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valry and light infantry, to attack a party of Americans under the command of general Sumpter; he executed this service with great military address. He had received certain intelligence of Sumpter's movements; and by forced and concealed marches, came up with, and surpriseil him, in the middle of the day, on the 18th of the month, near the Catawba fords: the detachment un. der Sumpter was totally dispersed, amounting to seven hundred men; one hundred and tisty were killed on the spot, and three hundred made prisoners; two pieces of brass cannon, and forty: four w3gons were likewise taken.

While the French fleet and army were blockaded at Rhode Island, by admirals Graves and Arbuthnot, with a fleet of ten sail of the line, and the Americans were brooding over their disappointments; the campaign of 1780 having passed away in the northern states, in successive and reiterated distresses: the country exhausted, and the continental currency expiring; the army inac'ive for want of subsistence; while these disasters were openly menacing the rain of the American cause, treachery was secrety undermining it.

General Arnold, a distinguished officer, a native of Connecticut, who had been among the foremost to take up arms against Great Britain, and widen the breach between the parent state and the colonies: his distinguished military talents had procured him every honour, a grateful conntry could bestow: he possessed, and was in the full enjoyment of substantial fame: his country had not only loaded him with honours, but forgiven his crimes: he who had been prodigal of life in his country's cause, was in. dulged in extraordinary demands for his services. But the generosity of the states did not keep pace with the extravagance of their favourite officer. His love of pleasure produced the love of money: to attain which he sacrificed his honour and duty. He made contracts, and entered into partnerships and speculations, which could not bear investigation. Thus embarrassed, a change of political sides afforded the only probable hope of evading a scrutiny, and bettering his circunstances, and gratifying his fa vourite passions.

The American army was stationed in the strong holds of the Iligh Lands, on both sides of the North River ;' Arnold was entrusted by general Washington, with the command of West Point, a strong fortified post. This was called the Gibralter of AmeriGa, and was built for the defence of the North River. Rocky ridges rising one behind another rendered it so secure, that it could But be invested by a less number than twenty thousand men....Arnold being entrusted with the cominand, carried on a negociation with general Clinton, by which it was agreed, that Arnold should so arrange matters, that Clinton should be enabled to surprise West Point, and have the garrison so completely in his power, that the troops inust either lay down their arms, or be cut to pieces.

The loss of this fort would have been severely felt, as it was the repository of their most valuable stores. Sir IIenry Clinton's agent in this negociation was major Andre, adjutant general of the British army, a young ollicer of uncommon merit; nature had bestowed on him her choicest gifts; he possessed many amiable and rare qualities : his fidelity, his place, and character fitted him for this ini portant business; but bis high idea for candoar, bis abhorrence of duplicity, and ice sense of honour, madelim reject those arts of deception which was necessary to accomplish its success. To favour the necessary communication, the Vulture sloop of war had been priviously stationed in the North river as near to Arnold's posts as was possible, without exciting suspicion. A written correspondence had been carried on between Arnold and Andre, under the ficticious names of Gustavus and Anderson. A boat was sent in the night to bring major Andre to shore; he was met by Arnold on the beach without the posts of either arıy. As their business was not finished before the dawn of day, which made it'unsafe for Andre to return to the Vulture sloop of war, he was persuaded by Arnold to lie concealed until the rest night. He was then conducted within one of the American posto against, his previous stipulation and knowledge, and continued with Arnold the following day. The next night the boat-men refused to take him back, as the Vultura had changed her position. The only practicable mode of escape was by land to New York.

To ensure success he changed his uniform, which he had hitherto worn under a surtout; was furnished with a horse and a pass under the name of John Anderson, allowing him to go to the White Plains, or lower if he thought proper. He advanced alonc, and undisturbed a great part of the way. And when he expected he was nearly out of danger, was stopped hy three of the New Verk militia, who with others were scouting between the posts of the two armies. Major Andre, instead of producing his pass, asked the man who stopped him “where he belonged to?"who answerod, to below” meaning New York. He replied so dol," and declared himself a British officer, and desired he might not he detained. lle soon found his mistakes. The captors proceeded to search him; sundry papers were found in his possession. These were secreted in his boots, and were in Arnold's hand writing. They contained exact returns of the state of the forces, ordnance at West Point, the artillery orders, and critical remarks on the works, &c.

Andre offered his captors a purse of gold, and a new valuable watch, if they would let him pass; and permanent provision, and future promotion, if they would convey and accompany him to New York. This was relased, and he was delivered a prisoner to culonel Jameson, who commanded the scouting parties. Andre still assumed the name of John Anderson, and asked leave to send a

letter to Arnold, to acquaint him with his detention: this was granted, and Arnold immediately, upon the receipt of the letter, abandoned every thing, and went on board the Vulture sloop of war.

Lieutenant-colonel Jameson forwarded by an express, all the papers found on Audre, together with a letter from that gentleman, avouing his name and rank, in which he endeavoured to shew that he did not come under the description of a spy. The style of the letter was dignified, without insolence. He stated, that he had held a correspondence with a person, by order of his general: that his intention went no further, than to meet that person on neutral ground, for the purpose of intelligence; and that against his express stipulation and intention, he was brought within the American posts, and had to concert his escape from them. Being taken ou his return, he was betrayed into the vile condition of an enemy in disguise. He concluded with rèquesting, whatever his fate should prove, a decency of treatment might be observed, which would mark, that though unfortunate, he was branded with nothing that was dishonourable, and that he was involuntarily an impostor.

General Washington referred the case of major Andre to the decision of a board of general officers. On his examination, he candidly confessed every thing relating to himself; and particularly, that he did not coine on shore under the sanction of a flag. The board oid not examine a single witness but founded their report on his own confession; and finally gave it as their opinion, “that major Andre ought to be considered as a spy: and that agreeably to the laws and usages of nations, he ought to suffer death."

Every exertion was nade by the royal commanders, and every plea that ingenuity and humanity could suggest, to save the life of Avidre, but without effe«t. Greene proposed delivering him up for Arnold; but this could not be acceded to by the British, consistent with piinciples vf sound policy. Andre, though supe: rior to the terrors of death, wished to die like a soldier. To ebtain this favour, he wrote a letter to general Washington, fraught with sentiments of military dignity. General Washington did not think proper to grant this request; but his delicacy was saved from the pain of a negative denial. The guard which attended him in his confinement, quarched with him to the place of execu: tion. Major Andre walked with firmness, composure, and dig. nity, between two officers of his guard, his arm locked in theirs Upon sceing the preparations at the fatal spot, he asked with some concern, "Must I die in this manner?” He was told it was unavoidable. He replied, “I am reconciled to my fate, but not to the mode:" but soon added, “it will he but a momentary pang." He ascended the cart with a pleasing countenance, and with a composure which excited the admiration, and melted the hearts, of the spectators. Their sensibility was strongly impress. ed, by beholding a well dressed youth, in the bloon of life, of a peculiarly engaging person, mien, and aspect, devoted to imme. diate execution. He was asked when the fatal moment was at hand, if he had any thing to say: he answered, “Nothing but to request that

you

will witness to the world, that I die like a brave man." In a few succeeding moments the affecting scene was closed. To offer any further remarks upon the fate of this valuable and accomplished officer, would be unnecessary, as the world has been sufficiently acquainted with every transaction respecting it.

After the defeat of general Gates by Earl Cornwallis, that no. bleman eserted himself to the utmost, in extending the progress of the british arms, and with considerable effect. But one enterprise, which was conducted by major Ferguson, was unsuccessful.

That officer had been very active in his exertions in the royal cause, and had taken great pains to improve the discipline of the loyal militia ; with about one thousand four hundred of these, he made several incursions into the country. He was, however, attacked on the 7th of October, 1780, by a superior body of Americans, at King's mountain, and totally defeated. One hundred and fifty were killed in the action, and eight hundred and ten made , prisoners, and one thousand five hundred stand of arms were taken.

But the month following, lieutenant-colonel Tarleton, with a party of one hundred and seventy cavalry, attacked general Sumpter, who is said to have had one thousand men, at a place called Black Stocks, and obliged bim to retire. Sumpter was wounded, and about one hundred and twenty of his party killed, wounded, and taken prisoners: about fifty of the British were killed and wounded.

On the third of September, the Mercury, a Congress packet was taken by the Vestal, comanded by captain Kepple, near Newfoundland. On board this packet was lienry Laurens, late president of Congress, who was bound on an embassy to Holland. He had thrown his papers overboard, but the greatest part of them were recovered, without receiving much damage. He was brought to London, and examined before the privy council; in consequence of which, he was committed a close prisoner to the tower, on a charge of high treason. The contents of those papers, fiastened the rupture which soon after took place, between Great Britain and Holland; for among them was found, the plan of a treaty, between the United States of North America, and the republic of Holland.

On the first of January, 1781, the troops that were hutted at Morristown, called the Pennsylvania line, turned out, in number about one thousand three hundred, and declared they would serve po longer, unless their grievances were redressed. A riot epsued, in which an officer was killed, and some wounded. They there collected the artillery and stores, and marched out of the camp. As they passed by the quarters of general Wayne, he sent a mes. sage to them, requesting them to desist, or the consequences might prove fatal. They nevertheless proceeded on their march, till the evening, when they posted themselves advantageously, and elected officers to command them; the next day they marched to Middlebrook, and on the third, they reached Princeton, where they fixed their quarters. On that day, a flag of truce was seat to them from the officers of the American eamp, with a message, desiring to be informed what were their intentions. Some alledg. ed 'hey had served out the time of their enlistment, and would serve no longer;and others declared they would not return, unless their grievances were redressed. But they all at the same time protested, that they were not actuated by motives of disaffeetion to the American cause. This they soon had it in their

power to ake mamfest, when general Clinton (who was soon informed of the revolt, and hoped to draw them over to the British interest) sent two messengers with tempting offers to that purpose : these they disdainfully refused, and delivered up the messengers 10 Congress. Joseph Reid: esq. president of the state of Pennsylvania, afterwards effected an accommodation ; those who had served out their full time, were permitted to return home, and the others apon satisfactory assurances that their grievances should be redressed, rejoined their countrymen in arms.

To return to North Carolina, where lord Cornwallis had begun to make vigorous exertions in order to reduce that province, but was delayed by general Morgan and the troops under him, whe attempted to make themselves masters of the valuable district of Ninety-Six. Toprevent this, his lordship despatched lieutenantcolonel Tarleton, with three hundred cavalry, three hundred light infantry, the seventh regiment, the first battalion of the seventy first regiment, and two three pounders, to oppose the progress of Morgan. The British commander had not the least doubt of the success of the expedition. On the 17th of January, the royal detachment came up with the Americans under general Morgan two-thirds of whom were militia : these were drawn up in a wood, at a place called the Cowpens, near Pacolet river. The British, besides the advantage of field-pieces, had five to four in infantry, and more than three to one in cavalry. The attack was begun by the first line of infantry, consisting of the seventh regiment, and a corps of light infantry, with a troop of cavalry, placed in each flank. The first battalion of the seventy-first, and the remainder of the cavalry, formed the reserve. The American line soon gave way, and the militia quitted the field ; upon which the king's troop supposing vietory certain, engaged with ardoar in the pursuit and

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