such a distance that it is almost forgotten. John.
L. 19. Cheated of feature by diffembling nature,] By difsembling is not meant bypocritical nature, that pretends one thing and does another : but nature that puts together things of a diffimular kind, as a brave soul and a deformed body.
WARB. Ibid.] Disembling is here put very licentiously for fraudful, deceitful.
JOHNS. P. 426. 1. 8. And therefore, fince I cannot prove a lover, Shakespeare very diligently inculcates, that the wickedness of Richard proceeded from his deformity, from the envy that rose at the comparison of his own person with others, and which incited him to disturb the pleasures that he could not partake.
JOHNS L. 11. And hate the idle pleasures] Perhaps we might read, And bate the idle pleasures.
JOHNS. L. 12. Inductions dangerous,] Preparations for mischief. The InduErion is preparatory to the action of the play. John.
L. 16. Edward be as true and just,] i. e, as open hearted and free from deceit.
Ibid.] The meaning is only this; if Edward keeps his word.
JOHNS. L. 19. About a prophecy, which says, that G
Of Edward's beir's the murderer fall be,] These two lines are in all the old books whatsoever, as well as in all the modern ones that I have seen, except the two impressions by Mr. Pope. By what authority he has thought fit to leave them out, I don't know.
THEOB. * P. 427. 1. 12. Toys,] Fancies, freaks of imagination.
Johns. L. 28. Humbly complaining, &c.] I think these two lines might be better given to Clarence.
Johns. P. 428. 1. 1. The jealous o'erworn widow,] That is, the Queen and Shore.
Johns. L. 26. - the Queen's abjects:-] That is, not the Queen's Subjets, whom he might protect, but her abjects, whom she
JOHNS. L. 29. Were it to call king Edward's widow fifter,] This is a very covert and subtle manner of infinuating treason. The natural expression would have been, were it to call king
Edward's wife fifter. I will folicit for you though it should be at the expence of so much degradation and constraint, as to own the lowborn wife of King Edward for a fifter. But by Nipping as it were casually widow into the place of wife, he tempts Clarence with an oblique proposal to kill the king.
JOHNS. P. 429. 1. 22. More pity, that the eagle should be merid,
While kites and buzzards play at liberty,] I have, upon the authority of the old quarto's, restored prey, as the most expressive and proper word.
THEOB.* P. 431. 1. 30. I'll make a coarse of bim that disobeys,] So in Hamlet,
I'll make a ghost of him that holds me. JOHNS, P. 432. 1. 17. - pattern of thy butcheries,] Pattern is inStance, or example.
JOHNS. L. 19. — see, dead Henry's wounds
Open their congeaľd mouths and bleed afresh,] It is a tradition very generally received, that the murdered body bleeds on the touch of the murderer. This was so much believed by Sir Kenelm Digby that he has endeavoured to explain the reason.
JOHNS. -- where no blood dwells,] This may be right. But probably Shakespear wrote, whence no blood wells. whence no blood has its spring or course.
WAR B.* P. 433. 1. 9. Vouchsafe, diffus’d infection of a man,] I believe diffused in this place signifies irregular, uncouth; such is its meaning in other passages of Shakespeare. JOHNS.
L. 31. That laid their guilt-] The crime of my brothers. He has just charged the murder of lady Anne's husband upon Edward.
JOHNS. P. 434. 1. 24. Thou wajt the cause, and most accurft effeEi,] Effect, for executioner. He asks, was not the causer" as ill as the executioner? She answers, Thou wast both. But, for caufer, using the word cause, this led her to the word effect, for execution, or executioner. But the Oxford editor iroubling himself with nothing of this, will make a fine oratorical period of it.
Thou waft the cause. And most accurst th' effe&i! Warb.
Ibid.] I cannot but be rather of Sir T. Hanmer's opinion than Dr. Warburton's, because effeEz is used immediately in its common sense, in answer to this line.
1. 28. – they kill me with a living death,] In imitation of this passage, and I suppose of a thousand more ;
a living deatb I bear, Says Dapperwit, and funk befide his chair. JOHNS. L. 31. These eyes, wbich never, &c.] The twelve following beautiful lines added after the first editions. POPE. Ibid.] They were added with many more.
JOHNS. P. 436. 1. 26. But 'twas tby beauty Shakespeare countenances the observation, that no woman can ever be offended with the mention of her beauty.
JOHNS. P. 437. 1. 27. - Crosby-place :). A house near Bishops. gate-street belonging to the Duke of Gloucester.
P.438. 1. 28. Fram'd in the prodigality of nature,] i. e. when nature was in a prodigal or lavish mood. WARB.
and, no doubt, right royal,] Of the degree of soyalty belonging to Henry the fixth there could be no doubt, nor could Richard have mentioned it with any such hefitation; he could not indeed very properly allow him royalty. I believe we should read,
and, no doubt, right loyal. That is, true to her bed. He enumerates the reasons which the should love him. He was young, wise, and valiant ; these were apparent and indisputable excellencies. He then mentions another not less likely to endear him to his wife, but which he had less opportunity of knowing with certainty, and, no doubt, right loyal.
Johns. P. 439. 1. 6. - to a beggarly Denier,] This may be right; but perhaps Shakespear wrote Taniere, French, a hut or
WARB.* P. 440. 1. 4. It is determin’d, not concluded yet,] Determind signifies the final conclusion of the will : concluded, what cannot be alter'd by reason of some act, consequent on the final judgment.
WARB. L. 6. Here comes the Lords of Buckingham and Derby,] This is a blunder of inadvertence, which has run thro' the whole chain of impressions. It could not well be original in Shakespeare, who was moft minutely intimate with his history and the intermarriages of the nobility. The person here called Derby, was Thomas Lord Stanley, Lord Steward of King Edward the IVth's houshold. But this Thomas
Lord Stanley was not created Earl of Derby till after the ac. cession of Henry VII; and, accordingly, afterwards in the fourth and fifth acts of this play, before the battle of Bofworth-field, he is every where call’d Lord Stanley. This sufficiently justifies the change I have made in his title.
THEOB. P. 441. 1. 30. Of your ill will, &c.] This line is restored from the first edition.
Pope, P. 443. 1. 14. Tell him, and Spare not ; look, what I bave said,] This verse I have restored from the old quarto’s.
THEOB. L. 16. My pains,) My labours, my toils. Johns. L. 17. Out Devil !) Read, no.
WARB. Ibid.] There is no need of change, but if there were, the commentator does not change enough : he should read, I remember them too well; that is, bis pains.
JOHNS. L. 28. Was not your busband
In Marg'ret's battle,] It is said in Henry VI. that he died in quarrel of the house of York.
JOHNS. P. 444. 1. 25. A little joy enjoys the Queen thereof. ] I apprehend we should read, as little joy, for, a little joy, instead of, little joy, is scarce English ; and the Queen immediately adds, that she is altogether joyless.'
REVIS. * L. 28. Hear me, ye rangling Pirates,] This scene of Margaret's imprecations is fine and artful. She prepares the audience, like another Cassandra, for the following tragic revolutions.
WARB. P. 445. 1. 1. Ab, gentle villain,-] We should read, una
WARB. Ibid.) The meaning of gentle is not, as the commentator imagines, tender or courteous, but bigb born. An opposition is meant between that and villain, which means at once a wicked and a lotu born wretch. So before,
Since ev'ry Jack is made a gentleman
There's many a gentle person made a Jack. JOHNS L. 18. Q. Mar. So just is God, &c.] This line should be given to Edward IVth's Queen.
WAR.B. P. 446. I. 1. By surfeit die your King,] Alluding to his luxurious life.
JOHNS. P. 447. 1. 1. - - rooting bog!] The expression is fine,
alluding (in memory of her young fon) to the ravage which hogs make, with the finest flowers, in gardens; and inti. mating that Elizabeth was to expect no other treatment for her sons.
WARB. Ibid. She calls him hog as an appellation more contemptuous than bear, as he is elsewhere termed from his ensigns ar. morial. There is no such heap of allusion as the commentator imagines.
Johns. L. 3. The Nave of nature, -] The expression is strong and noble, and alludes to the antient custom of master's branding their profligate Naves : by which it is insinuated that his mis-shapen person was the mark that nature had set upon him to stigmatize his ill conditions. Shakespear expresses the same thought in The Comedy of Errors,
He is deformed, crooked, &c.
Stigmatical in making,But as the speaker rises in her resentment, she expresses this contemptuous thought much more openly, and condemns him to a still worse state of Navery,
Sin, Death and Hell have set their marks upon him. Only, in the first line, her mention of his moral condition insinuates her reflections on his deformity: and, in the last her mention of his deformity insinuates her reflections on his moral condition: and thus he has taught her to scold in all the elegance of figure. L. 6. Thou rag of honour, &c.] We should certainly read,
Thou wrack of honour i. e. the ruin and destruction of honour; which suppose was first writ rack, and then further corrupted to rag. WARB.
Ibid. Rag is, in my opinion, right, and intimates that much of his honour is torn away.
Johns. L. 19. Bottled Spider,] A spider is called bottled, because, like other insects, he has a middle sender and a belly protuberant. Richard's form and venom make her liken him to a spider.
Johns. P. 448. 1. 1. Q. Mar. Peace, master marquis, you are malapert,
Your fire-new ftamp of honour is scarce current,] Shake. speare may either allude to the late creation of the marquis of Dorset, or to the institution of the title of marquis here in England, as a special dignity; which was no older than