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Gen. Jackson next ordered martial law to be proclaimed, and the whole militia to appear on duty.

The legislature made the necessary appropriations, and laid an embargo on all vessels then in port. On the 21st, Gen. Carrol arrived and joined Gen. Jackson with 4000 brave Tennesseeans, (yet very partially armed,) and the Barratarians arrived at this time to join the general defence. Gen. Jackson next ordered all the canals, leading to the lake, to be closed; this precaution notwithstanding, the enemy, 4000 strong, reached the high banks of the Mississippi, December 28th, where they halted to take refreshment before they entered the city, then full in their view. Gen. Jackson assembled his whole force, and marched down to meet the enemy; but did not reach them before dark: after reconnoitering their position he commenced an attack, which surprised the British and threw them into disorder; but they soon rallied to the combat, and a -sharp rencounter ensued. A thick fog arose which rendered it necessary to withdraw the troops, and the general retired about two miles up the river, and took his stand at his fortified position, and waited the approach of the enemy, supported by the armed schooner Caroline, then lying in the river.

At the dawn of day the whole British army was in motion, and advanced in columns to the combat: General Jackson reserved his fire, with universal silence throughout his lines, until the enemy approached within the reach of his grape, when he opened a destructive fire from his artillery, which mowed down their ranks; these were successively closed, and the enemy continued to advance, until they came within musket shot, when the whole lines vomited forth one incessant sheet of flame from the deadly rifle, which strewed the plain with indiscriminate slaughter, and threatened the whole columns with universal ruin. The enemy broke, and fled in confusion, except a small detachment who bravely advanced to the lines; but they all fell to a man. Stung with indignation, the British officers rallied their troops, and advanced again to the charge ; again they were overwhelmed with the fire of the deadly rifle, and fled for succour, and for safety, leaving the field strewed with the carnage of more than two thousand wounded, dead, and dying. Amongst this number were the general in chief, together with several other generals, and an unusual proportion of officers. The loss of the Americans in this action did not exceed 20 killed and wounded. - The British who survived, retired on board their fleet; descended the river, and proceeded to attack Fort Bowyer, which they carried, after a brave resistance; but the return of peace soon restored it again to the Americans, February 18th, 1815. Thus ended this mighty war with Britain, and America bore away the palm. On the 2d of March, 1815, war was declared by the American government against Algiers, and a squadron of eleven frigates, and armed vessels were dispatched to the Mediterranean in two divisions, under Commodores Bainbridge, and Decatur, to humble that nest of pirates; and in four months all the Barbary powers were united in treaties of peace with the United States ; our own captives, and those of several European states, released ; and expressions of submission from several of those powers obtained, not hitherto contemplated, and such as had never been extorted by any other nation—a just tribute to the American flag. The nation settled down and became tranquil under the peace, and nothing of importance occurred during the remainder of Mr. Madison's administration. In 1816, he deelined another election, and Mr. Monroe was chosen, and entered upon the duties of his office, March 4th, 1817.

Mr. Tompkins was again chosen vice-president. Under the first term of Mr. Monroe's administration, the asperity of party greatly softened down, and the nation became more united. The chastisement of the Seminole Indians by Gen. Jackson, opened the way for the conquest of Florida, which also opened the way for the cession of the Floridas to the United States by Spain, in February, 1821. Florida at the same time was erected into a territorial gov

ernment, and General Jackson appointed governor. *



This country was first explored by Marquette, a Frenchman from Canada, in the year 1671. He traversed the country by the way of the lakes; ascended the Fox River from Lake Michigan, crossed over the range of mountains that give rise to the Fox and Ouisconsin; descended the latter and discovered the Mississippi; descended that river to the mouth of the Missouri, and returned. La Salle, another Frenchman, explored the country from the St. Lawrence to the Ohio; followed its course to the Mississippi, and discovered their junction in the year 1680. From this time the adventures of French traders became frequent into this vast interior ; but no settlements were attempted until the year 1735: at which time the French commenced the settlement of Vincennes, upon the Wabash. In 1750, the English government made a grant to a company of 600,000 acres of land upon the river Ohio, for the purpose of establishing her claims to this western wilderness. To counteract these claims, the French erected Fort Duquesne at the head of the Ohio, in 1753. In 1758 the English dispossessed the French of this fort, (as has been noticed,) which struck a fatal blow to the claims of France in this country.

In 1763, France, by the cession of Canada to England, at the peace, relinquished all further claims to this western

country. In the year 1788, the Ohio Company, under the direc

tion of Rufus Putnam, Esq. commenced the settlement of Marietta, at the confluence of the Muskingum. In 1789, John Cleves Symmes commenced a settlement at the mouth of the Great Miami; another settlement commenced about the same time at the mouth of the Little Miami; and Fort Washington, upon the Scioto, was constructed the

same year, for general protection; but the hostile disposi-

tion of the savages prevented a general settlement in this country, until the peace of Greenville, which followed the famous victory of Gen. Wayne, August 3, 1795 ; since that time the settlements have progressed very rapidly; three free and independent states have sprung up in this north-western territory, and added a numerous population to the Federal Union.

The limits of this work will not permit me to give that historical view of the rise and progress of the western states, which the importance of the subject demands; I shall therefore compress the whole into the following chronological form.


This state originally composed a part of Virginia,

and was first settled by Col. Boon in the year 1773 Was admitted into the Federal Union, June 1792 Adopted her first constitution, August 1799


This state formerly belonged to Carolina, and

was ceded by her to the United States 1789 Was erected into a territorial government 1790 Admitted into the Union 1796

Adopted her constitution at the same time.


This state also originally was claimed by Virginia, and Connecticut, and ceded by them to the Wor... III. 55

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