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cessions to an adventurer would be deemed inconsiderate and ridiculous.

These cautious objertions were so consonant with the natural disposition of Ferdinand, that he cordially approved of them, and Isabella discouraged, declmed giving any countenance to Columbus, and abruptly broke off the conference.

The mind of Columbus, firm as it was, could hardly support the shock of such an unforeseen reverse. He withdrew in deep anguish from court, with an intention of prosecuting his voyage to England, as his last resource.

About that time Granada surrendered, and Ferdinand and Isabella, in triumphal pomp, took possession of a city, the reduetion of which rendered them masters of all the provinces extending from the bottom of the Pyrenees to the frontiers of Portugal. Quintanilla and Santangel taking advantage of this favourable event, made one more effort in behalf of their friend.

They addressed themselves to Isabella, and after expressing their surprise that she, who had always been the liberal patroness of generous undertakings, should hesitate so long to countenance the most spleodid scheine that had ever been proposed to any monarch; they represented to her, that Columbus was a man of sound understanding, and virtuous character, well qualified by his experience in navigation, as well as his knowledge of geometry, to form just ideas with respect to the structure of the globe and the situation of its various regions; and that, by offering to risk his own life and fortune in the execution of his scheme, he gave the most satisfying evidence both of his integrity and hope of success; that the sum requisite for equipping such an armament was inconsiderable, and the advantages that might accrue from his undertaking, were immense; that he demanded no recompense for his invention and labour, but what was to arise from the countries which he should discover; that as it was worthy of her magnanimity, to make the noble attempt to extend the sphere of human knowledge, and to open an intercourse with regions hitherto unknown; that Columbus was on his way to foreign countries, where some prince would close with his proposals, and Spain would forever be wail the fatal timidity which had excluded her from the glory and advantages that she had once in her power to have enjoyed.

These powerful arguments urged by persons of such authority, and at a juncture so well chosen,

had the desired effect. Isabella's doubts and fears were all dispelled; she ordered Columbus instantly to be recalled, declared her resolution of employing him on his own terms, and regretting the low state of her finances, generously offered to pledge her own jewels in order to raise av much money as would be wanted for making the necessary pre parations for the voyage. Santangel transported with gratitud

kissed the queen's hand, and rather than she should have recourse to such a mortifying expedient for procuring money, engaged to advance immediately the sum that was requisite.

Columbus, ignorant of this change in his favour, had proceeded some leagues on his journey, when the messenger overtook him. Upon receiving the account so flattering to his hopes, he returned directly to Santa Fé, not without some diffidence mingling with his joy. But the cordial reception which he met with from Isabella, together with the near prospect of setting out upon that voyage which had so long engrossed his thoughts and wishes, soon effaced the remen brance of past sufferings, during eight years tedious solicitation and anxious sus ense.

The negociation now went on with facility and despatch; and a treaty with Columbus was signed on the seventeenth of April, 1492. The chief articles of it were:

1. Ferdinand and Isabella, as suvereigns of the ocean, constituted Columbus their high admiral in all the seas, islands, and continents, which should be discovered by his industry; and stipulated, that he and his heirs forever, should enjoy this office, with the same powers and prerogatives, which belonged to the high admiral of Castile, within the limits of his jurisdiction.

2. They appointed Columbus their viceroy in all the islands and continents he should discover; but if, for the better adminis. tration of affairs, it should hereafter be necessary to establish a separate governor in any of those countries, they authorized Co. lumbus to name three persons, of whom they would choose one for that office; and the dignity of vi«eroy, with all its immunities, was likewise to be hereditary in the family of Columbus.

3. They granted to Columbus and his heirs, forever, the tenth of the free profits accruing from the productions and commerce of the countries which he should discover.

4. They declared, that if any controversy or law suit, shall arise with respect to any mercantile transaction, in the countries which should be discoverd, it should be determined by the sole authority of Columbus, or of judges to be appointed by him.

5. They permitted Columbus to advance one eighth part of what should be expended in preparing for the expedition, and in carrying or commerce with the countries which he should discover; and entitled him in return to an eighth part of the profit:

Notwithstanding the name of Ferdinand appears conjoined with that of Isabella in this transaction, his distrust of Columbus was so violent that he refused to take any part in the enterprize, as king of Arrayon. As the whole expense of the expedition, excepting the part Columbus was to furnish, was defrayed by the crown of Castile, Isabella reserved for her subjects of that kingdom, an exclusive right to all the benefits which might redound from its success.

When the treaty was signed, Isabella endeavoured to make some reparation to Columbus for the time he had lost in fruitless solicitation, by her attention and activity in forwarding the preparations.

By the twelfth of May, all that depended on her was adjusted; and Columbus waited on the king and queen, in order to receive their final instruetions. Every thing respecting the destination and conduct of the voyage was committed entirely to his wisdom and prudence. But that they might avoid giving any just cause of offence to the king of Portugal, they strictly enjoined him not to approach near to the Portuguese setilements on the coast of Guinea; nor in any of the other countries, to which they elaimed right as discoverers.

The ships of which Columbus was to take the command, were ordered by Isabella to be fitted out in the port of Palos, a small maratime town in the province of Andalusia. The prior Juan Perez, to whom Columbus had been so greatly indebted, resided in the neighbourhood of this place; he, by the influence of that good ecclesiastic, as well as by his own connexion with the in. habitants, not only raised among them what he wanted of the sum that he was bound by treaty to advance, but engaged several of them to accompany him in the voyage. The chief of these associates were three brothers of the name of Pinzon, of considerable wealth, and of great experience in naval affairs, who were wil. ling to hazard their lives and fortunes in the enterprize.

But, notwithstanding all the endeavours and efforts of Isabella and Columbus, the armament was not suitable to the dignity of the nation by which it was equipped, or to the importance of the service for which it was destined. It consisted of three vessels only: the largest, a ship of no considerable burden, was commanded by Columbus, as admiral, who gave it the name of Santa Maria, out of respect to the blessed virgin, whom he honoured with singular devotion. Of the second, called La Pinta, Martin Alonzo Pinzon was captain, and his brother Francis, pilot. The third, named La Nigna, was under the command of Vincent Yanez Piozon: those two were hardly superior in burden and force to large boats. This squadron, if it merits the name, was victualled for twelve months, and had on board ninety men, mostly sailors, together with a few adventurers, who followed the fortune of Columbus, and some gentlemen of Isabella's court, whom she appointed to accompany hiin. Though the expense of the undertaking was one of the circumstances that chiefly alarmed the court of Spain, and retarded so long the negotiations with Columbus, the suin employed in fitting out this squadron did not exceed four thousand pounds.

The art of ship building in the fifteenth century was extremely rude, and the bulk and construction of vessels were accommor the voyage.

dated to the short and easy voyages along the coast, which they were accustomed to perform. It is a proof of the genius and courage of Columbus, that he ventured with a fleet so unfit for a distant navigation, to explore unknown seas, where he had no chart to guide him, no knowledge of the tides and currents, and no experinence of the dangers to which, in all probability, he would be exposed. His eagerness to accomplish his great design made him overlook every danger and difficulty. He pushed forward the preparations with such ardour, and was so well seconded by Isabella, that every thing was soun in readiness for

Bui as Columbus was deeply impressed with a sense of the superintendence of divine Providence, over the affairs of this life, he would nol set out upon his expedition without publicly imploring the protection of heaven. With this view, he, together with all the persons under his command, marched in solemn proces. sion to the monastery of Rabida. - After confessing their sins, and obtaining absolution, they received the sacrament from the hands of the Prior, who joined his prayers to theirs for the success of an enterprize which he had so zealously patronized.

Next morning, being the third day of August, in the year of our Lord 1492, the fleet sailed a little before sun rise. A vast crowd of spectators, assembled on the shore, and sent up

their supplications to heaven for the prosperous issue of their voyage, which they rather hoped than expected.

Columbus steered for the Canary islands, and arrived there without an occurrence worth remarking or that would have been taken notice of on any other occasion. But in this expedition every thing claimed attention. The rudder of La Pinta broke loose the day after they left the harbour; the crew, superstitious and unskilful, considered this as a bad omen.

In this short run, the ships were found so crazy, as to be very

unfit for a navigation which was expected to be long and dangerous. Columbus repaired them the best in his power; and, after taking in a supply of fresh provisions, at Gomera, he took his departure on the sixth day of September. He immediately left the usual track of navi. gation, holding his course due west, and stretched into unfrequented seas. The calmness of the weather prevented them from making much progress the first day; but on the second he lost sight of land. "The sailors dejected and dismayed at the boldness of the undertaking, beat their breasts, and shed tears, as if they were never again to see the land.. Columbus, confi. dent of success, comforted them with assurances of a happy issue of the voyage, and the prospect of vast wealth.

This pusillanimous spirit of the crew, taught Columbus that he should have to struggle with other difficulties besides what was natural for him to expect from the nature of the undertaking. Fortunately for himself, and for the country which employed him, to an ardent inventive genius, he joined other virtues but rarely united with them: he possessed a perfect knowledge of mankind, an insinuating address, a patient perseverance, in executing any plan, the full and entire government of his own passions, and the art of acquiring the direction of other men's.

These qualities, which eminently formed him for command, were accompanied with that experience and knowledge in his profession, which begets confidence in times of difficulty and danger.

The Spanish sailors accustomed only to coasting voyages in the Mediterranean; the knowledge of Columbus, the fruit of thirty years experience, improved by the inventive skill of the Portuguese, appeared immense.

When they were at sea, he superintended the execution of every order; and allowing himself only a few hours for rest, he was almost constantly on deck. His course lying through seas not formerly visited; the sounding line or quadrant were seldom out of his hands. He attended to the motions of the tides and currents, watched the flights of birds, the appearance of fishes, of sea weeds, and every thing that floated upon the water, entering every occurrence in his journal.

Expecting the length of the voyage would alarm the sailors, Columbus concealed from them the real progress which they made. He employed the artifice of reckoning short, during the whole voyage." The fourteenth of September, the fleet was above two hundred leagues to the west of the Canaries: the greatest distance from land that any Spaniard had been before that time.

But now they were struck with an appearance that was astonishing, because it was new. The magnetic needle did not point exactly to the Polar Star, but varied a degree towards the west; and as they proceeded this variation increased. Although this is now familiar, it still remains one of the mysteries of nature into the cause of which the sagacity of man has not been able to penetrate, and filled the companions of Columbus with terror.

They were now far from the usual course of navigation, nature itself seemed altered, and the only guide they had left, seemed to fail them. Columbus, with admirable presence of mind, invented a plausible reason for this appearance, which had an effect to dispel their fears, or silence their murmurs. He still steered due west, nearly in the latitude of the Canaries. In this direction he came within the course of the trade winds, which blow invariably from east to west.

He advanced before this steady gale with such rapidity, that it was seldom necessary to shift a sail.

About four hundred leagues west of the Canaries the sea was so covered with weeds that it resembled a meadow of vast extent,

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