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niards, who was subject to death; that as to the other parts of the discourse, as he could not understand their meaning, he wished to know where he had learned things so extraordinary: “In this book," answered Valverdi, reaching out to him his breviary: The Iuca opened it eagerly, and turning over the leaves, lifted it to his ear: “ This," says he, “is silent:

it tells me nothing," and threw it with disdain to the ground. The monk, enraged at this action, ran towads his countrymen, and cried out, 6 Chris. tians! to arms! to arms! the word of god is insulted, avenge this profanation on those impious dogs !"

Pizarru gave the signal of assault: instantly the martial music struek up, the cannon and muskets began to fire, they sallied out fiercely to the charge, and the infantry rushed on sword in hand. The astonished Peruvians, dismayed at the suddenness of the attack, so altogether unexpected, and the irresistible impression of the cavalry, and the fire arms, fled with universal consternation in every quarter, without attempting any defence. Pizarro, at the head of his chosen band, advanced directly towards the Inca; aðd notwithstanding his nobles vied with each other in sacrificing their own lives to cover the sacred person of their sovereign, the Spaniards soon penetrated to the royal seat; and Pi. zarro having seized the Inca by the 'arm, dragged him to the ground, and carried him as a prisoner to his quarters.

The Spaniards, elated with success, pursued the fugitive Peruvians in every direction, and with unrelenting barbarity, continued the slaughter until the close of the day, without meeting with any resistånce. About four thousand Peruvians were killed; not one Spaniard fell, and Pizarro was the only one that was hurt, having received a slight wound from one of his own soldiers, while struggling eagerly to lay hold of the Inca. The plunder of the field was rich beyond any idea which the Spaniards had formed concerning the wealth of Peru.

Transported with their success, and the value of their plunder, they passed the night in mirth and rejoicings, as might have been expected from such needy adventurers, upon such a sudden change of fortune : their exultation was extravagant, and without any remorse for having slain so many innocent people, without any just cause or provocation.

At first the Inca could hardly believe a calamity so unespected to be real. But he soon felt all the misery of his fate; his dejec. tion was equal in proportion to the grandeur from which he had fallen. Pizarro, fearing he should lose the great advantages he had promised himself, by having him in his possession, endeavoured to console him, with professions of kindness and respect, that did not in the least correspond with his actions. By residing among the Spaniards, Atahualpa soon discovered their ruling passiod; which they were in nowise careful to conceal; and by applying to that, made an attempt to recover his liberty. The ofter he made for his ransom astonished the Spaniards. The apartment in which he was confined, was twenty-two feet in length, and sixteen in breadth; this he undertook to fill with vessels of gold, as high as he could reach. Pizarro closed eagerly with this tempting proposal, and a line was drawn upon the walls of the chamber, to mark the stipulated height, to which the treasure was to rise.

Pleased with having a prospect of liberty, the Inca took measüres instantly for fulfilling his part of the agreement, by sending messengers to Cuzco, Quito, and other places, where gold had been amassed, with orders to bring what was necessary for obtaining his ransom, immediately to Casamalca. The Peruvians &ccustomed to respect every mandate of their sovereign, with the greatest alacrity executed his orders. Deceived with the hopes of regaining his liberty by this means, and afraid of endangering his life, by forming any other scheme for his relief, and though the force of the empire was entire, no preparations were made, and so army assembled, to avenge their own wrongs, or those of their monarch.

The Spaniards remained at Caxamalca uomolested. Small detachments marched into the remote provinces of the empire, and instead of meeting with any opposition, were received with distinguished marks of respect.

About the month of December, 1532, Almagro landed at St. Michael with such a reinforcement as was nearly double in number to the forces with Pizarro. The arrival of this long expected succour, was not more agreeable to the Spaniards, than alarming to the Inca. He saw the power of his enemies increase; and ig. norant of the source from whence they derived their supplies, or the means by which they were conveyed to Peru, he could not foresee to what a height the inundation that poured in upon his dominions might arise.

While his mind was agitated by these reflections, he learned that some of the Spaniards, in their way to Cuzco, bad visited his brother Huascar, in the place where he kept him confined, and that the captive prince had represented to them the justice of his cause, and that if they would espouse it, he had promised them a quantity of treasure, vastly exceeding what he was to give for bis ransom.

He clearly perceived his own destruction to be inevitable, if the Spaniards should listen to this proposal; and as he well knew their insatiable thirst for gold, he had not the least doubt but that they would close in with the proposal. · To prevent which, and to save his own life, he gave

orders that 'Huascar should be put to death; which was obeyed like all his other commands, with scrupulous punctuality. The Indians, meanwhile, daily arrived from different parts of the kingdom, loaded with treasure. A great part was now amassed of what had been agreed upon, and

Atahualpa assured the Spaniards that the only reason why the whole was not brought in, was the renoteness of the provinces where it was deposited.

But such vast piles of gold, presented continually to the view of needy soldiers, had so inflamed their avarice, that it was impossible any longer to restrain their impatience to obtain possession of this rich booty. The whole, except some vessels of curious, workmanship, reserved as a present for the emperor, was melted down, and after deducting a fifih for the emperor, there remained one million five hundred and twenty-eight thousand and five hundred pesos, to Pizarro and his followers, besides a hundred thousand pesos as a donative to Almagro, and his soldiers. The festival of St. Jaines, the patron saint of Spain, was the day chosen for the division of this large sum; it began with a solemn invocation with the name of God, and with ridiculous grimace, pretended for they could not be in earnest) they expected the guidance of heaven, in distributing those wages of iniquity. Eight thousand pesos, equal to as many pounds sterling in the present century, fell to the share of each horseman, and half that sum to each foot-soldier. Pizarro and his officers received dividends in proportion to their rank.

There is no record in history, of a sum so great ever being divided among so small a number of soldiers. Many of them have ing thus unexpectedly acquired what they deemed a competency, were so impatient to retire and spend the remainder of their days in their native country, that they demanded, with clamorous iinportunity, their discharge. Pizarro, sensible that from such men he could expect neither enterprise in action nor fortitude in suf fering, persuaded at the same time that wherever they went the display of their wealth would allure other adventurers, granted their suit without reluctance, and permitted above sisty of them to aecompany

his brother Ferdinand, whom he sent to Spain with an account of his success, and the present destined for the emperor.

The treasure being now divided among the Spaniards, the laca demanded his liberty agreeably to their promise. Pizarro, instead of fulfilling this, had secretly determined to take away bis life. Though he had seized the Inca, in imitation of Cortes's conduct towards the Mexican monarch, he was destitute of the talents for carrying on the same artful policy, by which he might have derived still greater advantages, from being master of his person. Atahualpa is allowed by the Spanish bistorians to be a prince of greater abilities than Montezuma, and penetrated more thoroughly into the character and intentions of the Spaniards. Mutual suspicion and distrust soon took place between them. Almagro and his followers from selfish motives demanded his life;

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but the unhappy prince inadvertently contributed to hasten his own fate; during his confiaement, he had attached himself with peculiar affection to Ferdinand Pizarro, and Hernando Soto, who had behaved with more decency and attention to the captive monarch, than the other officers. Soothed with such respect from persons of high rank, he delighted in their society. But in the presence of Pizarro he was overawed and uneasy; this soon became mingled with contempt.

He considered that ainong all the European arts, that of reading and writing the most to be admired. He long deliberated with hiniself, whether he should consider it as a natural or an acquired talent... In order to determine this, he desired one of the soldiers who guarded him, to write the name of God on the nail of his thumb. This he shewed to several Spaniards, asking its meaning; and to his amazement they all returned the same answer. At length Pizarro'entered; and on presenting it to him, he blushed, and with some confusion was obliged to acknowledge his igno

From that moment Atahualpa considered him as a mean person, less instructed than his own soldiers; and he had not address enough to conceal the sentiments with which this discovery inspired him. To be the object of a barbarian's scorn, so mortified the pride of Pizarro, and excited such resentment in his breast, as added force to all ihe other considerations which prompted him to put the Inca to death.

But that he might not he alone responsible for the commission of so violent and unjust an action, he resolved to try him with all the formalities observed in the criminal courts in Spain. Pizarro himself, and Almegro, with two assistants, were appointed judg: es, with full power to acquit or to condemn; an attorney general was named to carry on the prosecution in the king's name; coun. sellors were chosen to assist the prisoner in his defence; and clerks were appointed to record the proceedings of the court.

Before this mock tribunal a charge was exhibited altogether so absurd, that the effrontery of Pizarro in making it the ground of a serious procedure, is as surprising as his injustice in depriving the monarch of a great empire of his liberty, and then bring him to trial for exercising his sovereignty, ayreeably to the known customs and laws established before the Spaniards ever came amongst them; and over whom they had no jurisdiction.

Tu judges predetermined in their opinion, the accusations appeared sufficient. They pronounced Atahualpa guilty, and condemned him to be burned alive. Friar Valverdi prostituted the authority of his sacred function to confirm this sentence, and by his signature warranted it to be just.

Astonished at his fate, Atahualpa endeavoured to avert it by his tears, by promises and by entreaties, that he might be sent to Spain, where a monarch would be the arbiter of his fate. The unfeeling heart of Pizarro was never softened by pity. He ordered hiin to be led instantly to execution; and what added to the bitterness of his last moments, the same monk who had just ratified his doom, offered to console, and attempted to convert him; and promised to obtain a mitigation of his punishment, if he would embrace the christian faith. The dread of a cruel death extorted from the trembling victim a desire of receiving baptism. The ceremony was performed; and Atahualpa, instead of being burned, was strangled at the stake. But it remains on record for the credit of the Spanish nation that even among the profligate adventurers which were sent to conquer and desolate the New World, there were persons who retained some of the Castilian generosity and honour.

Though Ferdinand Pizarro and Soto, were sent off on separate commands before the trial of the Inca, there were others who opposed this odious transaction. Several officers, and amongst those some of the greatest reputation, and most respectable fame in the service, not only remonstrated, but protested against this measure of their general, as disgraceful to their country, as repugnant to every maxim of equity, as a violation of public faith, and an unsurpation of jurisdiction over an independent monarch, to which they had no title. But their endeavours were vain; the greater number, such as held every thing to be lawful that was advantageous, prevailed. History, however, records the unsuccessful exertions of virtue with applause, and the Spanish writers have not failed to preserve the names of those who made the laudable effort to save their country from the infamy of having perpetrated such a crime.

After the execution of Atahualpa, Pizarro invested one of his sons with the ensigns of royalty, expecting that a young man without experience would prove a more passive instrument in his hands than an ambitious monarch, who had been accustomed to independent command. The people of Cuzco, and the adjacent country acklo lerged Manco Capac a brother of Huascar, as Inca; but the authority of the Incas was dissolved by the riolent convulsions info which the empire had been thrown: first by the civil wars between the two brothers, and then by the invasion of the Spaniards. They had seen the monarch suffer an ignomi. nious death by the hands of strangers; many of the descendants of the sun had been cut off by Atahualpa ; their influence in the state was lost, and the accustomed respect to that sacred race sensibly diminished.

The general who commanded for Atahualpa in Quito, seized the brother and children of his master, and put thein to a cruel death, and endeavoured to establish a separate kingdom for himself.

Pizarro no longer hesitated to advance to Cuzco; he had re

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