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order to prevent this, he proceeded on his voyage as soon as the weather would permit.
At no great distance from the coast of Spain, another storm arose, little inferior to the former in violence; and after driving before it, during two days and two nights, he was forced to take shelter in the river Tagus. Upon application to the king of Portugal, he was allowed to come up to Lisbon; Columbus was received with all the marks of distinction due to a man who had performed things so extraordinary and unexprcted. The king admitted him into his presence, treated him with great respect, and listened to the account he
gave of his voyage, with admiration mingled with regret.
Columbus was now able to prove the solidity of his schemes, to those very persons, who, with an ignorance disgraceful to themselves, and fåtal to their country, had lately rejected them as the projects of a visionary adventurer. Columbus was so impatient to return to Spain, that he remained only five days at Lisbon, and on the fifteenth of March, he arrived at the Port of Palos, just seven months and eleven days, trom the time he set out from thence upon his voyage. The inhabitants all ran eagerly to the shore, to welcome their relations, and fellow-citizens, and to hear tidings of their voyage.
When the successful issue of it was known, when they beheld the strange appearance of the Indians, the unknown animals, and singular productions, of the newly discovered countries, the effusion of joy was unbounded. The bells were rung, the cannon fired; Columbus was received at landing with royal honours, and all the people accompanied him and his crew, in solemn proces- . sion, to church, where they returned thanks to heaven, which had so wonderfully conducted, and crowned with success, a voyage of greater length, and of more importance, than had been attempted in any former age. To add to the general joy, La Pinta, on the evening of the day entered the barbour. Ferdinand and Isabella were at Barcelona, they were no less astonished than delighted, with the unexpected event: sent a messenger request. ing him, in terms the most respectful, to repair immediately to court, that from himself they might receive a full detail of his extraordinary services and discoveries.
During his journey to Barcelona, the people flocked from the adjacent country, following him with admiration and applause. His entrance into the city, was conducted, by order of Ferdinand and Isabella, with extreme pomp, suitable to the great event which added such distinguishing lustre to their reign. The people whom he brought along with him, the natives of the countries he had discovered, marched first, and by their singular complex ion, the wild peculiarities of their features, and uncouih finery, appeared like men of another species. Next to them were car
ried the ornaments of gold, fashioned by the rude art of the natives, grains of gold found in the mountains and rivers; after these appeared the various commodities of the new world and its curious productions: Columbus closed the procession, and at. tracted the eyes of all the spectators, who could not sufficiently admire the man whose superior sagacity and fortitude, had conducted their countrymen by a route unknown to past ages, to the knowledge of a new country, abounding with riches, and fertile as the best cultivated lands in Spain.
Ferdinand and Isabella received him in their roval robes, seated upon a throne under a magnificent canopy. They stood up as he approached, and raised him as he kneeled to kiss their hands. He then took his seat on a chair prepared for him, and by their majesties' orders, gave a circumstantial account of his voyage. He delivered it with that composure and dignity, so suitable to the Spanish nation, and with that modest sinplicity so characteristic of great minds, that, satisfied with having performed great acrions, seeks not an ostentatious display of words to set them forth. When his narration was finished, the king and queen kneeled down and offered up thanks to Alınighty Gud, for the discovery of those new regions, from which they expected so many advantages to flow into the kingdoms subject to their government.
Columbus was invested with every mark of honour, that gratitude or adıniration could suggest, contirming to him and his heirs the agreement made at Santa Fé. His family was enobled, the king and queen and the whole court treated him on every occasion with all the ceremonious respect, usually paid to persons of the highest rank. An order was immediately made to equip without delay, an armament of such force, as might enable him to take possession of those countries which he had already discovered, as well as to search for those more opulent regions, which he still confidently expected to find. Columbus's name now quickly spread over Europe, his successful voyage had excited general attention.
Men of science spoke of it with rapture, and congratulated one another upon their felicity, in having lived at a period when the boundaries of human knowledge were so much extended.
Various opinions were formed, concerning the new found countries, and what division of the earth it belonged to. Columbus erroneously and tenaciously adhered to his original idea, that they were part of those vast regions of Asia, comprehended under the general name of India: this sentiment gained strength from the productions of the countries he had discovered. Gold was known to abound in India, of which precious metal he had brought some samples from the islands he had visited.
Cotton, another production of the east, was common there. The Pimento of the islands, he imagined to be a species of the East lodia pepper. He mistook a root, soinewhat resembling rhubarb, for thät valuable drug, which was then supposed to be a plant peculiar to the East Indies; the birds were adorned with the same rich plumage, that distinguishes those of India. The alligator of the one country, was considered as the crocodile of the other. After weighing all these circumstances, the different nations of Europe adopted the opinion of Columbus; they considered the countries he had discovered, as a part of India.
The nanie of West Indies was, therefore, given to them, by Ferdinand atid Isabella, even after the error was detected, and the true position of the new world known; the name still remains, and the appellation of West Indies is given by all the people of Europe to the country, and that of Indians to its inhabitants.
The specimens of riches and the productions of the new country, which Colombus produced, were so aluring; and the exaggerated accounts of his companions (so natural to travellers) .excited a wonderful spirit of enterprise among the Spaniards. Though unaccustomed to naval, expeditions, they were eager 10 set out upon another voyage. Volunteers of all ranks were anxiously solicitous to be employed. The vast prospect which opened to their imagination, Hattered their ambition and their avarice; neither the danger, nor length of the navigation intimidated then). Ferdinand's natural caution gave way to the torrent of public opinion; he seemed to have caught the same spirit with his subjects.
Another expedition was carried on with a rapidity unusual to he Spaniards. A fleet, consisting of seventeen ships, was equipped; some of which were of good burden: they had on board fife teen hundred persons, among whom were many of noble families, who had served in honourable stations. Most of these intend. ing to remain in the country, were furnished with every thing necessary for conquest or settlement, with all kinds of domestie animals, and also seeds and plants, that were likely to thrive in the climate of the West Indies, together with such utensils as might be useful in an infant colony: and artificers were engaged to attend the expedition.
But formidable and well provided as the feet was, Ferdinand and Isabella, (slaves to the superstition of the fourteenth century) were not willing to rest their title to the possession of the newly discovered countries until they applied to the Roman pon. tiff, who, in that age, was supposed to bave a right of dominion over all the kingdoms of the earth.
Alexander VI, a pontiff, infamous for every crime that disgraces humanity, filled the papal throne at thať time: as he born Ferdinand's subject, and solicitous to procure that monarch's
protection, in prosecuting his ambitious schemes, in favour of his own family, he instantly complied with his request. By an act of liberality, which cost him nothing, he bestowed upon Ferdinand and Isabella all the countries inhabited by infidels which they had discovered, or should discover. And by virtue of that power which he pretended he derived from Jesus Christ, he vested in the crown of Castile a right to vast regions, to the possession of which he was so far from having any title, that he was unacquainted with their situation, and even with their existence; but that this grant should not seem to interfere with one he had made to the crown of Portugal, he appointed that a line supposed to be drawn from pole to pole one hundred leagues to the westward of the Azores should serve as a limit between thein: and in the plenitude of his power, conferred all on the east of this imaginary line on the Portuguese, and all on the west of it upon the Spaniards. Zeal for propagating the Christain faith was the con. sideration employed by Ferdinand in soliciting this Bull, and pretended by Alexander to be his chief motive for granting it. Several friars, under the direction of Father Boyle, a Catalonian monk of great reputation, as apostolical vicar, were appointed to accompany Columbus in this second expedition, who were to devote themselves to the instruction and conversion of the natives. Those who came over with Columbus, after being imperfectly instructed in the Christaid
kaowledge, were baptised with great solemnity; the king himself, his son, and the chief persons of his court, standing as their sponsers.
Ferdinand and Isabella having now acquired a title, which in that age was deemed completely valid, there was nothing now retarded the departure of the fleet. Columbus was impatient to revisit the colony he had left, and pursue that career of glory, upon which he had entered. He set sail from the bay of Cadiz on the twenty-fifth day of September, 1493, and steered farther towards the south than in the first expedition: by which he enjoyed more steadily the benefit of the regular winds which predominate between the tropics, and was carried towards a large cluster of islands, situated considerably to the east of those which he had formerly discovered.
On the second of November he made land, it was one of the Caribee or Leward islands, to which he gave the name of Deseada, on account of the impatience of his crew to discover some, part of the New World. After this he touched successively at Doninica, Marigalante, Guadaloupe, Antigua, St. John de Porto Rico, and several other islands as he advanced towards the north west. All these he found inhabited by that fierce race of people, whom Guacanahari had represented in such frightful colours. From them the Spaniards met with such a reception as convinced them of their martial and daring spirit: and they
found in their habitations the relics of those horrid feasts, which they had made upon the bodies of their enemies taken in war. Columbus, eager to know the state of the colony he had left, proceeded directly to Hispaniola. When he arrived off Navidad, where he had left the thirty-eight men under the command of Arada, he was astonished that none of them appeared, and expected every moment to see them running with transports of jog to welcome their countrymen.
Foreboding in his mind what had befallen them, he rowed instantly to land. All the natives, from whom he might have received information, fled at his approach. The fort which he bad built was demolished, and the tattered garinents, the broken arms and utensils scattered about it, left no room to doubt con. cerning the unhappy fate of the garrison.
While the Spaniards were lamenting over the sad memorials of their countrymen, a brother of the cazique Guacanaburi arrived, who gave Columbus a particular detail of what had happened after his departure from the island. The conduct of the Spaniards, and their familiar intercourse with the Indians, tended to diminish that veneration with which they at first inspired them.
As soon as the powerful restraints, which the presence and authority of Columbus in posed, was withdrawn, the garrison threw of all subordination to the officer whom he had left in com. mand. They roamed as freebooters through the country; the gold, the women, the provisions, were all the prey of these licentie ous oppressors: they, extended their rapacity to every corner of the island. Gentle and timid as the inhabitants were, unprovoked injuries at length rouzed their courage. • The cazique of Cibao, whose territories the Spaniards chief ly infested, on account of the gold which they contained, surprized and cut off several straggling parties. He next assembled his subjects, surrounded the fort, and set it on fire. Some of the Spaniards were killed in defending it, the rest perished in attempting to escape, by crossing an arm of the sea. Guacanahari, who stili retained his affection for the Spaniards, took up arms in their defence, and received a wound by which he was still confined.
Columbus, although he entertained some suspicions of the fidelity of Guacanabari, yet he considered that this was not a proper time to inquire into his conduct: he, therefore, reject. ed the advice of several of his officers, who urged him to seize the person of that prince, and revenge the death of their country. men by attacking his subjects. He considered it necessary to secure the friendship of some potentate of the country, in order to facilitate the settlement which he intended. Therefore, in order to prevent any future injury, he made choice of a more