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trained, the universities of Cambridge and Oxford, in England. * Amid all the popular susceptibilities of the day it never entered into their imaginations that academic education, less than school educa. tion, was the interest of the entire people.” 1

RECENT DISCUSSION PERTAINING TO STATE AND NATIONAL EDUCA

TION.

2

In a very able address, delivered in 1873, President Eliot, of Harvard University, took strong grounds against State support to higher education. He held that the State might provide for universal elementary education on the ground that it was a cheap system of police for the national defence, but that no man ought to be taxed to send another man's son to the high school or college.

On the other hand, ex-President White, of Cornell University, one of the foremost champions of State education, in answer to the above argument has formulated the following propositions :3 “ The main provision for advanced education in the United States must be made by the people at large acting through their legislatures to endow and maintain institutions for the higher instruction, fully equipped and free from sectarian control. I argue, first, that the past history and present condition of the higher education in the United States raises a strong presumption in favor of making it a matter for public civil action, rather than leaving it mainly to the prevailing system of sectarian develop.. ment." _“I argue, next, that.careful public provision by the people for their own system of advanced instruction is the only republican and the only democratic method.”—“ Again, I argue that public provision, that is, the decision and provision by each generation as to its own advanced education, is alone worthy of our dignity as citizens.”—“Again, I argue that by public provision can private gifts be best stimulated.”"I argue, next, that by liberal public grants alone can our private endowinent be wisely directed or economically aggregated.”—“ But I argue, next, that our existing public school system leads logically and necessarily to the endowinent of advanced instruction.”—“Again, I argue that the existing system of public endowments for advanced education in matters relating to the military and naval service leads log. ically to public provision for advanced education in matters relating to the civil service of the nation.”—“Again, I argue that not only does a due regard for the material prosperity of the nation demand a more regular and thorough public provision for advanced education, but that our highest political interests demand it."-"And, finally, I

1 Everett's Orations and Speeches, II, 618, 623, 625.

See paper read before the higher department of the National Educational Association at Elmira, N. Y., August 5, 1873, by President Eliot, and a review of the same by John W. Hoyt, chairman of the National University committee of the above Association.

3“National and State Governments and Advanced Education;" Am. Jour. of Soc. Sci., No, 7, 1874, 302-11.

Although the early plans for national university education have not yet been realized, Congress has continued to favor from time to time the cause of education by grants and appropriations intrusting to the several States the responsibility of the education of youth. While the greater effort has been put forth in favor of 6 common public schools,” much has been done to forward and support higher education. There always have been, ani are now, many statesmen with a large following who adhiere to the principle laid down by Thomas Jefferson, that the university is as much a public trust as is the primary school.

During the last fifty years, since the benefits of the Ordinance of 1787 have been more fully realized, and since the results of the Congressional grant of 1862 have begun to be seen, there has been an upward tendency of State education, and in many sections a growing antagonism (entirely uncalled for) between State and non-State institutions. The author of this sketch may be pardoned if, without entering fully into the discus. sion of this subject, he refers to it in such a manner as to show the prog. ress of educational ideas.

Edward Everett, in his oration on Aid to the Colleges," says: “But, sir, we are still told

that common school education is a popular interest, and college education is not; and that for this reason the State is bound to take care of the one and not of the other. Now, I shall not put myself in the false and invidious position of contrasting them; there is no contrast between them, no incompatibility of the one with the other. Both are good; each is good in its place; and I will tbank any person who can do so to draw the line between them; to show why it is expedient and beneficial in a community to make public pro. vision for teaching the elements of learning, and not expedient nor ben-, eficial to make similar provision to aid the learner's progress toward the mastery of the most difficult branches of science and the choicest refine. ments of literature.

"As far as individuals, many or few, are concerned, I have just as much natural right to call on the State to pay the bill of the tailor who clothes, or the builder who shelters, my children, as of the school-master or school-inistress, the tutor or professor, who instructs them. The duty of educating the people rests on great public grounds, on moral and political foundations.

" We enter not into particulars; we do not presume to suggest a . limit to your liberality, or to dictate the form it shall assume.

But we do with some confidence call upon you to recognize and act upon the principle that the encouragement of academic education is one of the great interests of the State. We do ask you to reject the narrow, and, as we think, the pernicious doctrine, that the colleges are not, equally with the schools, entitled to your fostering care. This, sir, is not Massachusetts doctrine. It is not the doctrine of the Pilgrims. This Commonwealth was founded by college-bred men, and before their feet had well laid hold of the pathless wilderness they took order for founding an institution like those in which they had themselves been

*

*

trained, the universities of Cambridge and Oxford, in England.
Amid all the popular susceptibilities of the day it never entered into
their imaginations that academic education, less than school educa-
tion, was the interest of the entire people.” 1

RECENT DISCUSSION PERTAINING TO STATE AND NATIONAL EDUCA

TION.

In a very able address, delivered in 1873, President Eliot, of Harvard University, took strong grounds against State support to higher edu. cation. He held that the State might provide for universal elementary education on the ground that it was a cheap system of police for the national defence, but that no man ought to be taxed to send another man's son to the high school or college.

On the other hand, ex-President White, of Cornell University, one of the foremost champions of State education, in answer to the above argument has formulated the following propositions:3 “ The main provision for advanced education in the United States must be made by the people at large acting through their legislatures to endow and maintain institutions for the higher instruction, fully equipped and free from sectarian control. I argue, first, that the past history and present condition of the higher education in the United States raises a strong presumption in favor of making it a matter for public civil action, rather than leaving it mainly to the prevailing system of sectarian develop.. ment.”—“I argue, next, that.careful public provision by the people for their own system of advanced instruction is the only republican and the only democratic method.”—“Again, I argue that public provision, that is, the decision and provision by each generation as to its own ad. vanced education, is alone worthy of our dignity as citizens.”_"Again, I argue that by public provision can private gifts be best stimulated.”— “I argue, next, that by liberal public grants alone can our private endowment be wisely directed or economically aggregated.”_" But I argue, next, that our existing public school system leads logically and necessarily to the endowment of advanced instruction.”—“Again, I argue that the existing system of public endowments for advanced education in matters relating to the military and naval service leads log. ically to public provision for advanced education in matters relating to the civil service of the nation.”—“Again, I argue that not only does a due regard for the material prosperity of the nation demand a more regular and thorough public provision for advanced education, but that our highest political interests demand it."-"And, finally, I

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1 Everett's Orations and Speeches, II, 618, 623, 625.

See paper read before the higher department of the National Educational Association at Elmira, N. Y., August 5, 1873, by President Eliot, and a review of the same by John W. Hoyt, chairman of the National University committee of the above Association.

3“National and State Governments and Advanced Education;” Am. Jour. of Soc. Sci., No. 7, 1874, 302–11.

Although the early plans for national university education have not yet been realized, Congress has continued to favor from time to time the cause of education by grants and appropriations intrusting to the several States the responsibility of the education of youth. While the greater effort has been put forth in faror of “common public schools,” much has been done to forward and support higher education. There always have been, ani are now, many statesmen with a large following who adhere to the principle laid down by Thomas Jefferson, that the university is as much a public trust as is the primary school.

During the last fifty years, since the benefits of the Ordinance of 1787 have been more fully realized, and since the results of the Congressional grant of 1862 have begun to be seen, there has been an upward tendency of State education, and in many sections a growing antagonism (entirely uncalled for) between State and non-State institutions. The author of this sketch may be pardoned if, without entering fully into the discussion of this subject, he refers to it in such a manner as to show the progress of educational ideas.

Edward Everett, in his oration on Aid to the Colleges," says: “But, sir, we are still told

that common school education is a popular interest, and college education is not; and that for this reason the State is bound to take care of the one and not of the other. Now, I shall not put myself in the false and invidious position of contrasting them; there is no contrast between them, no incompatibility of the one with the other. Both are good; each is good in its place; and I will thank any person who can do so to draw the line between them; to show why it is expedient and beneficial in a community to make public provision for teaching the elements of learning, and not expedient nor ben., eficial to make similar provision to aid the learner's progress toward the mastery of the most difficult branches of science and the choicest refine. ments of literature.

"As far as individuals, many or few, are concerned, I have just as much natural right to call on the State to pay the bill of the tailor who clothes, or the builder who shelters, my children, as of the school-master or school-inistress, the tutor or professor, who instructs them. The duty of edincating the people rests on great public grounds, on moral and political foundations.

" We enter not into particulars; we do not presume to suggest a · limit to your liberality, or to dictate the form it shall assume.

But we do with some confidence call upon you to recognize and act upon the principle that the encouragement of academic education is one of the great interests of the State. We do ask you to reject the narrow, and, as we think, the pernicious doctrine, that the colleges are not, equally with the schools, entitled to your fostering care. This, sir, is not Massachusetts doctrive. It is not the doctrine of the Pilgrims. This Commonwealth was founded by college-bred men, and before their feet had well laid hold of the pathless wilderness they took order for founding an institution like those in which they had themselves been

*

trained, the universities of Cambridge and Oxford, in England. * Amid all the popular susceptibilities of the day it never entered into their imaginations that academic education, less than school education, was the interest of the entire people.” 1

RECENT DISCUSSION PERTAINING TO STATE AND NATIONAL EDUCA

TION.

In a very able address, delivered in 1873, President Eliot, 2 of Harvard University, took strong grounds against State support to higher education. He held that the State might provide for universal elementary educatiou on the ground that it was a cheap system of police for the national defence, but that no man ought to be taxed to send another man's son to the high school or college.

On the other hand, ex-President White, of Cornell University, one of the foremost champions of State education, in answer to the above argument has formulated the following propositions: 3 “ The main provision for advanced education in the United States must be made by the people at large acting through their legislatures to endow and maintain institutions for the higher instruction, fully equipped and free from sectarian control. I argue, first, that the past history and present condition of the higher education in the United States raises a strong presumption in favor of making it a matter for public civil action, rather than leaving it mainly to the prevailing system of sectarian develop.. ment.”—“ I argue, next, that.careful public provision by the people for their own system of advanced instruction is the only republican and the only democratic method.”—“ Again, I argue that public provision, that is, the decision and provision by each generation as to its own advanced education, is alone worthy of our dignity as citizens.”—“Again, I argue that by public provision can private gifts be best stimulated.”— “I argue, next, that by liberal public grants alone can our private endowment be wisely directed or economically aggregated.”_"But I argue, next, that our existing public school system leads logically and necessarily to the endowment of advanced instruction.”_"Again, I ar"gue that the existing system of public endowments for advanced education in matters relating to the military and naval service leads logically to public provision for advanced education in matters relating to the civil service of the nation.”—"Again, I argue that not only does a due regard for the material prosperity of the nation demand a more regular and thorough public provision for advanced education, but that our highest political interests demand it.”_"And, finally, I

? Everett's Orations and Speeches, II, 618,623, 625.

2 See paper read before the higher department of the National Educational Association at Elmira, N. Y., August 5, 1873, by President Eliot, and a review of the same by John W. Hoyt, chairman of the National University committee of the abovu Association.

3“National and State Governments and Advanced Education;" Am. Jour. of Soc. Sci., No. 7, 1874, 302–11.

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