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It must be remembered, too, ihat the educational as well as the political institutions of the colonies were parts of European civilization removed across the Atlantic, here to be further developed under new conditions according to the needs of pascent States. The germs of educational systems were transplanted to a virgin soil, where, under the benign influences of free political institutions, they grew up, grad. ually differentiating from the old stock under the influence of new environments. The first schools in America were like those which the colonists had known in the mother countries, while education had in a great measure the same aim. The “grammar schools” of New Eng. land were modeled after the grammar scbools and middle schools of old England, while the New England academies were legitimate survivals of the “great public schools” of Rugby, Eton, Westminster, and Harrow. The first colonial colleges, such as Harvard, William

Mary, Yale, Columbia, and Dartmouth were practically patterned after the old classical colleges, whose forms and curricula may be traced back to mediæval influences. But lacking in endowment, and in the support of intellectual and moral forces, these schools, planted in a new country, could not approximate to the excellence of their models in the Old World. Realizing the situation, the colonial governments came immediately to the assistance of these schools in New England and furnished a revenue by means of taxation.

At the time of the founding of the Dutch and Swedish colonies, the church in Holland and Sweden was a state institution to which educa. tion was intrusted. Hence we find the schools in these colonies follo ing the policy of the mother countries, by giving into the care of the church the education of youth. The church edifice was the primitive school-house, and frequently the pastor of the church, the school-master. After the beginning of English dominion over the Swedish and Dutch territory, things were somewhat changed, although the old schools in many instances continued for a long time. Penn's frame of government, drawn in England before the settlement of the English colonists, authorized schools on the English plan, and it was doubtless intended that aid should be given them by revenues raised by taxation. For a long time, however, the chief work of the assembly was to create and not to support the schools; for they were maintained both by the church and private enterprise.

The school organized by Benjamin Franklin, however, determines the colonial policy in its developed state—that of creating the school and assisting private benevolence in its support.

Colonial Virginia inherited a university created in England, en dowed with land, and supported in part by subscription and donations. The ground for the university was surveyed, but before it could be located a devastating Indian war swept away the entire scheme. But the type and policy of the original movement may be seen in the laterformed William and Mary College, which was supporte' by private aid,

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by taxation, and by royal endowment. The institution and the church were closely united, and the colony contributed to the support of both. Maryland followed closely in the footsteps of Virginia, first in the support of the Virginia college, and secondly in the support, by taxation, of schools founded by subscription, created by the government within her own territory. These county schools were State institutions according to the definition of the term in those days, and afterward made possible the colleges of Washington and St. John, with their State endowments. Farther south, in the Carolinas and in Georgia, we find the same general plan and purpose of education. The schools were mod. elled after those of England and were considered to be the charge of the colonial government. But as elsewhere noted' the schools did not flourish in the sparsely settled Southern districts as well as they did in the village communities of the North.

The dominant spirit in early colonial education was benevolence. Its whðle force was spent on the moral elevation of society and on the support of religion. Theology was taught in nearly every college, and the propagation of the Gospel was an important factor in all education. By those who legislated from across the water in favor of education, the benighted colonists and the rude Indians were viewed in the same charitable light. And yet in every instance in which the colonial governments touched upon education, they considered it a legitimate function and part of their solemn duty to create schools, control them if need be, and support them when necessary. Particularly was this was of higher institutions of learning Schools of lower grade might be carried on by the single efforts of individuals under sanction of the gov. ernment, but the investments necessary to support a school of learning required special control and supplementary aid from the State. To this end it was the policy of colonial governments in general to protect, guide, and assist private benevolence in education. They exempted members of colleges from military duty and from taxation, and, having created colleges, freed their property from taxation and assisted them in their support by levying taxes upon the people. Thus the germs of the later educational policy were gradually developed, although the church and the State, so closely united in early education, have become

almost entirely separated. V If in the early records of the colonies we find that the general court has taken the initiative in founding schools, as in Maryland and Virginia, in Connecticut, Massachusctts, and New Hampshire, it must still be remembered that the “affairs of the church and the affairs of the State were subjected to the same general control, 2 and consequently the early colleges “ were established and supported by a two-fold agency-of the masses of the people on the one hand, and of private

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1 See section on “Virginia." C. K. Adams: Address on Was! 'ngton and the Higher Education, 6.

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It must be remembered, too, ihat the educational as well as the political institutions of the colonies were parts of European civilization removed across the Atlantic, here to be further developed under new V. conditions according to the needs of nascent States. The germs of educational systems were transplanted to a virgin soil, where, under its the benign influences of free political institutions, they grew up, grad. ually differentiating from the old stock under the influence of new environments. The first schools in America were like those which the colonists had known in the mother countries, while education had in a great measure the same aim. The "grammar schools” of New Eng. land were modeled after the grammar schools and middle schools of old England, while the New England academies were legitimate sur. vivals of the "great public schools” of Rugby, Eton, Westminster, and Harrow. The first colonial colleges, such as Harvard, William je and Mary, Yale, Columbia, and Dartmouth were practically patterned after the old classical colleges, whose forms and curricula may be traced i back to mediæval influences. But lacking in endowment, and in the . support of intellectual and moral forces, these schools, planted in a new country, could not approximate to the excellence of their models in the Old World. Realizing the situation, the colonial governments came immediately to the assistance of these schools in New England and furnished a revenue by means of taxation.

At the time of the founding of the Dutch and Swedish colonies, the church in Holland and Sweden was a state institution to which education was intrusted. Hence we find the schools in these colonies follo. ing the policy of the mother countries, by giving into the care of the church the education of youth. The church edifice was the primitive school-house, and frequently the pastor of the church, the school-master. After the beginning of English dominion over the Swedish and Dutch territory, things were somewhat changed, although the old schools in many instances continued for a long time. Penn's frame of government, drawn in England before the settlement of the English colonists, authorized schools on the English plan, and it was doubtless intended that aid should be given them by revenues raised by taxation. For a long time, however, the chief work of the assembly was to create and not to support the schools; for they were maintained both by the church and private enterprise.

The school organized by Benjamin Franklin, however, determines the colonial policy in its developed state—that of creating the school and assisting private benevolence in its support.

Colonial Virginia inherited a university created in England, endowed with land, and supported in part by subscription and donations. The ground for the university was surveyed, but before it could be lo. cated a devastating Indian war swept away the entire scheme. But the type and policy of the original movement may be seen in the later. formed William and Mary College, which was supporte' by private aid,

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by taxation, and by royal endowment. The institution and the church were closely united, and the colony contributed to the support of both.

Maryland followed closely in the footsteps of Virginia, first in the supf port of the Virginia college, and secondly in the support, by taxation, r. of schools founded by subscription, created by the government within

her own territory. These county schools were State institutions ac

cording to the definition of the term in those days, and afterward e

made possible the colleges of Washington and St. John, with their State a endowments. Farther south, in the Carolinas and in Georgia, we find the

same general plan and purpose of education. The schools were mod. elled after those of England and were considered to be the charge of

the colonial government. But as elsewhere noted the schools did not ri flourish in the sparsely settled Southern districts as well as they did in

the village communities of the North. d The dominant spirit in early colonial education was benevolence. Its d whðle force was spent on the moral elevation of society and on the supne

port of religion. Theology was taught in nearly every college, and the W

propagation of the Gospel was an important factor in all education. ne By those who legislated from across the water in favor of education, e . the benighted colonists and the rude Indians were viewed in the same d charitable light. And yet in every instance in which the colonial gov.

ernments touched upon education, they considered it a legitimate funcse tion and part of their solemn duty to create schools, control tiem if a need be, and support them when necessary. Particularly was this u109

1 of higher institutions of learning. Schools of lower grade might be carhe

ried on by the single efforts of individuals under sanction of the gov. e ernment, but the investments necessary to support a school of learning r. required special control and supplementary aid from the State. To this ch

end it was the policy of colonial governments in general to protect, ju guide, and assist private benevolence in education. They exempted 1 members of colleges from military duty and from taxation, and, having Cisco

created colleges, freed their property from taxation and assisted them
in their support by levying taxes upon the people. Thus the germs of
the later educational policy were gradually developed, although the
church and the State, so closely united in early education, have become

almost entirely separated.
V If in the early records of the colonies we find that the general court
has taken the initiative in founding schools, as in Maryland and Vir-
ginia, in Connecticut, Massachusctts, and New Hampshire, it must still
be remembered that the 66 affairs of the church and the affairs of the

State were subjected to the same general control,” 2 and consequently ES the early colleges “ were established and supported by a two-fold

agency-of the masses of the people on the one hand, and of private

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1 See section on “Virginia."
2 C. K. Adams: Address on Was' ington and the Higher Education, 6.

benevolence on the other.i " It is worthy of note that the contributions of the colonists were at first more or less voluntary in their nature. The church and the commonwealth were closely allied ; and as all who received the benefit of the former felt it their duty to contribute to its support in proportion to their means, so they were also expected to give in like manner to the maintenance of the latter.” 2

GENERAL POLICY OF THE STATES.

After the Declaration of Independence the provisions relating to ed ucation assumed a more decidedly political tone. Seatiments began to be expressed in favor of universities, created, controlled, and supported by the State. The colonies had received a new political baptism, and the ideas of sovereign States began to grow and the national consciousness to awaken. With this new political awakening came enlarged views of the needs of political education for a sovereign people. . To the ideas already existing in favor of education for the preservation of learning, for the social, moral, and religious improvement of communities, there was added a new zeal for educated citizenship. Pennsyl. vania in the Constitution of 1776 provided for the support of “one or more universities.” North Carolina followed the same year with a similar provision. Many other States adopted the same measure, either by constitutional provision or by legislative enactment. The charters of the older colleges were confirmed with all their privileges guarantied. In the majority of the new States, private and sectarian schools received the aid of the Legislative Assembly through taxation, grants of land, or protective laws.

The principal ways in which the several States have aided higher education may be enumerated as follows: (1) by granting charters with privileges; (2) by freeing officers and students of colleges and universities from military duty; (3) by exempting the persons and property of the officers and students from taxation ; (4) by granting land endowments; (5) by granting permanent money endowments by statute law; (6) by making special appropriations from funds raised by taxation; (7) by granting the benefits of lotteries, and (8) by special gifts of buildings and sites. Nearly all of these methods originated among the colonies and were adopted by the States.

GRANTS AND APPROPRIATIONS.

Harvard College was aided by the first six methods; Yale received a permanent tax endowment, and special appropriations of land and money ; Columbia College received special grants of land and money; the University of Virginia received grants of land and permanent tax endowments; Georgia was one of the first States to grant a large landed

1C. K. Adams: Address on Washington and the Higher Education, 6.
'R. T. Ely: Taxation in American States and Cities, 109.

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