Systems for All
The need for a new approach to systems is now widely recognized in business and industry, and numerous ?Systems? courses have been introduced in universities. This book offers a new systems paradigm, presents a systems outlook, defines key concepts, and outlines the principles of characterizing complex systems in a qualitative way and by the systematic use of models and measures.The book presents the Product/process (P/p) methodology: a coherent collection of generic but readily understandable concepts, rigorous but applicable methods, and principles of reasoning. This methodology assists in understanding any system, and helps in the formulation and effective solution of complex problems, regardless of the field in which they arise, and irrespective of the specialist disciplines needed for supplying the solution.Systems for All is aimed at three kinds of readers: practising professionals (managers, administrators, engineers and scientists) whose job is to develop, operate and manage complex systems; students (both undergraduate and postgraduate) whose courses demand an integrated study of several disciplines; members of the public who would wish to know what makes sophisticated systems tick, and why some important systems fail.A separate booklet, containing guidelines for developing solutions to some selected exercises, is available to instructors who wish to adopt the book for a lecture course.
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The systems crisis ų a
Problem solving process and strategies
Black box systems
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activity apply arcs assume atomic attribute attribute measures black box representation business transaction called carry chapter characteristics characterized cluster collection communication complete components concepts conformance constructivity continuous contract course defined definition deliverable detail directed domain duration elements engineering entity Example Exercise expression figure formal function further gate give given hard identify important improvement individual input interest internal interrelation interrupt kind labelled language maturity means measures methods node object observations offer operation organization output P/p graph P/p modelling possible practice priority problem solving professional quality management referent relation represent requirements responsibility result scale shows single soft solution specification stage stamp standard strategy structure subprocesses supplier symbol task theory tree unit valid variable whole