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THE PREFACE.

IT hath been the wisdom of the Church of England, ever since the first compiling of her public Liturgy, to keep the mean between the two extremes, of too much stiffness in refusing, and of too much easiness in admitting, any variation from it. For, as, on the one side, common experience showeth, that where a change hath been made of things advisedly established (no evident necessity so requiring) sundry inconveniences have thereupon ensued; and those many times more and greater than the evils that were intended to be remedied by such change; so, on the other side, the particular forms of divine worship, and the rites and ceremonies appointed to be used therein, being things in their own nature indifferent, and alterable, and so acknowledged, it is but reasonable, that upon weighty and important considerations, according to the various exigency of times and occasions, such changes and alterations should be made therein, as to those that are in place of Authority should, from time to time, seem either necessary or expedient. Accordingly we find, that in the reigns of several princes of blessed memory since the Reformation, the Church, upon just and weighty considerations her thereunto moving, hath yielded to make such alterations in some particulars, as, in their respective times, were thought convenient; yet so, as that the main body and essentials of it (as well in the chiefest materials, as in the frame and order thereof) have still continued the same unto this day, and do yet stand firm and unshaken, notwithstanding all the vain attempts and impetuous assaults made against it, by such men as are given to change, and have always discovered a greater regard to their own private fancies and interests, than to that duty they owe to the public.

By what undue means, and for what mischievous purposes, the use of the Liturgy (though enjoined by the laws of the land, and those laws never yet repealed) came, during the late unhappy confusions, to be discontinued, is too well known to the world, and we are not willing here to remember. But when, upon His Majesty's happy Restoration, it seemed probable, that, amongst other things, the use of the Liturgy would also return of course (the same having never been legally abolished) unless

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some timely means were used to prevent it; those men, who, under the late usurped powers, had made it a great part of their business to render the people disaffected thereunto, saw themselves in point of reputation and interest concerned (unless they would freely acknowledge themselves to have erred, which such men are very hardly brought to do) with their utmost endeavours to hinder the restitution thereof. In order whereunto, divers pamphlets were published against the Book of Common Prayer, the old objections mustered up, with the addition of some new ones, more than formerly had been made, to make the number swell. In fine, great importunities were used to His Sacred Majesty, that the said Book might be revised, and such alterations therein, and additions thereunto, made, as should be thought requisite for the ease of tender consciences: whereunto His Majesty, out of his pious inclination to give satisfaction (so far as could be reasonably expected) to all his subjects, of what persuasion soever, did graciously condescend.

In which review we have endeavoured to observe the like moderation, as we find to have been used in the like case in former times. And, therefore, of the sundry alterations proposed unto us, we have rejected all such as were either of dangerous consequence (as secretly striking at some established doctrine, or laudable practice, of the Church of England, or indeed of the whole Catholic Church of Christ) or else of no consequence at all, but utterly frivolous and vain. But such alterations as were tendered to us (by what persons, under what pretences, or to what purpose, soever tendered) as seemed to us in any degree requisite or expedient, we have willingly, and of our own accord, assented unto: not enforced so to do by any strength of argument, convincing us of the necessity of making the said alterations: For we are fully persuaded in our judgments (and we here profess it to the world) that the Book, as it stood before established by law, doth not contain in it any thing contrary to the word of God, or to sound doctrine, or which a godly man may not, with a good conscience, use and submit unto; or which is not fairly defensible against any that shall oppose the same, if it shall be allowed such just and favorable construction as, in common equity, ought to be allowed to all human writings, especially such as are set forth by authority; and even to the very best translations of the holy Scripture itself.

Our general aim, therefore, in this undertaking was, not to gratify this

or that party, in any their unreasonable demands; but to do that, which, to our best understandings, we conceived might most tend to the preservation of peace and unity in the Church; the procuring of reverence, and exciting of piety and devotion in the public worship of God; and the cutting off occasion, from them that seek occasion, of cavil or quarrel against the Liturgy of the Church. And, as to the several variations from the former Book, whether by alteration, addition, or otherwise, it shall suffice to give this general account; that most of the alterations were made, either, first, for the better direction of them that are to officiate in any part of Divine service; which is chiefly done in the Calendars and Rubrics: or, secondly, for the more proper expressing of some words or phrases of ancient usage, in terms more suitable to the language of the present times; and the clearer explanation of some other words and phrases, that were either of doubtful signification, or otherwise liable to misconstruction: or, thirdly, for a more perfect rendering of such portions of holy Scripture, as are inserted into the Liturgy; which, in the Epistles and Gospels especially, and in sundry other places, are now ordered to be read according to the last Translation: and that it was thought convenient, that some Prayers and Thanksgivings, fitted to special occasions, should be added in their due places; particularly for those at Sea; together with an Office for the Baptism of such as are of Riper Years: which, although not so necessary when the former Book was compiled, yet, by the growth of Anabaptism, through the licentiousness of the late times crept in amongst us, is now become necessary, and may be always useful for the baptizing of natives in our plantations, and others converted to the Faith. If any man, who shall desire a more particular account of the several alterations in any part of the Liturgy, shall take the pains to compare the present Book with the former, we doubt not but the reason of the change may easily appear.

And having thus endeavoured to discharge our duties in this weighty affair, as in the sight of God, and to approve our sincerity therein (so far as lay in us) to the consciences of all men; although we know it impossible (in such variety of apprehensions, humours, and interests, as are in the world) to please all; nor can expect that men of factious, peevish, and perverse spirits should be satisfied with any thing that can be done in this kind by any other than themselves, yet we have good hope, that what is here presented, and hath been by the Convocations of both Provinces with great diligence examined and approved, will be, also, well

CONCERNING THE SERVICE OF THE CHURCH.

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accepted and approved by all sober, peaceable, and truly conscientious, sons of the Church of England.

Concerning the Service of the Church.

THERE was never any thing by the wit of man so well devised, or so sure established, which, in continuance of time, hath not been corrupted: as, among other things, it may plainly appear by the Common Prayers in the Church, commonly called Divine Service. The first original and ground whereof, if a man would search out by the ancient Fathers, he shall find, that the same was not ordained but of a good purpose, and for a great advancement of godliness. For they so ordered the matter, that all the whole Bible (or the greatest part thereof) should be read over once every year; intending thereby, that the Clergy, and especially such as were Ministers in the congregation, should (by often reading, and meditation in God's word) be stirred up to godliness themselves, and be more able to exhort others by wholesome doctrine, and to confute them that were adversaries to the truth; and further, that the people (by daily hearing of holy Scripture read in the Church) might continually profit more and more in the knowledge of God, and be the more inflamed with the love of his true religion.

But these many years passed, this godly and decent order of the ancient Fathers hath been so altered, broken, and neglected, by planting in uncertain stories and legends, with multitude of responds, verses, vain repetitions, commemorations, and synodals, that, commonly, when any book of the Bible was begun, after three or four chapters were read out, all the rest were unread. And, in this sort, the book of Isaiah was begun in Advent, and the book of Genesis in Septuagesima; but they were only begun, and never read through: after like sort were other books of holy Scripture used. And moreover, whereas St. Paul would have such language spoken to the people in the Church as they might understand, and have profit by hearing the same; the service in this Church of England these many years hath been read in Latin to the people, which they understand not; so that they have heard with their ears only, and their heart, spirit, and mind, have not been edified thereby. And furthermore, notwithstanding that the ancient Fathers have divided the Psalms into seven portions, whereof every one was

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