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See page 140

Extracts from Lieutenant-Colonel Markham's Journal

On January first, 1777, an express arrived to me at Spanktown, containing orders to march immediately to join General Matthew who commands at Brunswick, and to leave only an officer and thirty men to protect my baggage during my absence. As it was late before the order arrived, it was two o'clock in the afternoon before I began my march. At this time there was a general thaw, and cold raw wind with sleet and rain. It was a very dark night, and we were up to our knees in mire ; crossing waters of mill-dams; every now and then walking over sheets of ice; officers and men continually tumbling. I myself had I know not how many falls, every moment expecting to be attacked by the rebels. I never was more fatigued. At last I could scarcely move. General Matthew sent an officer to meet me, to show me his quarters, to which I was just able to crawl. The General asked me if we were not in want of some refreshment. I then plainly told him we had neither food nor liquor, and he very politely told me we should be supplied with both. He pressed me to sup with him; which I declined, as I wanted rest more than anything else. Exhausted as I was, though my spirits were still good, I crawled back to my quarters, where the General sent me a large piece of roast beef, one ditto boiled, a roast goose, and a dozen bottles of Madeira, port, and rum. This was a prodigious relief to us. I got to bed about twelve o'clock, but too tired to sleep. At about one o'clock the General called upon me to tell me he had just received orders to march instantly to Brunswick, and for this purpose I was


to form a battalion as soon as possible, and cross the bridge over the river, drawing up on the other side, to cover the bridge, while the cannon, stores, and baggage, were crossed

At about six in the morning we got to Brunswick, the road being as bad as that over which we had before marched. I was now as much dead as alive ; however my spirits did not fail me. We occupied the first houses at the end of the town, where the enemy was expected to attack, without taking off our accoutrements until eight in the morning.”

“My company lost a waggon loaded with baggage, by neglecting to protect it, and suffering the Yankee driver, (who, I suppose through fright, drove it off,) to fall into the hands of the rebels. They had small parties skulking about us. My Lieutenant has lost all his baggage by this unlucky hit. I am the more concerned for his loss, as he is only a soldier of fortune, and therefore can ill afford it. I felt, I think, what I should do if I was rich. His loss is, I believe, about 120l. Did the King know it, I am sure he is too good to let him be a sufferer. The only posts we now possess in the Jerseys are Paulus Hook, Perth Amboy, Bonnum Town, the Raritan landing-place, and Brunswick. Happy had it been if at first we had fixed upon no other posts in this province ! Before, our line was ninety miles long, which we had to defend, and our small number of scattered troops formed too weak a chain. This post of Perth Amboy is far from being a good one, should Washington attack us. There is no market here; and all we have to trust to is the King's allowance of provisions. The rebels here spread themselves all over the country, so that we cannot go beyond our sentries with any degree of safety."


See page 203

The details of a county banquet, which Sir Walter Blackett provided in South Northumberland, are worthy of commemoration as a specimen of eighteenth-century social customs.

“Sir Walter Blackett gave a ball to the gentlemen and ladies in the town and neighbourhood of Hexham on Wednesday the 25th of August, 1773; and on Thursday the 26th the company dined with him in the Great Room at the Abbey.

7 Dishes of Turtle, from a Turtle 4 Beef, braised

Stone, a present from Governor I Surloin of Beef
Eden of Maryland

I Saddle of Mutton 2 Haunches of Venison

2 Dishes of cold Veal i Large Pasty

2 Dishes of cold Mutton i Brace of Blackcocks

2 Chicken pyes 31 Brace of Moor Game

2 Harricos of Mutton i Large Pyramid of Jelleys and 2 Puddings Fruit

2 Hams-cold 2 pieces of Beef- cold

2 Dishes of Fowls 4 Pastry

4 Blanc mange 2 Dishes of Pease

2 Dishes of Artichokes Total, 49 Dishes."

The Dessert consisted of 50 plates of Melons, Peaches, Nectarines, Apricots, and Grapes; and the liquor consumed was 23 bottles of Claret, and 21 of Port, besides Lisbon, Hock, Madeira, and Malmsey, and Brandy-punch and Rumpunch in unascertained quantities. Fifty-two people sate down, of whom nearly half were ladies. The bill of fare throws some light upon the amount of meat and drink which Sir Walter would have set before a man's party of Newcastle electors.


See page 226

The correspondent of a London newspaper, in January 1776, represents himself as having dined at the house of a worthy gentleman in the West of England who, " for the sake of good neighbourhood, endeavoured to make his table a neutral ground for such of his friends as could calmly communicate over a turkey and chine, and a cheerful glass, without drawing daggers for Whig and Tory.” A personage, who is

identified as the First Member of Parliament, regretted that more attention had not been paid, either in the passing Session, or in the last, to the Petition from the merchants and planters of our Sugar Islands.

Second Member : “Pshaw ! I know nothing of this Session, as it began in the hunting season; but I remember very well what we thought of their petition last year. We determined to give them a hearing for form's sake, but not till we had settled how the business would go.”

Third Member: Aye, aye. It signifies nothing what they says upon the matter. I am sure, (and I shall never alter my mind,) we were right. These Americans must be conquered, and must be taxed too. Why should we pay for they? They have cost us a world of trouble, and never brought us anything but vexation.”

Bristol Gentleman : “But how do you reconcile it to equity to tax people who have no representatives among you?”

Third Member : “Representatives? Why, hasn't we passed Resolutions that we does represent them? And hasn't the Declaratory Act settled the right, and power, and all that? What dost talk of equity for? Ha’nt we sent over the fleet and the army to settle everything? We represents 'em all, every one of 'em, be sure.”

First Member: “I protest, I cannot help fairly acknowledging that I do not represent them; for I was not elected, nor returned, by any of them. I cannot conceive how our friend here, that does not so much as know what part of the world they are in, should fancy himself their Representative."

Third Member : “ Pooh ! I knows well enough in the main. We was fools for taking 'em from the French and Spanish, all along of that old fellow Pitt; and I with all my heart wish they had them, and Hanover too, back again."

Bristol Gentleman : “Have you ever delivered your sentiments in the House, Sir, on this subject? "

Second Member: "No, damme, he never speaks further than aye or no. He's wiser than some folks in that. I spouted away once or twice; but it did not signify much, though my Lord North spoke to me very kindly upon it."

Third Member : Aye, aye; you spout away finely; but I believe I gets as much for my silence as you does for your speechifying. The main thing is to know which is the right

side of the question, and that I'm never out in. If I was Lord North, as soon as I had told 'em my mind, I'd make old Perriwig pop the question directly; and then I'm sure and sartin we might go to dinner every day at four o'clock, and have the rest of the evening to ourselves, instead of sitting to hear nonsense till midnight.

The peculiarities of this West-country senator's colloquial style seem natural to those who remember that, only one generation back, Squire Western was the greatest Commoner in Somersetshire, and most certainly might have been member for his County, if he had cared to sit.


See page 290

The Church of England in Virginia

Mr. Sandford Cobb, in his History of Religious Liberty, draws out a long and unbroken string of evidence bearing upon the favour, and veneration, accorded to the Church of England by Virginians of the first two generations. The earliest emigrants brought with them the Reverend Robert Hunt, a learned divine, and exemplary man, who had been specially selected as their spiritual guide by Archbishop Bancroft himself. The Company voted for his support five hundred pounds, which was a very substantial sum of money in those days. The Virginia Code of 1612 included a provision under which those who spoke, or acted, in disrespect of any minister were to be

openly whipt three times, and to ask public forgiveness in the assembly of the congregation on three several Saboth daies.” If any person refused to repair to the Minister for examination in his faith as a Churchman, he was whipped daily until he complied. In 1623, a fine of five hundred pounds of tobacco was enacted as a penalty for speaking " disparagingly of any Minister without proof." During our Civil Wars, long after the cause of the Church was lost in England, Governor Berkeley, with the approval and

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