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trough to drain the pile into a tight box or barrel. A basin, scooped out in the ground down to the clay, will answer every purpose, and if the liquids do not soak or drain away, there is no objection to its being exposed to moderate rain. We will Suppose that the materials are to be combined in the proportions, 22 bushels of cotton seed, or about 600 lbs., 600 pounds of stable manure, 700 pounds of bone meal and 100 pounds muriate of potaslı to the ton of 2,000 pounds. If the cotton seed are used first as an absorbent in the stalls along with the litter, a layer of bone meal should be sprinkled over cach layer of manure that is taken from the stalls. In the other case, we will soak the cotton seed in water in which the muriate of potash has been dissolved, and putting down a laver of stable manure over it, follow it by a layer of bone. Every few layers that are put down the mass ought to be trampled or rammed down and well wetted with water or solution of the muriate of potaslı. The heap is built up in a conical form and covered over with earth, leaving an opening in the top in which water can be ponred. The pile will soon begin to ferment and get warm, and liquid will drain from it into the barrel. This should be thrown back upon it and more water addel, if it appears to get at all dry. The heap should lie at least eight weeks. When broken, it should be ent down through the layers and thoroughly chopped up.

How might we expect a sample of compost made from these materials in these proportions to analyze? We calculate from the ingredients used what amount of plant food there would be in a thousand pounds of the mixture, air-dried, as follows:

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The spreading of chemical manures also requires careful attention. If they are broadcasted by hand, they should be sown just as carefully as grain or grass seed. In case the whole surface is to be covered, the wheat drill may be used to spread the fine manures. The best way, unquestionably, to spread a compost is to use one of the excellent machines now made for the purpose.


The Station receives so many reqnests for formulas for mixtures and composts that we will give a few simply as suggestions and illustrations, using different farm materials and cheap chemicals.

We give a variety of formulas, cach to make about one ton of fertilizer, so as to meet the requirements of the different sections of the State, and using, as far as possible, whole packages of the articles, so as to save weighing or measuring. In preparing these, we have had the corn and cotton crops more especially in mind, but the formulas will be found generally useful.


1. Tankage, ground........

Acid phosphate....
Sulphate of ammonia.......
Woods monld or fine rich earth......
Or use bone meal or ground fish in place of the tankage.

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2. X. C. Phosphate

1000 lbs. Kainite ..........

400 Dissolved bone or tankage.

500 Sulphate of ammonia 60 and nitrate of soda 40

100 Or 100 pounds sulphate of immonia. 3. Acid phosphate....

800 lbs. Muriate potash

100 Sulphate of ammonia.........

Finely pulverized manure from hen-house, horse or cow stables...1040
These may all be used after the manner of commercial fertilizers.






A. N. C. Phosphate, containing carbonate of lime and phosphate... 800 lbs. Kainite.........

200 Stable manure, cotton seed, muck, mould, or some vegetable matter, 1000 Compost these together, putting down in layers and letting it lie six or eight weeks.

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B. From acid phosphate entirely.
Acid phosphate.....

600 lbs. Kainite .........

200 20 bushels cotton seed

600 Stable manure or any rich earth or mould...

600 One ton of.........

..2000 Or use 800 pounds of acid phosphate and 400 lbs. of kainite.

Put down, best under shelter, or so that the heap will not be leached, a layer of manure or earth, a layer of cotton seed well soaked in a solution of kainite, a layer of acid phosphate, manure or earth again, &c. The heap should be thoroughly moist, but not drip. Cover over with earth. Watch it that it does not heat too much, and pour more water in the top of it if it does. Let the heap lie six or eight weeks. Then cut down across the layers and chop together. Can use, according to desire, 500 to 2,000 pounds per acre.

The other composts above are to be treated in a similar manner.



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1. Mixtures.-A. For a high grade fertilizer, mix : Acid phosphate..........

900 lbs. Ground tankage or fish scrap..

800 Sulphate of ammonia .......

60 Nitrate of soda.........

40 " Pure sulphate of potash

200 Or nise bone meal, in which case, however, as this does not contain as much ammonia as tankage and fish scrap, you must use eighty pounds more of sulphate of ammonia.

On the farm it will probably be better to mix the above with an equal amount of woods-mould or fine rich earth.

600" 400540"

B. Using cotton seed meal :
Cotton seed meal........

400 lbs. Sulphate of ammonia.....

60“ Acid phosphate or dissolved bone..... Kainite ...... North Carolina Phosphate.......

In B it will be better, to insure bright tobacco, to use, instead of the kainite 150 pounds "pure sulphate of potash" or "high grade" sulphate of potash. 2. Composts.- Prepare as for cotton: (1). Fine horse or cow manure, rich mould or similar material, 900 lbs.

Acid phosphate or dissolved bone..
High grade sulphate potash .....
Bone ineal, fish scrap or tankage ......
Sprinkle each layer with water and let lie for a month.

600" 150 " 350 "

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As an encouragement and aid to farmers in preparing their own manures at home, the Station will determine the per centages of the chief valuable ingredients in samples of farm composts and mixtures, if the samples are taken according to directions, which will be sent.

During the past year the following analyses of such samples have been made:

3589. From N. W. Crawford, Elizabeth City. Mr. Crawford gives the formula approximately fronı memory, he says, as follows:

Cost with

Freight added. 100 ibs. A. A. nitrogen.

$ 2 08 50 Sulphate ammonia......

1 75 200 Pure dissolved raw bone.

3 15 400 “ Acid phosphate..

3 50 Kainite.

85 160 " Land plaster

70 80 Cotton seed hull ashes.....

45 170 Hen-house manure 150 " Cotton seed meal

1 88 50 Hard-wood ashes.



Mr. Crawford estimates the cost himself. .........

$15 48 " Used it on early truck, 300 lbs. per acre, with good results.”

3659. Potato Fertilizer, from Dunn & Willett, New Bern, “supposed to contain 24 per cent. aminonia, 5 per cent. phosphoric acid, 31 per cent. putasb."

3660. Cabbage Fertilizer, from same, supposed to contain 4. per cent. ammonia, 4. per cent. phosphoric aciil, and 6 per cent. potash.” They could not remember the formulas, but they were somewhat like those given above. 3860. W. R. Mann, Gold Rock. Said to be made of: Earth or muck.

600 lbs. Lime.......

100 Colton seed..

600 Salt.

100 Stable manure " Used on a gray, sandy soil and did well.”

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3889. R. J. Conyers, Youngsville.

3903. W. P. Bangham, Washington. Made from 200 lbs. kaivite, 200 lbs. acid phosphate, and 400 lbs. cotton seed meal, well mixed.

4130. Compost for cotton, sent by Ashley Wilkins, for E. Dromgoole, South Gaston :

Per ton.
Acid phosphate.......

1200 lbs.
A. A. nitrogen
Sulphate ammonia.

50 “
Nitrate of soda
Nitrate of potash.

350 “

50 " 50



Mr. Dromgoole writes : “ It was mixed by Baugh & Sons, the formula prescribed by me. It was applied to cotton at 300 lbs. to the acre, and yielded results about equal to Soluble Pacific Guano.”




Sand and insoluble



Total phosph. acid.

Equiv. to ammonia.



3589 | N. W. Crawford, Elizabeth (ity ......



2.03 2.49



Dunn & Willett, New Bern


6.82 1.65 2.00 3.91






1.50 6.89

Dunn & Willett, New Bern........
W. R. Mann, Gold Rock...









2.25 2.73



R. J. Conyers, Youngsville...
V. P. Baugham, Washington........
E. Dromgoole, South Gaston ............



2.70 , 3.28




1.35 1.88


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