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the poorer classes use to sweeten their beverages. The spirit stills and the export to Yucatan are shewn in the adjoined statement, of the exports of this port for the last eight years. In the year 1846 some cargoes of this article were cleared out for Campeche; when possessed by the fatal spirit of monopoly, which is the ruin of industry, they imposed an additional duty of three-pence per 25lbs., from the 28th of May of the same year; fearing forsooth that the importations from this conterminous and sister state, would be of detriment to its own products. In Tabasco no less blinded to their own interests, they collect six-pence export duty for every ten arrobas (25lbs) a tax which although at first sight it appears small is not so, when we consider the small value of the article, the waste to which it is subject, and the increasing cost of production. The crystalization of the juice into cakes, to make aguardiente, appears to be a superfluous labour, which occasions the loss of fermentation, so necessary to the produce of alcohol. There would no doubt be a considerable saving of produce, if, as is the case everywhere else, the direct distillation of molasses was practised; but this mode of proceeding would meet with constant opposition in Tabasco, where they are ignorant of the reason for so doing. The chief consumption of the aguardiente and sugar-cake, which are manufactured in this country, as in the interior, is very considerable in both articles, although from want of returns, I cannot be particular as to the quantity.
Sugar properly so called, is manufactured in small quantities, insufficient even for home consuinption; which in part supplies itself from the town of Chilon, Ocoeniego, and others in the state of Chiapas, which hitherto have produced it in abundance; and of a very superior description. The want of large capital which is requisite in this branch of industry, is an. obstacle to its extension, which can alone in time better prices.
Another exertion of industry is the cutting, barking and transport of logwood, (Hæmatorcylon Campechiaunm,) which is known in the European market as Palo de Campeche. This tree is indigenous to the forest of Tabasco, to the lowlands, islands, and banks of rivers, and lagoons, and gives employment to very many, forming the principal article of foreign export of this state. Far from the land producing it in abundance, it begins to disappear, it is seldom met near the mountains, although when planted on the highlands and hills it arrives at perfection. To procure it, establishments are formed in those places where it abounds, which are called “ Tintales”;* and a more or less considerable capital is employed in procuring hands, tools, boats, victuals, and other articles necessary to the undertaking. It is cut with the axe, and is a work of torment, for the lowlands in which it grows are very marshy, and teem with mosquitoes. Ilowever it is the most lucrative for the labourer. For instance in husbandry, say in the breeding of cattle, a labourer if married gets four dollars per month, and three if unmarried, besides the food necessary for his family. Whilst in the “ Tintales,” every labourer whether married or single is paid according to his labour, and as there is no overseer, as in cultivation, to take note of their work, each makes
* Tintales-Establishments for cutting.
a separate delivery, keeping a daily account of weight and date, in the “ Tintales," from which they cannot remove the wood until the floods. They employ themselves in cutting and stacking it, till the season approaches in which it is removed in small boats, then each person, barks and delivers by weight as much as he has cut, and this is divided into daily tasks, (tareas) and the value of each tarea is placed to his credit. These tareas consisted formerly of twenty-five pieces, averaging vine inches in thickness, and weighing between ten and twelve Castilian* quintals, without the bark. This method is still in vogue in some establishments, but in others the tarea has been reduced to four or five light quintals, barked and brought to the loading place. It is calculated that when there is abundance of wood, a man of mediocre strength, can compass that amount of labour in a few hours. Some labourers are paid a real and a half (9 d.) for every quintal delivered within certain bounds; these are called quintaleros, and their families are not maintained by the proprietor. But most commonly eight reals per tarea are paid, and that shews, that the labour applied to this branch, produces 150 per cent more than the farm labour, supposing a man does not cut more than half a tarea a day, which including the food he receives amounts to five reals.
The farm labourer only receives two, hence it is that logwood cutters look better and are more comfortable than the others, although they work much harder; having the means of satisfying all their wants.
THE ANTILLES.- Sombrero, Anguila, St. Martin, &c.—Described by Capt. E. Barnett, R.N., late of H.M.S. Thunder.
(Continued from page 18.) THERE is however a good channel within the shoals, for vessels drawing fourteen feet, provided the prevailing wind is not to the northward of E.N.E. To navigate it, having passed the bar as before directed, or if pursuing the route from the eastward through Cades Bay anchorage, give Johnson Island a berth of a quarter of a mile, and then steer with Sandy Island on with the north-east side of the highest of the Five Islands, until the Hawk's Bill Rock comes on with Pelican Point, which mark will carry you through the Five Island Channel, which is lowever only a cable's length wide, if therefore on your approach you should find the wind too scant to allow you to make certain of laying through, you had better pass out to the south-west of the Five Islands, taking care to avoid the north end of the Irish bank, by not opening Flat Top Hill to the southward of Musquito Hill when near it. You may also anchor before coming thus far in the centre of Picart Bay, in 3 fathoms, threetenths of a mile from the shore, where there is good holding ground, and good landing on the east side of Ffry's Bluff. Should you have succeeded in getting through the Five Island Channel, we can give no further leading marks, but you may pursue the inshore route with safety, by steering from thence direct for Pelican Island, a small rocky islet eight feet above the level of the sea, two cables' length to the westward
* Castilian quintal is equal to 1 cwt.
of the east point of Five Island Harbour, you will soon perceive a breaker, which lies a cable's length off the west point of the island; round this within a cable's length, and then hug the shore close on board, taking care not to open Fort Barrington on Goat Hill, of Ferris Point, until you are past the Hurst Banks, or the Table Peak is nearly in one with the Hawk's Bill Rock. Ships passing outside the shoals, bound to St. John's Harbour, should as before directed, not shut in Dow's House of Old Road Bluff, until they have passed to the westward of the leading mark for the bar, when they may haul gradually up to the north-west, taking care to open the Hawk's Bill Rock out to the westward of the Five Islands, before Johnson's Island comes in one with Old Road Bluff, when they may haul up north. The soundings off the south-west end of the island in this track, are very irregular and rocky, varying suddenly from 7 to 12 fathoms, and in the night, this part should not be approached within the depth of 10 or 12 fathoms.
The Five Islands are a small group of low, rugged, rocky islets, scantily clothed with brushwood, the outermost lying half a mile west of Pearn Point, and are easily recognized from the north and south direction: from other points, being under the hills they are not readily distinguished, except the largest, which is fifty feet in height: the innermost lies a cable's length from the shore, leaving a small channel for a drogher. The ship channel we have described, is between the highest and the one next east of it; there are really but four islets, for the northeast point of the largest, which is called the fifth from its appearance at a certain distance, is connected with the island by a low coral ledge, the two outer ones are steep to on their north and west sides.
Red Cliff, three-tenths of a mile to the north-east of Pearn Point: at the east end of a sandy beach, there is a remarkable Red Cliff, about thirty feet in height which forms the south-west point of Five Island Harbour, which, forming a deep indentation to the eastward is one mile and a half in extent in that direction and three-fourths of a mile from north to south. This is a very secure anchorage during the prevailing winds although exposed to the rollers for vessels of sixteen feet draught; the holding ground is very good. There is however a dangerous small patch of rocks in the very middle of the harbour on which there is only nine feet water; its shoalest part lies with Sandy Island in one with Pelican Point, the north-west point of the harbour; to avoid it to the northward which is the side on which it should be passed-on entering do not open Drews Hill to the southward of Maiden Island, which is a remarkable small, round, rocky islet, with precipitous sides, crowned with small trees, the tops of which are ninety feet above the level of the sea, lying in the middle of the inner or eastern part of the harbour. We are not able to give any mark for passing it to the southward. The harbour is also obstructed at the entrance by the Pelican Shoal, on which there is only fifteen feet water. If working in to the southward of it do not shut Drew Hill in with Maiden Island; and when the Great Sister is in one with Ferris Point, you will be close on the inner or east side of it. The shoal is cleared to the northward by not opening Seaforth Head, a rocky bluff hill at the east end of the harbour to the southward of Maidea Island. If approaching from the northward the better way is to keep in the inshore channel already described, and haul sharp round Pelican Island rock, when, if the sea breeze is to the northward of east you may fetch to windward of Cook's Shoal.
The Hawk's Bill Rock lies a cable and a half length from the shore, and midway between Pelican and Ferris Points which are a mile and a quarter distant. It is a small, barren, rocky islet, twenty-five feet in height; its west side being composed of soft sand stone, has been cut into by the action of the sea, formerly a perpendicular cliff to nearly the top of the rock, where it overhangs projecting out almost horizontally for a few feet, and then becomes rounded to the summit, on which there is a nob of rock, and when seen clear of the land from the northward or southward has the appearance of a hawk's bill and cannot be mistaken: there is no passage within it even for a boat, but on its outer side it is steep to within a cable's length.
Goat Hill, eight-tenths of a mile to the north-east of Ferris Point, is of conical shape, 176 feet in height, and is readily distinguished by the small fort with its two signal staffs on its summit, more particularly from the south-west, from whence it also appears a well defined point or headland. The hill is situated on a narrow neck of land, on the west side of which is Deep Bay, where there is a temporary anchorage for small vessels.
Ship's Stern.—Nearly a cable's length from the point, is situated a narrow flat topped rocky islet, slightly wooded, one-tenth of a mile in length, called the Ship's Stern, its west side having something of that appearance. It is a bold perpendicular cliff about sixty feet in height, having several large masses of rock lying at its base, which are very remarkable from the south-west or north-east directions. From hence the shore takes an abrupt turn to the E.S.E., for two miles and threequarters, forming the south side of the harbour and roadstead of St. John's.
St. John's.--St. John's is the capital of the island, and lies on the side of a gentle acclivity, which at the upper part of the town, is about eighty feet above the level of the sea. From the offing it is readily distinguished by the cathedral, a large massive white building with two lofty towers, the vanes of which are 157 feet above the sea. The only other remarkable object is the kirk, a small square white building with a nipped or sloping roof, and a small bell turret at its west end; it stands a little above the cathedral, nearly a quarter of a mile to the south-east of it. The centre part of the city is well built and clean, the streets running parallel and at right angles with the shore. The commerce of the island is carried on from hence, both inwards and outwards, the produce and supplies being conveyed by droghers to and from all other parts, with the exception of Parham, where three or four ships load annually.
The harbour is secure against all winds except hurricanes; but confined, and not at all convenient, for ships of only twelve feet draught, cannot come within three-quarters of a mile of the wharf, and those drawing over fourteen feet, are obliged to load in the roads: it is also exposed to