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slew Mr. Bacon's overseer whom he much loved, and one of his whose bloud hee vowed to revenge if possible.


In these frightful times the most exposed small families withdrew intơ our houses of better numbers, which we fortified with palisadoes and redoubts, neighbours in bodys joined their labours from each plantation to others alternately, taking their arms into the ffields, and setting centinels; no man stirrd out of door unarm'd, Indians were (ever & anon) espied, three 4. 5. or 6. in a party lurking throughout the whole land, yet [what was remarkable] I rarely heard of any houses burnt, tho' abundance was forsaken, nor ever, of any corn or tobacco cut up, or other injury done, besides murders, except the killing of a very few cattle and swine. Frequent complaints of bloudsheds were sent to Sr. Wm. Berkeley (then Govern'r) from the heads of the rivers, which were as often answered with promises of assistance.

These at the heads of James and York rivers (having now most people destoyed by the Indians flight thither from Potomack) grew impatient at the many slaughters of their neighbours and rose for their own defence, who chusing Mr. Bacon for their leader, sent oftentimes to the Govern'r, humbly beseeching a commission to go against those Indians at their own charge which his hono'r as often promised but did not send; the misteryes of these delays, were wondered at and which I ne'er heard coud penetrate into, other than the effects of his passion, and a new (not to be mentioned) occasion of avarice, to both which he was (by the common vogue) more than a little addicted; whatever were the popular surmizes & murmurins viz't.

"that no bullets would pierce bever skins.
"rebells forfeitures would be loyall inheritances &c.

During these protractions and people often slaine, most or all of the officers, civil & military with as many dwellers next the heads of the rivers as made up 300. men taking Mr. Bacon for their command'r met, and concerted together, the danger of going without a commiss'n on the one part, and the continuall murders of their neighbors on the other part (not knowing whose or how many of their own turns might be next) and came to this resolution viz't to prepare themselves with necessaries for a march, but interim to send again for a commission, which if could or could not be obtayned by a certaine day, they would proceed commission or no commission.

This day lapsing & no com'n come, they marched into the wilderness in quest of these Indians after whom the Govern'r sent his proclamation, denouncing all rebells, who should not return within a limited day, whereupon those of estates obey'd; but Mr. Bacon with 57. men proceeded until their provisions were near spent, without finding enemy's when coming nigh a ffort of ffriend Indians, on th' other side a branch of James river, they desired reliefe offering paym't. which these Indians kindly promised to help them with on the morrow, but put them off with promises untill the third day, so as then having eaten their last morsells they could not return, but must have starved in the way homeward and now 'twas suspected, these Indians had received private messages from the Govern'r & those to be the causes of these delusive procrastinations;

whereupon the English waded shoulder deep thro' that branch of the ffort palisado's still intreating and tendering pay, for victuals; but that evening a shot from the place they left on th' other side of that branch kill'd one of Mr. Bacon's men, which made them believe, those in the ffort had sent for other Indians to come behind 'em & cut 'em off.

Hereupon they fired the polisado's, storm'd & burnt the ffort and cabins, and (with the losse of three English) slew 150 Indians. The circumstances of this expedic'n Mr. Bacon entertain'd me with, at his own chamber, on a visit I made him, the occasion whereof is hereafter mentioned. ffrom hence they returned home where writts were come up to elect members for an assembly, when Mr. Bacon was unanimously chosen for one, who coming down the river was commanded by a ship with guns to come on board, where waited Major Houe the high sheriff of James town ready to seize him, by whom he was carried down to the Govern'r & by him receiv'd with a surprizing civility in the following words "Mr. Ba: con you had for got to be a gentleman." No, may it please yo'r hono'r answer'd Mr. Bacon; then replyed the Goyern'r I'll take yo'r parol, and gave him his liberty: in March 1675-6 writts came up to Stafford to choose their two members for an assembly to meet in May; when Collo. Mason Capt. Brent and other gentlemen of that county, invited me to stand a candidate; a matter I little dreamt of, having never had inclinac'ons to tamper in the precarious intrigues of Goyern't. and my hands being full of my own business: they press't severall cogent argum'ts. and I having considerable debts in that county, besides my plantation concerns, where (in one & th' other, I had much more severely suffered, than any of themselves by th' Indian disturbances in the summer and winter foregoing. I held it not [then] discreet to disoblige the rulers of it, sq Collo: Mason with myself were elected without objection, he at time convenient went on horse back; I took my sloop & the morning I arriv'd to James town after a weeks voyage, was welcom'd with the strange acclamations of All's Over Bacon is taken, having not heard at home of these Southern com'otions, other than rumours like idle tales, of one Bacon risen up in rebellion, no body knew for what, concerning the Indians.

The next forenoon, th' Assembly being met in a chamber over the General court & our Speaker chosen, the Govern'r sent for us down, where his hono'r with a pathetic emphasis made a short abrupt speech wherein were these words.

"If they had killed my grandfather and my grandmother, my father " and mother and all my friends, yet if they had come to treat of peace, "they ought to have gone in peace, and sat down.

The two chief commanders at the forementioned seige, who slew the ffour Indian great men, being present and part of our assembly.

The Govern'r stood up againe and said "if there be joy in the presence "of the Angels over one sinner that repententh, there is joy now, for we "have a penitent sinner come before us, call Mr. Bacon; then did Mr. Bacon upon one knee at the bar deliver a sheet of paper confessing his crimes, and begging pardon of god the king and the Govern'r whereto


[after a short pause] he answered "God forgive you, I forgive you, thrice repeating the same words; when Collo, Cole [one of council] said, "and all that were with him, Yea, said the Governor & all that were with him, twenty or more persons being then in irons who were taken coming down in the same & other vessels with Mr. Bacon.

About a minute after this the Govern'r starting up from his chair a third time said "Mr. Bacon! if you will live civilly but till next Quarter court [doubling the words] but till next Quarter court, Ile promise to restore you againe to yo'r place, there pointing with his hand to Mr, Bacons seat, he having been of the Councill before these troubles, tho' he had been a very short time in Virginia but was deposed by the foresaid proclamoc'on, and in the afternoon passing by the court door, in my way up to our chamber, I saw Mr. Bacon on his quondam seat the Govern'r & councill which seemed a marvelous indulgence to one whom he had so lately proscribed as a rebell.

The Govern'r had directed us to consider of means for security from th' Indian insults and to defray the charge &c. advising us to beware of two rogues amongst us, naming Laurence and Drummond both dwelling at James town and who were not at the Pascataway siege.

But at our entrance upon businesse, some gentlemen took this opportunity to endeavour the redressing severall grievances the country then labor'd under, motions were made for inspecting the publick revenues, the Collectors accompts &c. and so far was proceeded as to name part of a committee whereof Mr. Bristol [now in London] was and myself another, when we were interrupted by pressing messages from the Govern'r to to meddle with nothing until the Indian business was dispatch't.

This debate rose high, but was overruled and I have not heard that these inspections have since then been insisted upon, tho such of that indigent people as had no benefits from the taxes groaned undr our being thus overborn.

The next thing was a Co'mittee for the Indian affaires, whereof in appointing members, myself was unwillingly nominated having no know!, edge in martiall preparations, and after our names were taken, some of the house moved for sending 2. of our members to intreat the Govern'r wou'd please to assign two of his council to sit with, and assist us in our debates, as had been usuall.

When seeing all silent looking at each other with many discontented faces, I adventur'd to offer my humble opinion to the Speaker "for the "co'mittee to form methods as agreeable to the sense of the house as we

could, and report 'em whereby they would more clearly see, on what "points to give the Govern'r and Councill that trouble if perhaps it might "be needfull."

These few words raised an uproar; one party urging hard "it had been customary and ought not to be omitted;" whereto Mr. Presley my neighbor an old assembly man, sitting next me, rose up, and [in a blundering manner replied] "tis true, it has been customary, but if we have any bad "customes amonst us, we are come here to mend 'em" which set the house in a laughter.

This was huddl'd off without coming to a vote, and so the co'mittee

must submit to be overaw'd, and have every carpt at expression carried streight to the Govern'r.

Our co'mittee being sat, the Queen of Pakunky [descended from Oppechankenough a former Emperor of Virginia] was introduced, who entered the chamber with a comportment graceful to admiration, bringing on her right had an Englishman interpreter and on the left her son a stripling twenty years of age, she having round her head a plat of black & white wampam peague three inches broad in imitation of a crown, and was cloathed in a mantle of dress't deerskins with the hair outwards & the edge cut round 6 inches deep which made strings resembling twisted fringe from the shoulders to the feet; thus with grave courtlike gestures and a majestick air in her face, she walk'd up our long room to the lower end of the table, where after a few intreaties she sat down; th' interpreter and her son standing by her on either side as they had walk'd up, our chairman asked her what men she would lend us for guides in the wilderness and to assist us against our enemy Indians, she spake to th' interpreter to inform her what the chairman said, [tho we believe she understood him] he told us she bid him ask her son to whom the English tongue was familiar, & who was reputed the son of an English colonel, yet neither wou'd he speak to or seem to understand the Chairmain but th' interpreter told us he referred all to his mother, who being againe urged she after a little musing with an earnest passionate countenance as if tears were ready to gush out and a fervent sort of expression made a harangue about a quarter of an hour, often interlacing [with a high shrill voice and vehement passion] these words "Tatapatomoi Chepiack, i. e. Tatapatomoi dead: Coll: Hill being next me, shook his head, I ask'd what was the matter, he told me all she said was too true to our shame, and that his father was generall in that battle, where diverse years before ~Tatapatamoi her husband had led a hundred of his Indians in help to th' English against our former enemy Indians, and was there slaine with most of his men; for which no compensation [at all] had been to that day rendered to her wherewith she now upbraided us.

Her discourse ending and our morose Chairman not advancing one cold word towards asswaging the anger and grief of her speech and demeanour manifested under her oppression, nor taking any notice of all she had said, neither considering that we (then) were in our great exigency, supplicants to her for a favour of the same kind as the former, for which we did not deny the having been so ingrate he rudely push'd againe the same question "what Indians will you now contribute &c? of this disregard she signified her resentment by a disdainful aspect, and turning her head half aside, sate mute till that same question being press't a third time, she not returning her face to the board, answered with a low slighting voice in her own language "six, but being further importun'd she sitting a little while sullen, without uttering a word between said "twelve, tho she then had a hundred and fifty Indian men, in her town, and so rose up and gravely walked away, as not pleased with her treatment.

Whilst some dais past in settling the Quota's of men arms and ammunic'on provisions &c. each county was to furnish one morning early a bruit ran about the town Bacon is fied Bacon is fled, whereupon I went

straight to Mr. Laurence, who (formerly) was of Oxford university, and for wit learning and sobriety was equall'd there by few, and who some years before [as Col: Lee tho one of the councill and a friend of the Govern'rs inform'd me] had been partially treated at law, for a considerable estate on behalf of a corrupt favourite; which Laurence complaining loudly of, the Govern'r bore him a grudge and now shaking his head, said "old treacherous villain, and that his house was searcht that morn66 ing, at day break, but Bacon was escaped into the country, having in"timation that the Govern'rs generosity in pardoning him and his followers and restoring him to his seat in the councill, were no other than "previous wheadles to amuse him & his adherents & to circumvent them "by stratagem, forasmuch as the taking Mr. Bacon again into the councill "was first to keep him out of the assembly, and in the next place the "Govern'r knew the country people were hastning down with dreadful "threatnings to double revenge all wrongs shou'd be done to Mr. * Bacon or his men; or whoever shou'd have had the least hand in 'em.'

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And so much was true that this Mr. young Nathaniel Bacon [not yet arrived to 30 years] had a nigh relation namely Colo. Nathaniel Bacon of long standing in the council a very rich politick man, and childless, designing this kinsman for his heir, who [not without much paines] had prevailed with his uneasy cousin to deliver the forementioned written recantation at the bar; having compiled it ready to his hand & by whose meanes 'twas supposed that tiinely intimation was convey'd to the young gentleman to flee for his life, and also in 3: or four dais after Mr. Bacon was first seiz'd I saw abundance of men in town come thither from the heads of the rivers, who finding him restored & his men at liberty, return'd home sausfied; a few dais after which, the Govern'r seeing all quiet, gave out pivat warrants to take him againe, intending as was thought to raise the militia and so to dispose things as to prevent his friends from gathering any more into a like numerous body and coming down a second time to save him.

In three or ffour dais after this escape, upon news that Mr. Bacon was 30 miles up the river, at the head of four hundred men, the Govern'r sent to the parts adjacent, on both sides James river for the militia and all the men that could be gotten to come and defend the town, expres's came almost hourly of th' army's approaches, whom in less than four dais after the first account of 'em att 2. of the clock entered the town, without being withstood, and form*d a body upon a green, not a flight shot from the end of the State house of horse and ffoot, as well regular as veteran troops, who forthwith possesst themselves of all the avenues, disarming all in the town and coming thither in boats or by land.

In half an hour after this the drum beat for the house to meet, and in less than an hour more Mr. Bacon came with a file of ffusileers on either hand near the corner of the State-house where the Govern'r. and councill went forth to him; we saw from the window the Govern'r. open his breast, and Bacon strutting betwixt his two files of men with his left arm on Kenbow fligning his right arm every way both like men distracted; and if in this moment of fury, that enraged multitude had faln upon the Govern'r & councill we of the assembly expected the same imediate tate ;

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