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proposed to pass through the Jerseys to that city; but the impo. litic conduct of the British in countenancing the devastation of their plundering parties, had created universal abhorrence, and the large reinforcements which had joined general Washington, who had posted himself so strongly, that it was concluded to be impracticable. Many stratagems were used to draw him from his secure situation, but without success; it was therefore determined to make the attempt by sea.

While the preparations were going forward for this enterprise, the Americans found means to capture general Prescot and one of his aids, who were seized in their quarters, much in the same manner as general Lee had been.

The month of July was far advanced before the preparations for the expedition against Philadelphia were completed, and it was the twenty-third before the fleet was able to sail from Sandy Hook. The force employed in this expedition consisted of thirtysix battalions of British and Hessians, a regiment of light-horse, and a body of royalists raised at New York. The remainder of the forces, consisting of seventeen battalions and another body of light horse, were stationed at New York under sir Henry Clinton; and seven battalions were stationed at Rhode Island.

After sailing about a week, they arrived at the mouth of the Delaware; but there, having received certain intelligence that the navigation of the river was so obstructed that it would be impossible to force a passage, it was resolved to proceed farthe southward to Chesapeake bay, from whence the distance to Phi. ladelphia was not very great, and where the provincial army would find less advantage from the nature of the country, than in the Jerseys.

The navigation from the Delaware to the Chesapeake took up the best part of the month of August, and that up the bay was difficult and tedious. At last, having sailed up the river Elk as far as possible, the troops were landed without opposition, and moved forwards towards Philadelphia.

On the news of their arrival in the Chesapeake, general Washington left the Jerseys, and fled to the relief of the city; and, in the beginning of September, met the royal army at Brandywine creek, about mid-way between the head of Elk and Philadelphia. General Washington practised his former method of skirmishing with, and harrassing the army on its march. But as this was found insufficient to stop its course, he retired to that side of the creek next to Philadelphia, with an intent to dispute the passage. A general engagement commenced on the eleventh of September, in which the Americans were defeated; and, perhaps, the night Saved them from total destruction. The provincials lost, in this engagement, about one thousand killed and wounded, besides four hundred taken prisoners,

The loss of this battle proved the loss of Philadelphia. Generat Washington retired towards Lancaster, an inland town, about sixty miles from Philadelphia. But though he could not prevent the loss of Philadelphia, he still adhered to his original plan of distressing the royal party, by laying ambushes, and cutting off detached parties; but in this he was not so successful as formerly; and one of his own detachments, which lay in ambush in the woods, were themselves surprised, and entirely defeated, with the loss of three hundred killed and wounded; besides seventy or eighty taken prisoners, and all their arms and baggage.

General Howe finding that the Americans would not venture another battle, even for the sake of their capital, took peaceable possession of it on the twenty sixth of September. His first care was to cut off by strong batteries, the communication between the upper and lower parts of the river ; which was executed, notwithstanding the opposition of some American armed vessels; one of which, carrying thirty-six guns was taken. His next task was to open a communication with the sea: and this was a work of no small difficulty. A vast number of batteries and forts had been erected, and diachines formed like chevaux de frize (from whence they took their name) had been sunk in the river, to prevent its navigation

As the fleet had been sent round to the Delaware in order to cooperate with the army, this work, however difficult, was effected; nor did the provincials give much opposition, well knowing that all places of this kind were now untenable. General Washington, however, took advantage of the royal army being divided, to attack the camp of the mincipal division of it, that lay at German town in the neighbourhood of Philadelphia. In this he met with very little success; for though he reached the place of destination by three o'clock in the morning the patroles had time to call the troops to arms. The Americans, notwithstanding, made a very resolute attack; but were received with so much bravery, that they were compelled to abandon the attempt, and retreat in great disorder; with the advantage of carrying off their cannon, though pursued a considerable way, after having upwards of two hundred killed, five hundred wounded, and four hundred made prisoners; among whom were fifty-four officers. On the side of the British the loss amounted to four hundred and thirty wounded and pri. soners, and seventy killed; among the last, were general Ag. new, and colonel Bird, with some other excellent officers.

There still remained two strong forts to be reduced on the De. laware. These were Mud Island and Red Bank. The various obstructions which the Americans had thrown in the way, rez dered it necessary to bring up the Augusta, a ship of the line, and the Merlin frigate, to the attack of Mud Island ; but during the heat of the action, both were grounded. The Americans obsert

ing this, sent down four fire ships, and directed the whole fire from their galleys against them; but the courage and skill of the British seamen, prevented the former from taking effect. But during the engagement both the Augusta and Merlin took fire, and were burnt; and the other ships were obliged to withdraw.

The Americans encouraged by this, proceeded to throw new obstructions in the way, but the British general having found means to convey a number of cannon, and to erect batteries within gunshot of the fort by land, and having brought up three ships of the line mounted with heavy cannon, and the Vigilant, a large ship cut down so as to draw but little water, mounted with 24 pounders, made her way to a position from which she might entijade the works on Mud Island. This gave the British such an

advantage, that the post was no longer tenable.

Colonel Smith, who had with great gallantry defended the fort from the laiter end of September, to the eleventh of November, beiog wounded, was removed to the inain; within five diays after his removal, major Thayer, nobly oifered to take charge of this dangerous post; but was obliged to evacuate it within twenty-five days. But this event did not take place watil the works were entirely beat down, every piece of cannon dismounted, and one of the British ships so near, that she threw hand vrea lues into the fort and killed the inen who were unwvered on the platform. The troops who had so bravely defended fort willin, (which was the name given to it) ade a safe retreat to Red Bank. Within three days after Mud Island was evacuared, the garrison was also withdrawn from Red Bank on the approach of lord Cornwallis. A great number of the American shipping, now entirely without protecrion, sailed up the river in the night time. Seventeen however, remained, whose retreat was intercepted, by a frigate and some armed vessels; on which the Americans ran then on shore and burnt them.

Thus the campaign of 1777, in Pennsylvania, concludued suce cessfully on the part of the British. In the North, however, matters wore a different aspect. The expedition in that quarter Irad been projected by the British ministry, ns the "ost effectu. al method that could be laken to subjugate the colonies at once.

The New England provinces were still sons dered by the British as the inost active in the continuation of the war; and it was thought, that any impression made upon them, would contribute in an ettectual nanner, to the reduction of the rest.

To carry this into execution, an army of four thousand chosen British troops, and three thousand Germans, were put under the command of general Burgoyne; and general Carleton was directed to use his interest with the Indians, to persuade them to join in this expedition; and the province of Quebec was to furnish Large parties to join the same. The officers who commanded under general Burgoyne, were general Phillips, of the artillery, generals Fraser, Powel, and Hamilton, with the German officers, Reidesel and Speecht.

These soldiers were under excellent discipline, and had been kept in their winter quarters with great care, that they might be prepared for the expedition, on which they were going. To ensure the success of the main expedition, another was formed on the Mohawk river, under colonel St. Leger, who was to be assist. ed by sir William Johnson, who had so greatly signalized bimself, in the war of 1755. On the 21st June, 1777, the British ariny encamped on the western side of lake Champlain; where being joined by a considerable body of Indians, general Burgoyne made a speech, in which he exhorted these new allies to lay aside their ferocious and barbarous manner of making war; to kill only such as opposed them in arms; and 10 spare prisuners, and such wonen and children, as should fall into their hands. He after. wards issued a proclamation, in which the force of Britain, and that which he commanded, was displayed in strong and nervous language, calculated to intimidate the provincials, but it had a contrary etrect.

The campaign opened with the siege of Ticonderoga. This place was very strong, and garrisoned by six thousand men under generai st. Clair; nevertlieiess, the works were so extensive, that even this number was not thought sufficient to defend them properly. They had therefore omitted to fortify a rugged eminence, called Sugar-hill, which everlooked and effectualiy commanded the whole works. The Americans vainly imagined, that it was too difficult an ascent, for the eneray to take possession of it; on the approach of the first division of the



pro. vincials abandoned and set fire to their outworks, and so expe. ditious were the British troups, that on the 5th of July, every post was secured, which was judged necessary for investing it completely.

A road was soon after made to the very summit of that eminence which the Americans supposed could not be ascended ; and they were now so much disheartened, that they instantly abandoned the fort and made a precipitate retreat to Skenesborough, a place to the south of Lake George; while their baggage and military stores, which they could not carry off, were sent to the same place by water. But the British generals were not disposed to let them get off so easily; but pursued and overtook themi Their armed vessels consisted only of five galleys; two of which were taken and three blown up; on which they set fire to the boats and fortifications, at Skenesborough. The provincials lost two hundred boats and one hundred and thirty pieces of cannon, with all their provisions and baggage.

Their land forces under colonel Francis, made a brave defence against general Fraser; and as they were superior in number, they almost overpowered him, when general 'Reidesel, with a large body of Germans, came to his assistance. The Americans were now overpowered in their turn; their commander killed, they fled in every direction. In this action two hundred of the provincials were killed, as many taken prisoners, and above six hundred wounded; many of whom perished in the woods for want of assistance.

During the engagement, general St. Clair was at Castleton, about six miles from the place; but instead of going forward to fort Ann, the next place of strength, he repaired to the woods which lie between that fortress and New England. General Burgoyne, therefore, detached colonel Hill, with the ninth regiment, to intercept their retreat towards fort Ann: on his way he met with a body of the enemy, said to be six times as numerous as his own; but after an engagement of three hours, they were obliged to retire with great loss.

After so many disasters, and finding themselves unable to make

any stand at fort Ann, they set fire to it, and retired to fort Edward. In all these engagements, the loss of the killed and wounded, in the royal army, did not exceed two hundred men. General Burgoyne now suspended his operations for some time; and waited at Skenesborough for the arrival of his tents, provisions, &c. But employed this interval in making roads through the country about fort Ann, and in clearing a passage for his troops to proceed against the enemy. This was attended with incredible toil. But the resolution and patience of the army surmounted all obstacles.

Thus, after having undergone the greatest difficulties, and having made every exertion that man could make, he arrived with his army before fort Edward about the latter end of July. Here general Schuyler had been for some time endeavouring to recruit the scattered Ameriran forces, and had been joined by general St. Cl sir, with the reinains of his army; the garrison of fort George had also taken shelter there. But on the approach of the royal army they retired from fort Edward, and formed their head quarters at Saratoga.

Notwithstanding these discouraging circumstances, the Americans shewed no disposition to submit; but prepared in the best manner they could to make the most effectual resistance. For

the ilitia was every where raised and drafted, to join the army at Saratoga ; and such numbers of volunteers were obtained, that they soon began to recover from the alarm into which their late losses had thrown them.

The forces now collected were put under the command of general Arnold, who repaired to Saratoga with a considerable

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