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soundings, but nothing detrimental to navigation; while on the contrary the palpable change froin a very considerable cross sea in north-west gales to smooth water, which immediately follows on passing into this bay, is quite remarkable, and renders it a good refuge in such gales, almost in any part from Recife to Bird Island.

The nnmber of cases of vessels parting their cables in the bays of the Cape of Good Hope induced me to institute enquiries with a view to ascertain the causes. The result left no doubt upon my mind but that they generally arose from the attempt to ride out gales with very insufficient quantities of cable, since there was no room to suppose that their sizes were insufficient, as is evident from a comparison of the sizes of those that parted with that of the Hermes, cables, or other ships of war.

Thus those of the Prince Charley were if inches in diameter, the established size of the Hermes, yet the Prince Charley's total weight when loaded, could not have been more than 800 tons, while that of the Hermes is 1400 tons. The anchors of the Prince Churley were only 18 cwt., and those of the Hermes are 28 cwt. The anchors in the Mercbant Service generally are much smaller than those of men-of-war, and judiciously so ; for if there be a proper amount of chain, there anchors will hold equally with those in use in the Navy, and having small anchors will often oblige the veering to a considerable scope, and thus save the ship.

BAY OF MAZAGAN, North Africa.

Schooner Velor, London, July 1839. SIR.-I send you inclosed a survey sketch of the Bay of Mazagan, North Africa, taken in June 1839; should you deem it worih notice, it may be perhaps useful to some ship-master, who like myself, may be chartered there, (and not able to procure a local plan or chart of the bay). The base lines were measured by the ship's deep-sea-lead-line, carefully measured and marked, the angles were taken by a sextant, the sun's hearing noted at each station, and his altitude taken by artificial horizon to determine the variation.

During my stay there, a French brig was wrecked on reef marked H, she missed stays in beating out of the bay in a fresh north-east wind. The reef can always be distinguished, as the sea in fine weather breaks upon it. The patch of rocks marked E are dangerous, as the sea only breaks upon them at low water, in tempestuous weather. They bear W.N.W. from the Old Light House Tower, 720 fathoms. The best anchorage is to bring the two flag-staffs on the Sardinian Consul's house in one, and anchor in 5 fathoms water ; by doing so you come upon a patch of blue clay, the rest of the bay being without exception rocky bottom. The prevailing wind is north-east, and when it blows strong, a heavy sea tumbles in and renders the bay far from secure. A north-west wind is also a very unwelcome visitor, but with the wind from any point of the compass from N.E.b.E., round to N.W.b.W., it is always safe.

Provisions and stock of all kinds are very good and cheap. The appearance of the town from the sea, is like an old ruined fortification, and the high tower of Tetor Tid to the southward of it, and the town of Azamon to northward of it, say seven miles, (the buildings of which are all flat-topped and whitewashed,) are the only remarkable objects near it.

There is a great deal of sameness in the appearance of the land, all the way from Cape Blanco north to Rabat. It is a sterile sandy country of mo.

NO, 4.-VOL. XX.

2 F

derate height, with here and there a Mahomedan Saint House on the heights.

I am Sir, &c., To the Editor N.M.

WILLIAM FALCONER. [This was received too late to give the sketch in this number.]


The foMowing letters have been received from Commander Pallen, the officer in charge of the boat party from the Mackenzie River, in search of Sir John Franklin.

" Fort Good Hope, Mackenzie River, July 17th, 1850. “SIR.— I have the honor to report, for the information of their lordships, a summary of my proceedings since the 28th ult., at which date I had the honor of despatching my last letter.

" I returned to Fort Simpson on the 3rd inst., from which date until the Ilth, my own party as also the people of the fort were busily engaged in preparing the boats for the voyage, some of the blue jackets volunteering to act as carpenters, and handling saws and planes with nearly equal facility as the marlingspike. I have had the new boat (Try Again, length 40 ft., keel 30 ft., beam 9 ft. 4 in., depth 3 ft, 2 in, masts 22 ft.,) fitted with two masts, fore and aft sails, and an iron keel band. She is certainly very large, but the only smaller boat there (built for Sir J. Richardson) is not of sufficient capacity to contain all our provisions and stores, and should we have the good fortune to discover the missing party we should be enabled to afford them more efficient assistance, although her size will entail on the party a little extra work as regards portages, &c. The Logun was as thoroughly repaired and fitted as possible, and having received provisions, stores, &c., from Fort Simpson, we started from that post on the 11th inst., reached Fort Norman on the 13th, stopped there one night to receive the contingent of provisions and stores from that station, and arrived here yesterday morning, having pulled day and night (the wind being almost eonstantly fresh against us,) with the exception of one or two trials of sailing, in which the Try Again (which name I have given to the large boat,) answered as well as could be expected. We have here completed our supplies, amounting to forty-five pieces, sufficient for 120 days for our party of seventeen.

“I intend also to take up the pemmican buried at Point Separation, leaving a notice there, should any parties arrive and need provisions, of the nearest post where they may be obtained, which I consider to be that on Peel's River, to reach which cannot occupy more than three days at the farthest, although I do not consider it probable that any party can arrive, or at any rate, before our return, when I shall, if possible, replace it.

"I have engaged here two Indians to accompany us as hunters, and made arrangements for others to look out for us on the banks of the Beghoola of Inconnu, should we ascend that river, which they say is seven nights from this, and well stocked with deer; but we should probably take a rather longer time to accomplish the journey across, as our men cannot be such expert walkers as those trained from their infancy to the exercise.

“Should we fortunately attain Banks Land, and find the sea clear to the eastward, and a favorable breeze, I am led to suspect that we may possibly proceed to Port Leopold ; but I only name this as a possible chance, should their lordships not hear from me of our return this season. Again, could we only reach Cape Bunny with our boats, whence Sir J. Ross turned to the

south, we should certainly not return, but proceed on foot, for which I think we cannot be better provided, all hands being equipped with dresses and mocassins of moose leather, than which nothing is better adapted to resist the icy blasts of the frigid north, requiring less under clothing, which should always be of flannel or woollen, except for the feet, duffile or blanket wrappers being far preferable to any kind of sock or stocking; and thus the men are less tightly and cumbersomely clad than with the usual provision of cloth garments, English leather shoes, &c.

" I have written to Mr. Rae, requesting a supply of provisions, clothing, &c., the former to ineet our wants in case of return by ihe Beghoola, and to carry us on to the wintering station, which the period of our arrival can only determine—the latter to repay our Indian hunters who will not go further south, and such others as may assist us, for their services.

“We are just on the point of starting, and I hope to reach the sea about the 23rd inst. Whenever I meet with remarkable headlands or points, either on this coast or otherwise, I shall take care to leave conspicuous notices of our visit, and perhaps a deposit of provisions. Our stock on leaving Point Separation will consist of 2,300lb. of dry meat, and 1,7001b. of pemmican; also half-a-dozen cases of preserved meat, which will remain so to the last.

“Agreeably with the opinion expressed in the latter part of my journal, I do not think that Capt. Collinson's ships will be able to get along the coast from Point Barrow, if they reach so far, unless the ice be further removed from the shore, than at the time of our last voyage. The steam-launch will have a good chance, as driftwood is plentiful along the coast, east of Cape Halkett; aud of course boats may again do what boats hare done before.

“ The season has been extraordinarily fine, and our steersman (an intelligert man,) who was on the coast in both expeditions of Sir John Richardson and Mr. Rae, is confident of an open sea. Others, also, natives of the country, are of the same opinion.

“Should I find provisions and fuel plentiful on Bank's Land, it is possible that I may winter there, for the further prosecution of our search next season.

" In conclusion, I beg to assure their lordships, that no efforts (as I before said) will be spared to endeavour to carry out their wishes to the utmost, and hope that the termination of this season may, by God's blessing, throw some light upon the whereabouts of the missing ships.

• I have the honour to be, &c.,

“W.J. S. PULLEN, Commander, R.N.

Communding Boat Expedition in the Arctic Sear To the Secretary of the Admiralty."


This inestimable vegetable diet continues to meet with deserved support in the Royal Navy, Transport, East India Company, and other public services. From all parts of the world, reports of its virtues as an antiscorbutic, &c., continue to be received, and we find by our advertisement sheet, that Com. Forsyth of the Prince Albert, late from the Arctic Regions, has added his testimony to its excellence. We strongly recommend all who go long voyages, to add the Patent Preserved Potato to their stores.


The following is an extract from the report drawn up by a Commissioner of the Congress of the United States, which had been presented to Congress, wa3 read at a meeting of the Geological Society by Mr. John Smith:

Lieut. Maury has undertaken to collect from the log books of both private and public ships, the results of the experience of their officers with regard to winds, currents, &c., in all parts of the ocean, and to embody these results in a set of charts, called Maury's Wind and Current Charts,' in such a manner as to give to every navigator, the benefits of the experience of all whose records

are thus combined and collated. For this purpose, the track of each vessel is delineated on the chart, in colours according to the seasons of the year, and in characters according to the months. The winds daily experienced by the vessel making the track, are laid down on that track in symbols so ingeniously contrived, that the navigator, without any written description, sees at once not only the direction of those winds in the different months of the year, but perceives at once their precise character. They are seen to be fresh or light, moderate or strong, gales or squalls.

In like manner he is apprised of the set and velocity of the sea currents, the variation of the compass observed, the temperature of the water, and such other facts as may have been noted; all tending to a more general and correct knowledge of wind and weather, and thus furnishing new helps towards making ocean pavigation more safe, speedy, and sure.

In consequence of his investigations, Lieut. Maury has been induced to recommend a more northerly route than the one usually taken by vessels in the European trade. This recommendation is made not only on the princi. ples of great-circle sailing, as being nearer, but also on account of the winds, which are in that region believed to be more favourable. The log book of Capt. Mumford, of the ship Wisconsin, lately arrived at New York from Liverpool, has been, with many others, exhibited to your committee. The Wisconson had Lieut. Maury's charts on board, and kept well to the north, as recommended by him. She arrived at her port of destination twelve days before two other ships which sailed in company, but which went farther to the south. It is not claimed that such a difference will invariably occur in the length of passage by the two routes, but the result we record is nevertheless full of significance, and indicates the great importance and value to be attached to the subject under consideration. If the voyage across the Atlantic can be shortened but a day or two, commerce will still reap impor. tant benefits." —Bombay Paper.

A MAN AFLOAT IN THE MID OCEAN.-Letters from Havana, dated Feb. 3rd, Darrate a second remarkable rescue in mid ocean.—“On the morning of the 28th, at 3 o'clock, as the bark Oregon, Thompson, from Frankfort for Havana, was nearing the coast of Cuba, and distant some twenty miles, the attention of the officers of the ship and the watch on deck, was attracted by a singular noise near the ship in the water, not seemingly the voice of a human being in distress, but which led to examination of the surface, as far as the eye could reach, without ascertaining any object floating upon it. The ship passed on its way a half-mile or more, when the captain impressed with the sentiment that life was at hazard, ordered his ship about.

The singular sound was again heard, the boat lowered, and a life saved, Jaines Thompson, a Prussian by birth, after having obtained strength to give utterance to words, reported that he fell overboard from the ship Ocean Star, bound from New Orleans to Boston, at 6 o'clock the previous evening, that he fell through the head, and the vessel passed over him, and he presumes that it was not observed on board in time to render him assistance. He reinained six hours without anything to aid in sustaining himself, as he thinks, but some three hours before he was picked up througă the providence of Capt. Thompson, he struck a floating board of some three feet in length and one foot in width, which buoyed him, and enabled him to rest.”

Models or Frigates, Yachts, AND STEAMERS. We lately noticed the launch of a splendid steamer for the Turkish government, constructed by the Messrs. White, of Cowes. _The public will be glad to learn in these exciting times of the race between England and America, that that talented family is on the qui vive, and are preparing a series of models, China clippers and others, to form a new class of merchant ships, and which are destined to be exhibited at the Chrystal Palace, at the ensuing exhibition of the world's industry. There can be no mistake that our little island bears the palm in ship-building, both in Her Majesty's Navy and Mercantile Marine, as it does of her phantom ships, which may be found in every Royal Yacht Club. Mr. Joseph White is also preparing models of all the ships he has built and altered for the Government, including the renowned Phæton, the Waterwitch, the Daring, the Contest, and Termagant; with those of the altered bows of the Amphion and Fox frigates ; also a few specimens of his schooner and cutter yachts. The Queen Victoria schooner, built for the Emperor of Russia, the schooner Constunce, for the Marquis of Conyngham, and the cutter Lavrock, now building in his yard for Capt. C. Hamlyn Williams, R.N.; also a model of a schooner, designed to compete with the Yankee clipper yacht, which is to astonish “ the Britishers." We understand that Mr. Thomas White, of Gosport, is also “ up and doing," so that the talents of a whole family will be exhibited for the honour of their country. Independent of this branch of service, the island will not be backward in sending forth specimens of her industry and manufactures.-Sun.

RAMBLES IN WESTERN INDIA.- Versova, Surat. The shore continues pleasing and picturesque-cocoa-nut groves, occasionally interrupted by high black masses of rock, skirting the beach; the beautiful hills of Salsette, occasionally surmounted by a ruined Portuguese church, closing up the back ground. A little north of Versova, the estuary running up to the town, and so round the Island of Bassein,-a continuation of it stretching away round by Tannah, and so returning to Bombay harbour after encircling the islands of Salsette and Trombay, opens on the view. The beauty of the scenery and charms of the sail throughout this creek in either direction can rarely be surpassed; of this, however, we shall by-and-bye have occasion to speak. The walls, towers, and churches of Bassein are clearly distinguishable over the rocks and amongst the trees. The coast now becomes much more bold than before; the country round Mahim rising in finely rounded conical hills from the shore. The large massy works of Danoo, a native fort, of apparently great size and strength, flanked at the gates and angles with huge round towers forms another eminently picturesque object from a coasting vessel.

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