Графични страници
PDF файл
ePub

to the sellers of 100 per cent*. There is much trade could trace on the plains of Hillah the extent of carried on in the town both by camels from the in- ancient Babylon ; but their data are frequently few, terior, and by boats laden with rice, dates, tobacco, and in reality deceptive. The lines drawn on maps are and other articles most in demand among the desert often only used to divide distant mounds of ruin. tribes.

Accumulations of pottery and brick work are met with In connexion with this town, and the immense ex- occasionally over a great tract, but the connexion tent and magnificence usually ascribed to the city of supposed between these and the corn-fields and Babylon, Mr. Ainsworth makes the following ob- gardens, within the common precincts of a wall, is servations:

gratuitous in the extreme. Imagine London and The great question which has occupied historians in con Paris to be levelled, and the inhabitant of some nexion with Babylon is, whether the account given of its future city to visit their ruins, as those of then size and magnificence by the ancient profane writers, in remote antiquity; if in the one instance Sèvres, some cases supposed to have been eye-witnesses of its

Mont Rouge, and Vincennes, or in the other Greenglory and splendour, are not exaggerated. There has been wich, Stratford-le-Bow, Tottenham, Highgate, Hamthe customary abuse of the standard of measurement mersmith, Richmond, and Clapham, be taken in as amongst classical authors, and the same difficulty of reconciliation left to the moderns 1.

boundaries, or identified respectively as the ruins of But in this question, a

Paris and London, what a prodigious extent would

eat elementary principle has been hitherto entirely lost sight of. The cities those cities gain in the eyes of futurity!

Like other great cities in the East, the great Babel of the earliest races of mankind were not, as in modern times, vast and crowded congregations of was, in the lapse of time, known by different names, houses, built side by side in compact and extensive and, ultimately, subdivided into various parts. masses, but each dwelling had its garden, pasture, been separated from the mother-city, if indeed it

The first quarter of Babylon that appears to have and tillage-lands surrounding it, the whole being was not originally distinct, was that on the west enclosed by a wall. This fact at once reduces the side of the river, and contains the Birs. Nimrood. wonder often evinced at the vast space occupied by The word “ Birs," as applied to this mound or ruin, many ancient cities of the East. In the centre of cannot be satisfactorily explained in Arabic, as a the vast enclosure, or in some conspicuous part, were

derivative of that language ; and it would appear, the residences of the authorities, the chief of whom was already called king; here also was the temple Chaldaic tongues have failed, as they are founded on

that all attempts to deduce it from the Hebrew or of their god, or the house of their captives, as at

a change of the radical letters. Babylon. There are abundant evidences that this was the fact in the two great cities of antiquity, -- Birsean looms—the cloth of Birs---derived its name.

It was from Birs, or Bursif, that the produce of the Babylon and Nineveh; of the former it is stated by The almost only remnant of Borsippa, probably the Curtius, that the intervals which separated the houses temple of a national worship performed in high were sown and cultivated, to provide subsistence in

places, one of which belonged to each Babylonian case of siege. A consideration of these circumstances does not, city, and to each quarter of Babylon itself, still pre

serves its ancient name. Birs Nimrood has been therefore, allow of any comparison between the population of a city of Assyria or Babylonia with the generally looked upon as the remnant of the great

pile of Babel, but it will appear much more probable population of a modern city of equal extent. This is an element in all the pompous records of the past Borsippa, and one of the quarters of the Babylon of

to have belonged to the city of Birs, Bursif, or grandeur of Babel, which must not be lost sight of.

Herodotus. And even in reference to its boasted magnificence,

Marudi, in his Universal History, mentions Babil, the poetical character of Eastern writings, and the

the capital of Aferadun, and one of the “ climates' of remote periods to which they refer, must not be for

the earth, so named from the name proper to one gotten in the overwhelming interest of the subject of its towns.

This town is situated on both banks « The greatest cities of Europe," it has been said, of the canal

, derived from the Frat in the province give but a faint idea of the grandeur which all of Irak, one hour's journey from the city called Jisr historians unanimously ascribe to the famous city of Babil and the canal of Al Birs. Babylon;" and this opinion has been echoed by every

The quarter of Babel itself appears to have changed lover of hoary antiquity. Then came the fulfilment its name, and to have received that of Nil. The of its predicted destruction, and the glory of God mounds of Babel and the Mujaleba are nearly surappears to be enhanced in the eyes of man, by the rounded by two canals which bear that name in the magnitude of the object against which his anger was

present day. Abulfeda described the main stream of directed; but a knowledge of the real state and circumstances of the great Eastern mart of iniquity, the canal of Nil, after which it is called the Nahr

the Frat as flowing to the city of Nil, and giving off would probably show that mercy predominated over

Sirat. D'Anville also notices a town called Nilus, punishment. Some modern authorities have thought that they without having a definite idea of its position.

The square superficies of the mound of Babel is * It would be curious if, in the progress of commerce and civili- | 49,000 feet; its elevation at the south-east corner, zation, the neighibourhood of Babylon should again become the scene

64 feet. To the south of it is the Mujaleba, having of princely mercantile traffic; it is described in the Revelations as having once been (xvii. 12, 13), " The merchandise of gold, a square superficies of 120,000 feet, and a height of and silver, and precious stones, and of pearls, and fine linen, and only 28; beyond this again, the Amram ebn Ali, of vessels of ivory, and all manner of vessels of most precious wood, having an area of 104,000 feet, and an elevation of and ointments, a rd frankincense, and wine, and oil, and fine four, kalbid, from Kalba, “the overturned, or overthrown," and of brass, and iron, and marble, and cinnamon, and odours, 23 feet. The Mujaleba has been read as if it were Ma

+ Herodotus gives the extent of the walls of Babylon at 120 stades whereas a much nearer affinity exists to Mujaleba, on each side, or 480 stades in circumference; Diodorus 360 stades in plural of Jalib, the "home of the captives," and not Curtius states it at 368 ; and Strabo at 385 stades. The general improbably the residence of the Israelites who re. approximation of these measurements would lead us to suppose that mained in Babylon. This version is favoured by the the same stade was used by the different reporters, and if this was name of Heroot and Maroot also given to the mound the Greek Itinerary stade, we may estimatc the circumference of the great city at twenty-five Britisha miles,

by the natives, from a tradition that near the foot of

the ruin there is an invisible pit, where D'Herbelot relates that the rebellious people were hung with their heels upward, “until the day of judgment." The Kasr, or palace, is a mound of about 700 yards in length and breadth. Its moulded bricks, ornamented with inscriptions, and its glazed and coloured tiles, added to the sculptures that have been found there, speak of its importance, and have led to its being generally looked upon as the eastern and the largest of the palaces of the Babylonian monarch, renowned for its sloping gardens.

Between the Kasr and the Amram there is every probability the Euphrates once flowed, where the subaquatic tunnel of Semiramis may have existed, and where quays lined the banks at the time Alexander was carried over during his last illness.

The Amrạm ebn Ali (so called from a son of Ali,) has been more generally, and with probably a greater degree of plausibility, identified with the western palace. It is surrounded by ridges or mounds of ramparts which were the defence of this large space, and of all the establishments it contained,

The fourth quarter of Babel is marked in its central space by the mound of Al Heimar or Hámir, an isolated eminence once having a superficies of 16,000 feet, and an elevation of 44 feet, with a ruin on the summit eight feet high. Its modern name is derivable from the Arabic root hamará, “to be, or become red," denoting the red mass or ruin 'on the summit: Alhambra, one of the four wards of Grenada, was also so called from the red colour of the materials of its buildings.

DEPENDANCE OF MAN UPON HIS CREATOR. For the continuance of life a thousand provisions are made. If the vital actions of a man's frame were directed by his will, they are necessarily so minute and complicated, that they would immediately fall into confusion. He cannot draw a breath without the exercise of sensibilities as well ordered as those of the eye or ear. A tracery of nervous cords unites many organs in sympathy, of which, if one filament were broken, pain, and spasm, and suffocation, would ensue. The action of his heart, and the circulation of his blood, and all the vital functions, are governed through means and by laws which are not dependant on bis will, and to which the powers of his mind are altogether inadequate. For, had they been under the influence of his will, a doubt, a moment's pause of irresolution, a forgetfulness of a single action at its appointed time, would have terminated his existence

Now when man sees that his vital operations could not be directed by reason, that they are constant, and far too important to be exposed to all the changes incident to his mind, and that they are given up to the direction of other sources of motion than the will, he acquires a full sense of his dependance. If man be fretful and wayward, and subject to inordinate passion, we perceive the benevolent de: sign in withdrawing the vital motions from the influence of such capricious sources of action, so that they may neither be disturbed like his moral actions, nor lost in a moment of despair.

When man thus perceives that in respect to all these vital operations he is more helpless than the infant, and that his boasted reason can neither give them order nor protection, is not his insensibility to the Giver of these secret endowments worse than ingratitude ? In a rational creature, ignorance of his condition becomes a species of ingratitude : it dulls his sense of benefits, and hardens him into a temper of mind with which it is impossible to reason, and from which no improvement can be expected. — BELL.

[graphic][merged small]

WHAT IS HOME ? That is not home, where day by day I wear the busy hours away; That is not home, where lonely night Prepares me for the toils of light; 'Tis hope, and joy, and memory, give A home in which the heart can live : These walls no lingering hopes endear, No fond remembrance chains me here. Cheerless I heave the lonely sighEliza, canst thou tell me why? "Tis where thou art, is home to me, And home without thee cannot be. There are who strangely love to roam, And find in wildest haunts their home; And some in halls of lordly state, Who yet are homeless, desolate. The sailor's home is on the main, The warrior's, on the tented plain, The maiden's, in her bower of rest, The infant's, on his mother's breast; But where thou art, is home to me, And home without thee cannot be. There is no home in halls of pride, They are too high, and cold, and wide. No home is by the wanderer found; 'Tis not in place; it hath no bound, It is a circling atmosphere Investing all the heart holds dear ; A law of strange attractive force, That holds the feelings in their course. It is a presence undefined, O’er-shadowing the conscious mind, Where love and duty sweetly blend To consecrate the name of friend; Where'er thou art, is home to me, And home without thee cannot be.CONDER.

What different ideas are formed in different nations concerning the beauty of the human shape and countenance ! A fair complexion is a shocking deformity on the coast of Guinea ; thick lips and a flat nose are a beauty. In some nations, long ears that hang down upon the shoulders, are the objects of universal admiration. In China, if a lady's foot is so large as to be ft to walk upon, she is regarded as a monster of ugliness. Some of the savage nations in North America tie four boards round the heads of their children, and thus squeeze them, while the bones are tender and gristly, into a form that is almost perfectly square. Europeans are astonished at the absurd barbarity of this practice, to which some missionaries have imputed the singular stupidity of those nations among whom it prevails; but when they condemn those savages, they do not reflect that the ladies in England had, till within these very few years, been endeavouring, for near a century past, to squeeze the beautiful roundness of their natural shapes into a square form of the same kind.-Smith. Mankind have a great aversion to intellectual labour, but even supposing knowledge to be easily attainable, more people would be content to be ignorant than would take even a little trouble to acquire it. --JOHNSON.

Though we seem grieved at the shortness of life in general, we are wishing every period of it at an end. The minor longs to be of age, then to be a man of business, then to make up an estate, then to arrive at honours, then to retire.-Spectator

386--2

SCEPTRE WITH DOVE.

CHAPTERS ON CORONATIONS.

Two sceptres, weighing 180z., 601.
No. III.

Two sceptres, one sett with pearles and stones, the upper

end gould, the lower end silver. The other silvar gilt, with THE REGALIA, 2.

a dove, formerly thought gould, 651. 168. 104d. THERE is some reason to believe that King Alfred's crown was preserved in England until the time of the Commonwealth, for in the inventory of “ that part of the Regalia which are now removed from Westminster to the Tower Jewel House," we find the following The sceptre is placed in the king's right hand, and entry : “King Alfred's crowne, of gould wyerworke, in his left, during the ceremony of investiture, he sett with slight stones, and two little bells, p. oz. 795, takes the Virge, or rod, which is carried before him at 31. per ounce, 2481. 10s. Od.” The purpose of such in the concluding procession. The distinction bestrange appendages as the bells is a matter not very tween the sceptre and the rod is that the former is easy to discover, and the conclusion of the inventory surmounted by a cross, and the latter by a dove. puts an end to all conjecture, for, after enumerating This distinction is of very ancient date, and we find the various antique regalia, and reciting their value, that it was observed in the ceremonial of the corowe find the Vandal record : All these, according to nation of Richard the First. The virge of the Engorder of parliament, are broken and defaced.” lish sovereign is of gold, richly adorned with precious

The other crowns destroyed at this time are thus stones; at the top is a globe and cross, surmounted enumerated in the inventory :

with a dove enamelled white, and the globe is surThe imperiall crowne of massy gold, weighing 71b. 6oz., rounded with a circle of rose diamonds. valued at 1,1101. Os. Od.

The queen-consort's virge is made of ivory, garThe queen's crowne of massy gold, weighing 3lb. 10oz., nished with gold, and surmounted by a dove enamvalued at 3381. 35. 4d.

elled white; it is rather more than a yard in length.
A small crowne found in an iron chest, formerly in the
Lord Cottington's charge, [it was the crown of Edward the
Sixth,) of the which the gold, 731. 165. 8d.
And the diamonds, rubies, &c., 3551. Os. Od.

QUEEN'S VIRGE, OR IVORY ROD.
Queen Edith's crowne, formerly thought to be of massy

In the year 1814 another virge was found at the gould, but upon triall found to be of silver gilt, enriched with garnetts, foule pearle, saphires, and some odd stones, hidden on a back-shelf. It was supposed to have

Jewel Office in the Tower, covered with dust, and p. oz. 50), valued at 161. os. Od.

been used at the coronation of William and Mary,
when both the king and queen were invested with

sovereign power.
KING'S SCEPTRE, WITH CROSS.
The SCEPTRE ROYAL, which the sovereign bears in
the right hand, is made of gold, and is two feet nine

ST. EDWARD'S STAFF. inches in length: it is richly adorned with precious stones, and the top rises into a fleur de lis of six St. Edward's STAFF, which is carried before the leaves, three of which are erect and three pendent; sovereign in the procession which precedes the coroout of this flower arises a mound formed of a large nation, is a staff or sceptre of gold, four feet eleven amethyst, garnished with precious stones, and upon inches in length, having a foot of steel about four the mound is a cross pattée of jewels, with a large inches in length, with a mound and cross at the top; diamond in the midst.

the ornaments are of gold, and the diameter of it is The sceptre is a more ancient emblem of royal upwards of three-quarters of an inch. dignity than the crown itself. Homer makes it the The following is an account of the virges or rods only cognizance of the Grecian kings; and the his- destroyed, with the rest of the Regalia, in the time torian Justin declares that the ancient kings of Rome of the Commonwealth :used no other ensign of royalty. The Greek poets A long rodd of silver gilt, llb 5oz., 41. 10s. 8d. describe the gods as bearing sceptres to indicate their One staff of black and white irory, with a dove on the empire, and declares that an oath taken on the sceptre top, with binding and foote of gould, 41. 108. Od. was the most solemn that could be sworn. In Jacob's

A large staff, with a dove on ye top, formerly thought to remarkable prediction of the Messiah, we find the

be all gould; but upon triall found to be the lower part

wood within, and silver gilt without, weighing in all 27 sceptre specifically mentioned as the emblem of regal ounces, valued at 351. Os. od. power : “the sceptre shall not depart from Judah, One small staff, with a floure de luce on the topp, fornor a lawgiver from between his feet, until Shiloh merly thought to be all of gould, but upon triall found to come.” Justin tells us that among the Romans the be iron within and silver gilt without, 21. 10s. Od. sceptre was originally a spear; but the sceptres

A dove of gould, sett with stones and pearles, p. oz. 8} described by Homer were simply long walking-staves, ounces, in a box sett with studds of silver gilt, 261. gs. od. designed to show that the monarchs ruled by acknow The ORB, Mound, or Globe, which is put into ledged right, and not by force. Le Gendre tells us the sovereign's hand immediately that in the first race of the French kings the sceptre before the crown is placed upon was a golden rod, almost always of the same height his head, and is borne in the as the king who bore it, and crooked at one end, like left hand during the subsequent a crosier or pastoral staff.

procession, is a ball of gold, of The queen-consort's sceptre in England is formed six inches diameter, encompassed like the king's, but it is shorter.

with a band of the same, embel-
lished with roses of diamonds,
encircling other precious stones,

and edged about with pearl. On
QUEEN'S SCEPTRE.

the top is a very large amethyst, In the inventory of the Regalia destroyed in the of a violet and purple colour, near time of the Commonwealth, we find the following an inch and a half in height, of entries of sceptres :

an oval form, and being encom

[graphic]
[ocr errors]

TIE ORB.

HENRICVS

[ocr errors]

passed with four silver wires, becomes the pedestal 2. CURTANA, or the pointless Sword of Mercy, is of a splendid cross of gold, of three inches and a the principal in dignity of the three swords which quarter in height, and three inches in breadth, set are borne naked before the sovereign at the coronavery close with diamonds, having in the middle, a tion. Mr. Arthur Taylor, in his “Glory of Regality," sapphire on one side, and an emerald on the other. derives its name from that wielded by Ogier the It is also embellished with four large pearls in the Dane, in the romances of chivalry; however that angles of the cross, near the centre, and three more may be, it is certain that a sword named Curtana, or at the end of it. The whole height of the orb and Curtein, formed a part of the English Regalia from cross is eleven inches. There is another globe among very ancient times, for Matthew Paris informs us the crown jewels, which was made for the coronation that a sword of that name was carried at the coroof William and Mary, but it is not now used at the nation of Henry the Third, by the Earl of Chester. coronation of queens consort.

(A. D. 1236.) In the same way, a sword called The orb or globe was assumed as a cognizance by Joyeuse, supposed to have belonged to the Emperor the Emperor Augustus; it was sometimes called an Charlemagne, was always displayed at the coronation apple, and sometimes a hill, but in all cases it was regarded as the symbol of universal dominion. The

plurah cross was added to the globe by Constantine, the first Christian emperor. Suidas, describing the statue of the Emperor Justinian, says, In his left hand he held a globe in which a cross was fixed, which showed of the kings of France. Curtana is a broad bright that by faith in the cross he was emperor of the sword, the length of the blade is about thirty-two earth. For the globe denotes the earth, which is of inches, and the breadth almost two inches; the like form, and the cross denotes faith, because God handle, which is covered with fine gold wire, is four in the flesh was nailed to it."

inches long, and the pommel, an inch and threeThe globe and cross were first introduced as en

quarters ; which, with the cross, is plain and steel signs of imperial authority in western Europe by gilt: the length of the cross is eight inches nearly. Pope Benedict the Eighth, who gave them to the The scabbard belonging to it is covered with a rich Emperor Henry the Second. The combined orna

brocaded cloth of tissue, and studded with gilt ment was called, “ The Imperial Apple," and at the

ornaments. coronation of the emperors of Germany, it was borne 3. The SWORD OF SPIRITUAL Justice is pointed, on the right hand of the emperor, by the Count but somewhat obtuse; the length of the blade is Palatine of the Rhine.

66

THE CURTANA.

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

SWORD OF SPIRITUAL JUSTICE.

ORVMX

[graphic]

forty inches, and the breadth an inch and a half. The pommel, handle, cross, and scabbard, are precisely similar to those of Curtana.

4. The SWORD OF JUSTICE OF THE TEMPORALITY is sharp-pointed; the length of the handle is four

SWORD OF THE TEMPORALITY

CREAT SEAL OF HENRY THE FIRST

inches, the pommel an inch and three-quarters, and the cross seven inches and a half. The scabbard is in all respects similar to that of Curtana.

The sovereign's CORONATION Ring, called by some Almost all the English kings from Edward the

ancient writers, “The wedding-ring of England," is Confessor, have the globe in their left hand on their colour, on which a plain cross, or cross of St. George,

of pure gold, with a large table ruby, of a violet coins or seals, as shown in the above engraving is beautifully enchased. The coronation ring of the and it seems also to have been frequently so placed when sovereigns lay in state after their decease.

Four Swords are used at the coronation of a British sovereign. 1. THE SWORD OF STATE, which is a large two-handed sword, having a splendid scabbard of crimson velvet, decorated with gold plates of the royal badges in the following order. At the

KING'S RINGS.

QUEEN'S RING. point is the orb or mound, then the royal crest of a lion standing on an imperial crown ; lower down are queen consort is likewise gold, with a large table a portcullis, harp, thistle, fleur de lis, and rose; ruby set therein, and sixteen other small rubies set nearer the hilt the portcullis is repeated; next are round about the ring; of which those next to the the royal arms and supporters ; and lastly, the harp, setting are the largest, the rest diminishing in prothistle, &c., over again. The handle and pommel of portion. Investiture by the ring, was the most anthe sword are embossed with similar devices in silver cient form of conferring dignity; it was by this gilt, and the cross is formed of the royal supporters, ceremony that Pharaoh created Joseph his viceroy the lion and the unicorn, having a rose within a over Egypt; it was also a Persian custom, as we laurel between them on one side, and a fleur de lis have already noticed, and we find many traces of it similarly encircled on the other,

in the history of the Anglo-Saxons.

[ocr errors]

The legend of the Coronation Ring is not less sin THE TURNIP-FLY, (Athalia centifolia.) gular than that of the Ampulla. It is said that King The following is a more detailed description of the Edward the Confessor was met by an old man who little insect already noticed *. Mr. Yarrell has asked him for alms, and the charitable monarch, being described the hymenopterous insect, shown in the at the moment destitute of money, gave the suppliant engraving, as having proved equally injurious. The his ring. Soon afterwards, two English pilgrims in substance of the following account is extracted from Palestine having lost their way, were met at the ap. his valuable paper in the Transactions of the Zooloa proach of night by this same old man, who led them gical Society of London. After noticing the beetle into a certain magnificent city, which appears to have we have already described, he continues,-been the New Jerusalem, the present existence of But the destroyer of a very large proportion of the which was a popular article of faith in the middle ages, turnip-crop, on the light and chalky soils of this country, The old man entertained them most hospitably, and during the last dry Summer, (1834,) is an insect of a gave them lodgings for the night. In the morning different kind, and one that happily does not make its he informed them that he was St. John the Evange- appearance in great numbers, except at wide intervals, and list, of whom it was believed by many of the ancient during those seasons that are remarkable for the almost

total absence of rain. The first public notice I am fathers, that he was appointed to tarry on earth until aoquainted with on the subject of this particular insect, the second coming of the Lord Jesus. St. John told and the extent of the injury it intiiets, is in the Transac. the pilgrims, that it was to him in person that the tions of the Royal Society for 1783, in which W. Marshall, Confessor had given the ring, and he sent it back by Esq., an agriculturist in Norfolk, details at some length the them to the king, with a promise that divine grace particulars of the appearance of the turnip-fly during 1782, should encircle every British sovereign who was in In that year many thousands of acres were vested with this ring at the coronation. The sacred ploughed up, and the season was too far advanced ring was long preserved at the shrine of St. Edward, to attempt the growth of a second crop. and only brought out at the time of a coronation. It It was observed (says Mr. Marshall,) in the canker.year deserves to be remarked, that legends of the appear above mentioned, that prior to the appearance of the caterance of St. John continued to be told so late as the pillars, great numbers of yellow flies were seen busy among reign of Henry the Eighth ; his last visitation was

the turnip-plants, and it was then suspected that the canker to the King of Scotland, James the Fourth: the

was the caterpillar state of the yellow-fly. Since that time

it has been remarked, that cankers have regularly followed appearance of the evangelist is thus described by the appearance of these tlies. From their more frequently Pitscottie, whose language we have slightly mo appearing on the sea-coast, and from the vast quantities dernized.

which have I believe been observed, at different times, on He was a man, clad in a blue gown, and belted about the beach washed up by the tide, it has been a received him in a roll of linen cloth ; a pair of buskins on his feet, opinion among the farmers, that they are not natives of this to the great of his legs, with all other hose and clothes con country but come across the ocean, and observations this form thereto; but he had nothing on his head save hair of year greatly corroborate the idea, Fishermen upon the a reddish yellow behind, and the same on his cheeks, which

eastern coast declare, that they aetually saw them alight in went down to his shoulders; but his forehead was bald

cloud-like flights; and from the testimony of many, it and bare. He seemed to be a man about fifty-two years

seems to be an indisputable fact, that they first make their old, and he carried a great pikestaff in his hand.

appearance upon the eastern coast, and moreover, that, on their first being observed, they lie upon and near the cliffs, so thick and so languid, that they might be collected into heaps, lying, it is said, in some places two inches thick; from thence they proceeded into the country, and even at the distance of three or four miles from the coast they were seen in multitudes resembling a swarm of bees.

From whatever source these insects first reached this country, there is little doubt of their being at the present time naturalized,

Early in July, 1835, the yellow fly was again seen in abundance upon the young turnips, and it was recollected by some that this was the fly which prevailed also in the year 1818, and which was followed by the caterpillar, which they knew by the name of the blacks. Another observer

said, “It is of no use hoeing these turnips, for I perceive The Spurs, called the great golden spurs, are this year a tly which is the fore-runner of the nigger elaborately wrought, both round the outer edge, and caterpillar.' at the buckle and fastenings. They have no rowels, These predictions were soon verified. The female but end in an ornamented point, being of that kind fly, by means of a delicately serrated instrument which are denominated prick spurs. It is sufliciently under the tail, is enabled to make a small aperture notorious, that putting on the gilded spurs, was the

on the under-surface of the leaf of the turnip, in ancient investiture of knighthood, just as the hacking which she deposits a single egg, and each female prothem off was the legitimate form of degradation. duces and deposits in different places about twenty of The ARMILLA, or bracelets, are of solid gold, and

In eight or ten days the eggs are open by a hinge for the purpose of being placed upon hatched, and the dark-coloured caterpillars crawl the wrist. They are an inch and a half in breadth, forth, and commence the work of destruction, by and two inches in diameter, and are adorned with feeding voraciously on the soft part of the leaf of chasings of the rose, thistle, harp, and feur de lis, the turnip, leaving the fibres untouched; after a few emblematical of England, Scotland, Ireland, and days they cast their black skins, and then assume France ; the edges are also garnished with pearls.

one of a more slaty or gray appearance; they still These ornaments are not now employed in the coro- continue, however, to feed on the leaves, passing nation, and we shall see in a subsequent chapter, that from one to another. The destruction is complete ; the service appropriated to the bracelets, has been by a whole field, in a very short time, presenting only an some strange blunder, transferred to the Armil, or assemblage of skeleton-like leaves, and this too even Stole.

when the turnip has attained a considerable size. The

See Saturday Magasine, Vol. VII., p. 181.

THE SPURS.

these eggs.

« ПредишнаНапред »