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by the open indignity on the part of France, in her refusing to accept Mr. Pinckney, in exchange for Mr. Monroe. This refusal roused the sensibilities of Mr. Adams, and he immediately nominated two others, who were sent out to co-operate with Mr. Pinckney, if possible, to settle a treaty of accommodation with the Directory. This effort also failed, and Mr. Adams declared “ that he would make no further overtures, until assured, that his envoys would be received in character suited to the dignity of a great, and independent nation.” This insult offered to the American government, was followed by outrage, and depredations upon her commerce, by the citizens of France; all which roused the indignation of the American people, and they expressed their feelings by this memorable sentiment—“Millions for defence ; but not a cent for tribute.” Under the impression of this sentiment, the government proceeded to raise, and equip a regular provisional army of 12,000 men, and President Washington, agreeable to appointment, accepted the command—1798. The American frigates were sent at the same time to make reprisals upon the commerce of France, which cruized with such success, that the French government expressed to the American government, through Mr. Vans Murray, minister at the Hague, that the differences between the two nations might be accommodated. Mr. Adams met this overture promptly, and sent Mr. Davie," and Mr. Ellsworthf to join Mr. Murray at Paris,
and negociate a treaty of peace. Their mission proved
* Governor of Virginia. + Chief Justice of the United States. Vol. III. 52
successful, snd peace was again restored between the two nations—1799. Although the conflicting interests and passions of party still continued to perplex the government, and distract the nation ; yet the commerce, agriculture, and arts of America flourished beyond all former example, through the administration of Mr. Adams.
MR. JEFFERson’s ADMINISTRATION–1801.
In March 1801, Mr. Jefferson, agreeable to the constitution, was regularly inducted into the office of president, and Mr. Burr was chosen vice-president.
Mr. Jefferson, at the commencement of his administration, took a bold stand, and commenced a system of operations hostile to the whole system of the administration of President Washington, and directly calculated to subvert it in all its fundamental principles. To effect this he made a general change of the officers of government, in the several departments;* commenced, and carried on a regular attack upon the army, the navy, the bank, the internal revenue, &c. and introduced a new order of things.
In 1805, Mr. Jefferson was re-elected president, and Mr. Clinton vice-president, and the same system of measures were continued.
During the first term of Mr. Jefferson's administration, the French consul was triumphing over all the powers in the south of Europe ; and during the period of the second term, he continued his triumphs, as Emperor of France, and King of Italy, and threatened England with an alarming invasion.
The distressed, the wretched state of Europe, distracted the commerce of America, and involved the government in a labyrinth of difficulties; all which inflamed the
* See the table at the end of the volume.
feelings, and passions of party in America, which distracted the government, and the nation. The French emperor issued his Berlin, Milan, and Bay. onne decrees, and Great Britain issued her orders in council; all which struck at the fundamental principles and interest of neutral commerce, and opened in Congress fresh, and terrible conflicts of wordy war, and arrayed the goose-quill of party in the desperate strife, throughout the nation. To crown this mad career of politics, Col. Burr assem. bled a small force, on the waters of the Ohio, for the purpose of an expedition against New-Orleans, Mexico ; or to form a settlement on his Washita lands, or the Lord knows what, (see Burr's Trial,) all which threw the nation into a high state of alarm, and brought Col. Burr before the circuit court at Richmond, where he was tried in due form, and acquitted—1807. Although much breath was wantonly spent, and much ink shed, in the heat and strife of party, through this long administration, fortunately no blood was spilt, except in the death of Col. Hamilton, who was killed in a duel with Col. Burr, July 11th, 1804. Mr. Jefferson declined a re-election, and Mr. Madison was chosen president, and Mr. Clinton re-elected vicepresident March, 1809. Mr. Madison commenced his administration at a most eventful era; when the French Empire had subverted almost every throne in Europe, and then shook to its centre the Republic of America. The insults, and injuries, the American flag was then suffering, from the decrees of France, and orders in council of England, had kindled a spirit of indignation in Congress, that breathed a spirit of war, sometimes against one of those powers, and sometimes against the other, and often against both, which continued to distract the govern
ment and the nation, down to the year 1812, when the emperor of France commenced his career of conquest into Russia; the president then declared war against England, and commenced a system of operations against Canada. Gen. Hull advanced into Upper-Canada from Detroit at the head of about 2000 men, and fired off his proclamation, with full expectations that the people would rally. round his standard, and make a common cause with the United States against Lower-Canada: but to his great disappointment, and mortification, he was met by Gen. Brock at the head of a superior British force, and constrained to make a hasty retrograde movement back to Detroit, where he arrived August 8th. Gen. Brock pursued Gen. Hull to the walls of Detroit, after having gained a signal victory at the river Raisin; another at Brownstown, and at Maguaga, August 9th. On the 15th, Gen, Brock summoned the fortress of Detroit in due form, and on the 16th, it was surrendered without further resistance, and the garrison marched out prisoners of war. Pending these movements on the land, the naval force of the United States prepared to retrieve the honor of their country, by their gallant exploits on the water. Commodore Rodgers put to sea in the President, with a small squadron, early in June, to cruise on the West-India station. He fell in with and attempted to engage the Belvidera Frigate ; but had the misfortune to receive a severe wound, and to loose at the same time nineteen men in the chase, by the bursting of one of his guns. Commodore Rodgers next crossed over on to the European coast, where he cruized with success three months, and then returned to Boston. Capt. Porter in the Essex, and Capt. Hull of the Constitution, put to sea about the same time: on the 19th of September, the Constitution fell in with the Guerriere,
Capt. Dacres; an action commenced with desperate valour, and in 15 minutes the Guerriere struck her colours, a complete wreck, with the loss of 15 killed and 60 wounded. The Constitution lost 7 killed and 7 wounded. Capt. Hull burnt the prize at sea, and continued his cruise with
success until the 22d of September, when he returned to
ort. P Capt. Porter pursued his course, and cut out a brig from a convoy, on the coast of Brazil, and took out of her 14,000 dollars in cash, and 150 soldiers. He next fell in with and captured the sloop of war Alert, in 8 minutes, and then continued his course. Commodore Rodgers put to sea again in October, with his little squadron, and fell in with and captured the Swallow Packet, with 200,000 dollars in specie on board ; the squadron returned to New-York after a successful cruise. On the 18th of October, Capt. Jones in the United States sloop of war Wasp, of 16 guns, fell in with and captured his Britanic Majesty's sloop of war Frolic, of 18 guns, Capt. Wingates, after a sharp and desperate action of 43 minutes. The Frolic lost 30 killed and 50 wounded; the Wasp 5 killed and 5 wounded. Commodore Decatur put to sea in the United States, and on the 25th of October, fell in with and captured the Macedonian, J. S. Carden master, after an action of one hour and 30 minutes. The Macedonian lost 36 killed, and 68 wounded; the United States 5 killed, and 7 wounded. His Britanic Majesty’s ship Poictiers, of 74 guns, fell in with and captured the Wasp, and her prize soon after the action. On the 29th of December, the United States frigate Constitution, of 44 guns, Commodore Bainbridge, fell in with and captured his Britanic Majesty's frigate Java, 34 guns, Capt. Lambert, after an action of fifty minutes.